Watershed protection and development in Himachal Pradesh

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This is an extensive study about water and a few other related resources in Himachal Pradesh.PDF link

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 The Context
Watershed protection and development have gained tremendous importance
and relevance in India over the past few years. This has been due to the increasing
realization of the alarming state of India’s natural resources — land, water and forest,
which have witnessed rapid degradation as a result of the immense pressures that
have been put on them by the country’s growing human and livestock population.
Dry lands, for instance, which account for almost two-thirds of India’s total
cultivated land, are among the most environmentally fragile lands. These supports a
large number of India’s poor and contribute a significant proportion of the country’s
agricultural output (Ninan and Lakshmikanthamma, i994). Owing to the
intensification of agriculture, extension of cultivation to marginal lands, perverse
incentives that encourage the over-exploitation of natural resources, rapid
degradation of forest resources, overgrazing and diminishing common lands, much
of these lands are in various stages of degradation. According to an estimate made by
the National Commission on Agriculture, 175 million hectares of land in India is
under some form of degradation or the other (Planning Commission, 2002). This is
easily visible in the fonn of increased soil erosion, declining groundwater tables,
decrease in drinking water viability, desertification, etc. in different parts across the
country (Ninan & Lakshmikanthamma, 1994).
Furthermore, frequent occurrences of either floods or droughts are evidence
of improper land use in the catchments, and of the inadequate conservation of forests


(MoA, 2002). Since more than two-third’s of India’s one billion-strong population
depends heavily on the primary sector — agriculture and forestry — to meet their daily survival needs, this degradation of the natural resource base has thus seriously
impacted the well being and development of the majority of the country’s
population, especially the poor, who depend on these resources the most. The
degradation of land and forest resources in the upper watershed catchments have also negatively affected other urban downstream stakeholders such as hydropower companies, municipal water supply corporations, fisheries, downstream states, etc.
through increased siltation in reservoirs, dams, and natural water bodies, reduction of
water flows, increased occurrences of floods and landslides, etc. However, the
primary focus of watershed protection and development in India, till date, has mainly
been on reversing the negative impact of land degradation on the rural poor at the
local level rather than at a wider macro scale. As Kerr & Chung (2001) point out, in
much of semi-arid India off-site concerns are typically limited to the local intra or
inter-village level itself.
Historically, ever since the breakdown of traditional resource management
systems took place in colonial times (Guha, 1991, Gadgil & Guha, 1992), regulation
has been the main approach followed for natural resource management in India, with
ownership, management and control of natural resources vested almost entirely in
the hands of government. Similarly, in the case of watershed protection and
development activities, it was only the line departments and government staff of the
Ministries of Agriculture, Rural Development, and Environment and Forests that
carried out watershed treatment work in a centralized top-down manner under a
regulatory framework. There was very little community participation, with the role
of communities in most cases, limited only to that of providing cheap labour.
Further, watershed development was undertaken in a completely sectoral and
piecemeal manner by each of the concerned departments and ministries, with each
implementing programmes and guidelines separately, without any coordination
among themselves. Financing of these programmes too was supported mainly by the
govemment – either central or state – on the basis of annual budgets and allocations,
with no contribution from the communities themselves, which resulted in a total lack
of ownership of these programmes among the local people. The watershed treatment
interventions were highly mechanistic, focusing primarily on technical engineering
works such as construction of check dams, contour trenching, gully plugging,
plantation works, etc. without paying much attention to community mobilization and
social organization.
Given this highly regulatory, centralized and target-driven approach, and the
emphasis on the quantity rather than the quality of interventions, programmes in
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watershed development were unable to halt the rapid degradation of the country’s
natural resources. Acknowledging this failure, the Hanumantha Rao Committee,
which was set up in 1994-95 to review watershed development programmes in the
country, noted that these programmes had made very little impact on the ground
despite having been in operation for over two decades (Planning Commission, 2002).
Realizing the limitations of the regulatory approach in reversing the
degradation of natural resources, and learning from successful experiments of
community-based watershed and forest protection in Sukhomajri, Ralegaon Siddhi,
Arabari, etc. in the 1970s (Agarwal & Narain, l999), the government made serious
efforts to secure community participation in the management of the country’s land,
water and forest resources through the programmes of Joint Forest Management
(IFM), Participatory Watershed Development, and Participatory Irrigation
Management in the 19905.
Watershed development in India has, since then, made three important
transitions. Firstly, there has been a shift from a top-down, command-and-control
regulatory approach to a more people-centred, bottom-up and participatory approach,
which recognizes that watershed protection and development is impossible to
undertake and sustain successfully without the active participation of local
communities. Secondly, and related to the first, it has been realized that technical
solutions that normally characterize watershed protection activities in India such as
building of engineering structures, policing of forests from local people, etc. are by
themselves insufficient, and that social solutions involving collective action by the
communities, and offering them suitable incentives to participate in watershed
development and natural resource management, are far more sustainable in the long
run. Thirdly, it has been accepted that watershed development is far more effective
when done in an integrated and planned manner, following a logical ridge-to-valley
approach, rather than in isolation by each govemment line department separately.
3

1.2 Overview of Himachal Pradesh
Hibachi Pradesh is a mountainous Himalayan State, which constitutes major
natural watershed for the entire North India region. All of HP forms the watersheds
of four major tributaries of the river Indus (the Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej) and of
the river Yamuna that feeds into the Ganges. These rivers provide water supply not
only to the Indian capital city of Delhi but also to a number of key agricultural states
located in the north Indian plains. Hence, the downstream impacts of land use in the
upper watersheds of HP are potentially very significant.
State Income is the single most common and comprehensive economic
indicator used to measure the economic health of a State economy. In Himachal
Pradesh, first estimates of State Income were released in the year 1963 covering the
period 1950-51 to 1960-61. Since Himachal Pradesh underwent many territorial
changes after independence and emerged as a full-fledged State in the year 1971, a
new series of State Domestic Product was developed for the year 1966-67 to 1969-
70 with the base year 1960-61. The third series of State domestic product prepared in
the Pradesh was based on 1970-71 prices, which consisted of the estimates up to
1986-87. After the release of the new series of National Accounts Statistics by
Central Statistical Organization in February 1989, Himachal Pradesh also brought
out a new series of estimates based on 1980-81 prices.
A new series of quick estimates were brought out during 1999-2000 based on
the 1993-94 prices. The National Accounts Statistics have mostly been revised
decennially changing the base to a year synchronizing with the year of decennial
population census.
The quick estimates of State Income for the year 1999-2000 to 2006-07 at
current and constant (1999-2000) prices and per capita income along with percentage
changes over the previous year at 1999-2000 prices are given in the following table:
4

Table 1.1-Movement of Net State Domestic Product and Per Capita
Income
Year State Income Per Capita Income %age Change Over the
Previous Years At 1999-
2000 Prices
At
At Current
At
Constant Prices (Rs.in Constant
Prices crore) Prices (In
(Rs. In Rs.)
crore)
At
Current
Prices
(In Rs.)
Net State Per
Domestic Capita
Product Income
1999-2000
12467
12467
20806
20806
2000-01
13262
13852
21824
22795
6.04 4.9
2001-02
13938
15215
22543
24608
5.1 3.3
2002-03
14617
16751
23234
26627
4.9 3.1
2003-04
15596
18127
24377
28333
6.7 4.9
2004-05
(P)
16953
20262
26053
31139
8.7 6.9
2005-06
(Q)
17990
22390
27163
33806
6.1 4.3
2006-07
(A)
19157
24798
28415
36783
6.5 4.6
According to these estimates, the State income of the Pradesh during 1999-
2000 to 2005-06 period increased from Rs. 12467 crore to Rs. 17990 crore at
constant prices and to Rs. 22390 crore at current prices. The compound annual
growth rate of the State domestic product during this period is 5.37%. The per capita
income at constant prices increased from Rs. 20806 in 1999-2000 to Rs. 27163 in
2005-06 and 28415 in 2006-07 while at current prices, it rose to Rs. 33806 and Rs.
36783, respectively, during the same period.
The growth rate of State Economy recorded during the Five Year Plan
periods beginning from the 1&1 Five Year plan, 1951-56 onwards alongwith
comparison with the National Economy is given in the following : –
5

Table 1.2 Comparative Growth Rate of H.P. and National Economy Recorded
During Five Year Plan Periods
Plan Period Average Annual Growth Rate of Economy At
Constant Prices
Himachal Pradesh
All India
First Plan (1951-56)
(+) 1.6
(+) 3.6
Second Plan (1956-61)
(+) 4.4
(+) 4.1
Third Plan (1961-66)
(+) 3.0
(+) 2.4
Annual Plans (1966-67) to (1968-69)
(+) 3.0
(+) 4.1
Fourth Plan (1969-74)
(+) 3.0
(+) 3.4
Fifth Plan (1974-78)
(+) 4.6
(+) 5.2
Annual Plans (1978-79) to (1979-80)
(-) 3.6
(+) 0.2
Sixth Plan (1980-85)
(+) 3.0
(+) 5.3
Seventh Plan (1985-90)
(+) 8.8
(+) 6.0
Annual Plan (1990-91)
(+) 3.9
(+) 5.4
Annual Plan (1991-92)
(+) 0.4
(+) 0.8
Eighth Plan (1992-97)
(+) 6.3
(+) 6.2
Ninth Plan (1997-02)
(+) 6.4
(+) 5.6
Annual Plan (1997-98)
(+) 6.4
(+) 5.0
Annual Plan (1998-99)
(+) 7.2
(+) 6.6
Annual Plan (1999-2000)
(+) 6.6
(+) 6.6
Annual Plan (2000-01)
(+) 6.3
(+) 4.4
Annual Plan (2001-02)
(+) 5.2
(+) 5.8
Annual Plan (2002-03)
(+) 5.1
(+) 3.8
Annual Plan (2003-04)
(+) 8.1
(+) 8.5
Annual Plan (2004-05) (P)
(+) 7.6
(+) 7.4
Annual Plan (2005-06) (Q)
(+) 8.5
(+) 9.0
Annual Plan 2006-07 (Advance)
(+)9.3
(+)9.2
The growth analysis presented in the above table reveals that Hirnachal
Pradesh achieved an annual average growth rate of 1.6% in the First Five Year Plan
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period 1951-56. After Second Five-Year Plan, 1956-61 onwards and upto Fifth Five-
Year Plan period 1974-78, the State achieved a growth rate of about 3 to 4.6 percent.
During the two Annual Plans of 1978-79 and 1979-80 the economy revealed a
negative growth rate of (-) 3.6 percent but again showed a recovery during the Sixth
Plan period 1980-85. During Seventh Plan period 1985-90, State achieved all time
high growth rate of 8.8%.
It will be of relevance to look into the structural changes that the
economy of Himachal Pradesh has undergone over the years. The morphological and
climatic conditions prevalent in Himachal Pradesh have natural advantage in taking
up agriculture based livelihoods as primary means of earning bread. A wide degree
of variation in the climatic conditions within the State also allows diversifying the
agriculture based livelihoods. 1n the late 1940s when Himachal Pradesh came into
existence as part ‘C’ State, the agricultural production was largely confined to the
traditional Rabi and Kharif crops and stray cultivation of apple and some stone fruits
in the name of horticultural produce. A large scale diversification, both in agriculture
and horticulture, has occurred since then.
People of Himachal Pradesh have diversified into production of cash
crops like ginger, potato, off-season vegetables, kiwi, cherries, hops and have
ventured into fields like apiculture and mushroom production. It is observed that
even today about two third of the total population of Himachal Pradesh still depends
on agriculture in the pursuit of their livelihoods. Although the contribution of
primary sector to the Gross State Domestic Product has declined over the years, yet
the proportion of total population engaged in agriculture based activities has
remained more or less unchanged. There is an imminent need to explore on a
separate front if this inference can be attributed to inaccurate recording of the facts.
Table exhibits how the contribution of three sectors of the economy of Himachal
Pradesh to the Gross State Domestic Product has changed over the years.
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Table 1.3 Sectoral contribution to Gross State Domestic Product
(%age of GSDP)
Year Primary Secondary Tertiary
1950- 71.01 9.50 19.49
1960- 63.14 9.71 27.15
1970- 58.56 16.73 24.71
1980- 50.35 18.69 30.96
1990- 37.82 25.03 37.15
1992- 38.65 24.81 36.54
1996- 32.65 24.81 36.54
1996- 32.65 30.17 37.21
1997- 31.92 30.40 37.68
1998- 27.58 32.34 40.08
1999- 26.41 33.01 40.58
2000- 25.87 34.62 39.51
2001- 27.00 33.31 39.69
2002- 25.42 33.44 41.14
Source: DES, Himachal Pradesh
The decade of 1950s witnessed very large contribution from the primary
sector to the Gross State Domestic Product. It contributed 71.01 per cent of the total
GSDP. The services sector (the terms ‘services sector’ and ‘tertiary sector’ have
been used interchangeably in the present context) contributed next to the primary
sector and the presence of secondary sector in the economy of Himachal Pradesh
was small during the decade of fifties. Since then the share of primary sector in the
GSDP has declined gradually and came down to 25.42 per cent in the year 2002-03.
This is an indication to the fact that the State’s economy has diversified from the
traditional agrarian society to an economy which has also started getting
considerable contribution from the services and manufacturing sectors in its GSDP.
The services sector has grown at a faster rate than the secondary sector. This fact
needs to be assimilated into analytical framework with great care. The share of
services sector has grown rapidly as compared to other aggregates on account of the
fact that government spending on revenue account has been growing at a very fast
rate due to increase in the number of government employees on the one hand, and
increases in the salary outgo per capita, on the other. Not only has the economy itself
diversified into non-farm sector activities but livelihood strategies in the primary
sector have also diversified into more lucrative production activities which have
ready market available with handsome retums. A recent phenomenon observed
during the decade of 1990s is that a very large number of farmers have realized the
potential of growing and marketing off-season vegetables, especially when they find
8

place in the ma.rkets of neighbouring States at a time when the stock of locally grown
vegetables is extinguished. However, production of off-season vegetables is only
confined to the areas where irrigation facilities are available in good measure as
production of these vegetables requires large quantity of water for irrigation.
The analysis of shift in structure of economy is of little relevance if the
changes in occupational pattern of working population are not taken into account and
analysed simultaneously. Table 2.2 tries to capture the shift in occupational pattern
of working population of Himachal Pradesh over the years. As stated earlier,
limitations in terms of incomparable figures available for different census years, only
a few categories have been selected for comparison. Moreover, the purpose is to see
if the shift of structure of economy frorn being a traditional agrarian economy to a
diversified economy with more weightage to service and manufacturing sector has
also resulted in a corresponding movement of working population from the
agricultural sector to secondary and tertiary sectors.
Table 1.4. Changes in occupational structure
(%age of total population)
Category 1971 I981 1991 2001
Total workers out of which 36.80 42.38 42.82 49.24
i) Cultivators and agricultural labour 75.82 57.46 53.48 68.65
ii) A11 other occupations 24.18 42.54 46.52 31.35
Non workers 63.20 57.62 57.18 50.76
Source: Census Data
It can be seen from the above table that the proportion of working population
engaged in cultivation and as agriculture labour has declined from 1971 to 1991.
This indicates that the workers released from the agriculture sector have been able to
find jobs in the secondary and tertiary sectors. However, an increase in the
proportion of workers in the agriculture sector has been observed during the decade
of 1990s.
The fact that more and more people are reverting to agriculture for earning
their livelihoods despite a considerable decline in the contribution of primary sector
to the GSDP stresses upon the need to take necessary steps to raise productivity of
workers engaged in farm sector. Depending upon the strategy involving
9

intensification or extensification of farm operations, necessary steps are required to
be taken so that appropriate productivity raising inputs are provided where
intensification of farm operations is required and to bring more land under
cultivation where extensification of farm operations is feasibility. Immediate
interventions as stated above are imperative lest growth of farm sector should get
arrested due to low productivity per worker in farm sector.
1.3 About the Perspective Plan
Based on the experiences in Watershed Management in Himachal Pradesh and
elsewhere in and outside the country, the Perspective Plan aims at the following:
i) Improving the management of land and water, and their
interaction and externalities;
ii) Increasing the intensity and productivity of resource use with
the objective of reducing poverty and improving livelihoods;
m) Improving environmental services and reducing negative
extemalities for downstream areas; and
iv) Addressing technical, institutional, and policy issues needed to
ensure equitable sharing of benefits among stakeholders and
sustainable watershed management.
For achieving this, the plan treats watershed as the basic building block for land and
water planning. Definition of watershed adopted in the perspective plan is, “a
watershed is an area that supplies water by surface or subsurface flow to a given
raining system or body of water, be it a stream, river, wetland, lake, or ocean (World
Bank , 2001)”. The plan adopts management approach that combines:
i) The need for integrated land, People and water management. Land use,
vegetative cover, soils, water and people interact throughout the watershed.
Therefore, the perspective watershed management programs adopt integrated
resource management approaches;
ii) The multiplicity of stakeholders. Watersheds provide many important
services to an extensive range of stakeholders, and changes in land and water
management and in watershed hydrology will directly or indirectly affect
10

m)
many or all of them. Many people use upper and lower reaches for multiple
purposes, and a plethora of public and private agencies are typically
involved: organizations dealing with agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry,
water, irrigation, rural development, physical planning, land tenure; local
governments; community institutions, NGOs, and so forth. This institutional
density creates a management challenge and requires watershed management
plan to create broad and inclusive institutional platforms; and
The issue of resource depletion and poverty nexus is also given due
importance. Mountain areas being typically more fragile with less
productive environments where natural resource management and rural
poverty are commonly linked. With frequently extensive land use practices
and a more fragile resource base, mountains are vulnerable to over
exploitation and deletion of natural resources (water/vegetation, forests, and
soils). With land degradation, agricultural productivity declines, often
aggravating the poverty problems. As a result, improving the management of
natural resources in upland areas and influencing downstream impacts
requires attention to the problems of the population of the poor upland areas,
particularly poverty reduction and local institutional development. Thus, the
Perspective Plan focuses on the farming systems of the poor in upland areas
in order to achieve poverty reduction and conservation objectives
simultaneously.
The DPRs developed for each watershed area would try to address the
following:
i) At the overall watershed level, to have a plan that identifies key
problems, intervention areas, and objectives and the mechanisms to
achieve them. Ideally the DPR would be developed through a
participatory process.
ii) At the micro-watershed level, to engage in dialogue with stakeholders
to identify different or conflicting interests, to evaluate possible
synergies and the minimum tradeoffs required, and to identify a set of
options to achieve both broader public interest objectives and local
11

objectives. while doing so the convergence areas identified in chapter
6 (f) would also be kept in view;
m) As also discussed in detail in chapter 8, water usage being an
important component in the watershed management under the
perspective plan, appropriate mechanisms of recovery of user charges
would be brought in place to ensure sustainability. While doing so,
possibilities of payment for watershed services would also be
explored;
iv) Participatory approaches to developing and adopting new
technologies;
v) A sound social analysis, such as a stakeholder analysis aimed at
assessing losses to be incurred by different community groups
because of conservation practices;
vi) A focus on generating positive income streams for farmers and other
groups (such as herders) through intensification, diversification,
downstream processing and marketing, and the creation of new
income-generating activities;
vii) Giving stakeholders a secure stake in common pool resources, such as
forests and pastures, and ensuring that all users and especially the
poor have viable income alternatives when closure is involved;
vm) Promoting interventions that reduced risk, such a improving water
sources; and
ix) Identifying conservation techniques that were profitable for farmers
and offering a menu of interventions combining income and
conservation objectives.
The perspective plan aims at achieving the balance between the top down and the
bottom up decision-making processes.
Unlike earlier approaches where the revenue or administrative boundary was
adopted as the unit for development purposes, under the participatory watershed
development programmes today, the entire watershed is chosen as the appropriate
unit area for development. This new approach seeks to improve and develop all types
of lands – government, forest, community and private lands – that fall within a
12

particular watershed, and is thus a holistic approach to improve and develop the
economic and natural resource base of dry and semi arid regions (Ninan &
Lakshmikanthamma, 2001).
Further, it is widely accepted that watershed development has to be
conceived as a broad strategy for protecting livelihoods of the people inhabiting
fragile ecosystems, especially the poor, rather than just the physical resources alone
(Rao, 2000). Thus the overall objective and rationale of watershed development in
India is no longer limited to scientifically determined methods of soil and water
conservation, but has gone far beyond that, evolving instead into a form of
‘Watershed Plus’, which seeks to ensure not only the availability of drinking water,
fuel wood and fodder for the poor, but also raise their income and employment
opportunities through improvements in agricultural productivity, better access to
markets, extension services, etc (Shah, 2000). Hence, integrated natural resource
management and watershed development has become a larger paradigm for
achieving sustainable development in the country.
13

Chapter 2
AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITIONS IN HIMACHAL PRADESH
The state is bordered by Uttaranchal in south, Punjab in southwest and Kashmir and
Tibet in north and northeast. Generally speaking, the elevation gradually increases
from the southwest towards northeast, the elevation ranging from 450 to 6500
meters. In all, the state presents remarkable heterogeneity and agro climatic
diversity across and within its 12 districts.
Physiographically, Himachal Pradesh can be divided into four agro-
ecological zones: the Shivaliks’ low, mid and high-hills; and the cold and dry or the
alpine zone.
Z0ne- I comprises of the area adjoining Punjab and Haryana states and lies below
650 m above the mean sea level. It accounts for 16.24% of the total geographic area
of the State, 38% of the total cropped area and 39% of the irrigated area. The major
sources of irrigation are Wells and tube-Wells. It covers the district of Una, Bilaspur
and parts of Sirmour, Kangra, Solan and Chamba districts. In this Zone, the size of
holding of small and large farmers was 0.864 ha and 3.561 ha respectively (Sharma,
2001). The net sown area constituted 80.79% and 78.74% of the total holding for
small and large farms, respectively. The area under pastures and farm forestry varied
from 16.32% on small farms to 20.30% on large farms. The important trees of farm
forestry in the region are khair (Acacia catechu), kikar (Acacia arabica), bamboo
(Dendrocalamus strictus), biul (Grewia opriva), tuni (Tuna ciliara), shisham
(Delbargia sissoo), khirak (Celtis australis) and simble (Bombax ceiba). Khair trees
are mostly in pasture land and are sold for katha processing. Rain fed farming is
most common accounting for more than 87% of the total operational holdings. Fruits
occupy only a small percentage of area. The field crops, mainly food grains, covered
more than 90% of the cultivated area. The commercial production of subtropical
fruits like citrus, mango, guava, litchi and other subtropical fruits was almost
negligible.
14

Zone-II includes the area ranging from 650m. to 1800m. above mean sea level and
accounts for 21.25% of the geographical area, 41.04% of the total cropped area and
45% of the irrigated area of the State. Major sources of irrigation are Kuhls and tube-
wells. The zone covers major parts of Mandi and Solan districts and parts of
Hamirpur, Kangra (Palampur and Kangra tehsils), Shimla (Rampur tehsil), Kullu,
Chamba and Sirmour districts. This zone is very important from farming point of
view as about 41.04% of the total cropped area of the State falls in it. In this zone,
the size of holdings of small and large farmers was 1.062 ha and 3.067 ha,
respectively. The net sown area constituted 72.98% and 70% of the total holdings for
small and large farms, respectively. The area under pastures and farm forestry varied
from 24.67% on small farms to 28.86% on large farms. The major components of
farm forestry in this zone were beul (Grewia optiva), kharak (Celtis australis), paja
(Prunus paddus), mulberry (Mnrus alba), tuni (Tuna ciliata), robina, poplar
(Populus), safeda (Eucalyptus), darek (Azaderachta), shisham (Dalbergia sissoo), fig
(Ficus palmata), treamble (Ficus rnxborghi), simble (Bombax ceibia) and a variety
of other trees. Fodder trees were an important component of farm forestry. It has
been observed that beul (Grewia optiva) constituted the most important source of
tree green fodder to milch animals throughout the year. The area under field crops
including cereals, pulses, oilseeds, fodder crops and sugarcane account for 90.36%
and 86.58% on small and large farms, respectively and yielded 31.79% and 32.21%
of gross farm income. About 11% of the total cropped area is under mixed cropping
of pulses and oilseeds with cereals as main crops. Vegetables shared 9.64% and
13.42% of total cropped area and accounted for 23.10% and 23.30% of gross farm
income on small and large farms respectively. The major rotations followed by dry
land farming in the zone are: paddy-wheat, maize-peas and maize-toria-wheat. Under
irrigated conditions paddy-wheat and paddy-berseem are the two main cropping
systems followed by tomato-wheat. The other intensive vegetable cropping systems
comprising 3 crops followed in this zone are: cauliflower-French bean-cauliflower,
tomato-radish-peas, tomato-tomato-cauliflower, tomato-tomato-peas and brinjal-
cabbage-cauliflower. Thus, tomato, cauliflower and peas formed important crops of
the vegetable cropping systems.
15

Zone-III comprises of high hill areas of the State. The zone includes major parts of
Shimla except Rampur tehsil) and Kullu districts and parts of Solan, Mandi.
Chamba, Kangra and Sirmour districts with an altitude above l800m above mean sea
level. The zone accounts for l8.39% of the total cultivated area of the State. Only
7.80% of the total cropped area is irrigated. The Kuhls and storage tanks are the only
sources of irrigation in the zone. The area experiences severe winter with heavy
snow fall. The zone has tremendous potential for apple cultivation, seed potato, off-
season vegetable and dairy industry and the commercial agriculture sector is on the
rise here. This zone leads in production of seed potato which is an important cash
crop. The other potential enterprises are raising sheep and goats, maintaining
colonies of honeybees in orchards and production of mushrooms. This zone also has
potential for dairy industry with its fodder availability from temperate and alpine
pastures and forests. Size of holdings of small and large farmers was 1.241 ha. and
3.652 ha. respectively. The area under pastures and fann forestry constitute 27% and
28.34% of total holding on small and large farms respectively. The important trees of
fanri forestry are fodder trees namely kharak (Celtis australis), beul (Grewia (Iptiva),
paja (Prunus paddus), ban (Quercus) and other tress like kainth (Pyrus), kakarh
(Pistacia integrima) and karyala (Bauhunia variegata). Net sown area formed
70.42% and 69.06% of the total holdings on the two farm sizes. The farming is
mostly under rain fed conditions; irrigated area constitutes only 5.15% and 6.90% of
the operational area on small and large farms, respectively. Cultivation of paddy is in
irrigated areas on the river banks. The remaining irrigation was generally found in
instances of cultivation of vegetable crops. The area under field crops including
cereals, pulses, oilseeds and fodder crops accounted for 74.88% and 59.09% on
small and large farms, respectively.
Zone-IV is the most mountainous part and covers the tribal areas of the State. The
zone covers the districts of Kinnaur and Lahaul-Spiti and parts of Chamba district
with altitude exceeding 2200m above mean sea level. The zone is covered under
snow for about six months of the year and 39.34% of the total geographical area of
the State lies in this zone. Most of the area is under snow-clad and rocky cold desert
mountains and cropped area accounts only for 2.6% of the total cropped area of the
16

State. Cultivation is possible only in some valley areas and only with irrigation
facilities. The Kuhls are the single source of irrigation and crops can be grown only
if irrigation is available due to scanty rainfall and dry climate in this zone.
The higher hills are suited for growing apples and other temperate fruits. The
midhills have vast potential for growing vegetables and stone fruits. The low hill
areas are good for growing food, citrus fruits, vegetables and other field crops. Even
the dry high hill zone that comprises mainly of tribal areas of the state has vast scope
for raising dry fruits, quality seed potato and other crops along with sheep and goat
rearing. All agro climatic zones are endowed with vast meadows, pastures and
forests and thus, offer a good scope for developing livestock and dairy industry.
Similarly, this zone can make significant advances in the production of off-season
vegetables.
2.1 Rainfall
The average annual rainfall that Himachal Pradesh receives is 984.8mm but may
vary greatly temporally and spatially (see Table and Map above). Most of the rainfall
is received in monsoon, from June to September (causing flash floods and cloud
bursts). The rivers of Himachal are mainly snow-fed. During the monsoons, they
become raging torrents, carrying enormous quantity of water and in winter, when the
water gets frozen at the higher altitudes, the streams greatly shrink in volume. The
climatic conditions vary from hot and sub-humid tropical in the northem and the
eastern high mountains. Lahaul and Spiti experience drier conditions as they are
almost cut off by the higher mountain ranges. The alpine zone of the State remains
under snow for 5 to 6 months in a year. During winters, snowfall is certain even at an
altitude of 200 meters. At the elevation of 1500 meters, snow falls once in a cycle of
five years. Above 4500 meters, there is almost perpetual snow. This range of agro-
climatic conditions due to variations in altitude, climate and rainfall, is key in
understanding both the current cropping pattern and the potential to produce grains
and crops (see Table 1.4.1).
17

Table:
Headquarters in Himachal Pradesh
2.1 Average Rainfall and altitudes recorded at District
Districts
Altitude (in meters) Average Rainfall (in mm)
Lahaul-Spiti
Kullu
Kinnaur
Solan
Bilaspur
Mandi
Kan gra
Shimla
Hamirpur
Sirmaur
Chamba
Una
State
3 165
1219
2769
1463
610
1273
750
2206
786
833
1006
350
382.8
733.4
742.2
908.9
1049.9
1083.5
1 101.5
1 103.2
1104.6
1187.9
1269.7
1345.2
984.8
Source: Government of Himachal Pradesh, Statistical Outline of I-limachal Pradesh, 2002, Directorate
of Economics and Statistics.
2.2 Demography and Land Distribution-an overview.
Himachal Pradesh accounts for 0.59% of India’s population and 1.69% of its
geographical area. The state may appear to be in a better position in man to land
ratio; however, in fact, the mountainous terrains and difficult agro-climatic
conditions at several places do not present a hospitable environment for human
settlement. More than 90% of the state’s population lives in rural areas. The
distribution of population among the districts is uneven and the population in the
state has grown from less than 20 lakhs in 1901 to just more than 60 lakhs in 2001,
an increase of three times over the period of 100 years (Gol, 2001, 2004). In the mid
1950s (1955-56), only three States and Union Territories in the country, Bihar,
Orissa and Manipur had a per capita income lower than that of Himachal Pradesh
18

(Bose 1962). Those areas that came to join Himachal Pradesh during state-
reorganization in 1966 did not improve the state’s standing in agriculture and other
development indices, because the new provinces were the poorest constituents of old
Punjab in terms of per capita income. However, there has been a sea change in the
economy of Himachal Pradesh since. This change can be appreciated by comparing
per capita income with other States of India. On the basis of per capita income
indices, Himachal moved to eighth rank with per capita index of 0.244 (Rana 2002).
Celebrated states like Kerala (0.237) and Andhra Pradesh (0.234) come after
Himachal Pradesh in terms of per capita income indices. Also, on development
indices, HP ranks eighth (0.492). Again,
Box 1. Demography figures
The pattern of population growth indicates that the State is now passing through
the third stage of demographic transition with falling death rate and the rapidly
falling birth rate; these successes can be attributed to the rising female literacy and
expansion of health facilities in the State. The age distribution is typically of high-
fertility populations that have recently experienced some fertility decline, with
relatively high proportions in the younger age groups and a slightly smaller
proportion age 0-5 than age 5-9. Thirty two percent of the population is below age
15 and 7% is age 65 and above. The sex ratio is 1024 females for every 1000
males in rural areas and 912 females for every 1000 males in urban areas,
suggesting that rural to urban migration in H.P. has been dominated by males. The
overall sex ratio for the State is 968 females per thousand males (Gol 2001).
Himachal’s education attainment index (0.577) is second only to Kerala (0.728). In
the 1990s, the state’s annual growth rate of 5.7% remained at par with national level
(GoHP 2002). In 1950-51, food crops accounted for about 97% of the cropped area
and 99.2% of total agricultural production (Sharma 1987). This was understandable
in view of the near absence of modern means of transport and communications in the
region coupled with low productivity in the sector, as noted above. The agrarian
19

economy of the region had a highly subsistence character. In the absence of markets,
agriculture production was solely for home consumption and commercial agriculture
was not visible anywhere. The National Council of Applied Economic Research
characterized Himachal Pradesh to be “one of the poorest and backward territories in
the Indian Union” in early 1960s (NCAER 1961). It is noteworthy that in 1950-51,
the share of agriculture in the state‘s domestic product was nearly 70% and more
than 90% of labour force was engaged in this sector. Currently, the agricultural
sector contributes about 37% of the state income and agriculture and allied activities
continue to account for a very large proportion of the working population. According
to the 1991 Census, agrarian workforce accounted for 70.8% as against less than 2%
employed in industry, processing and repairs, while other occupations accounted for
a further 27.4% of the working population (i.e. main workers).
2.3 Land Reform Achievements
Himachal Pradesh has been one of the few pioneer states in the Country to have
initiated land reforms and redistribution measures. The distribution was effective and
land reform legislations were improvised upon to allow most people in the state get
to possess some landholding. Since the enactment of Himachal Pradesh’s Abolition
of Big Landed Estates and Land Reform Act, I953, 286 big landed estates came
under the purview of this provision and out of these 281 estates were abolished and
as many as 56,724 new tenants acquired proprietary rights. Also, after the
reorganization of Punjab State in 1966, certain areas of erstwhile Punjab were
merged in Himachal Pradesh. Immediately, after merger of such areas, the disparity
in land laws of the old and merged areas became evident. There were complaints of
arbitrary eviction of tenants from the merged areas. Therefore, the first step to
ameliorate the lot of tenants in these areas was passing of the H.P. (Transferred
Territory) Tenants (Protection of Rights) Act, 1968 by the assembly, thereby
providing security against eviction of tenants in the aforesaid merged areas. Later the
Tenancy and Land Reforms Act, 1972 (where all intermediaries on land were
abolished), Ceiling on Land Holding Act 1972 and Village Common Land Vesting
and Utilization Act I974 (distribution of commons to landless and other needy
persons) further consolidated the property rights position of poorer section in the
20

state. Furthermore, a pan-state survey in I981 found 20,455 landless and 70,029
people with less than 5 highas of land. Out of these two identified groups, 20.363
landless persons and 67,392 others were declared as persons eligible to receive land.
In I983, of 1,836 newly surveyed landless persons, 204 got land of 5 bighas each.
Also, Protective laws have also helped tribal of Himachal Pradesh emerge from the
cesspool of illiteracy and backwardness. The Himachal Pradesh Transfer of Land
Act prevents alienation from land protection to 1.33 lakh of the tribal population
(Singh 1996). Under this Act, the tribals can not sell, mortgage or lease out their land
to non-tribals without prior permission of the Deputy Commissioner. As a result,
practically no Himachali is landless, albeit the average size of land holding in the
state is small.
2.4 Increases in Operational Land Holdings and Multiple Incomes of
Households
Over the years, important structural changes have occurred in the agrarian economy
of Himachal Pradesh. Most prominent of them is the significant increase in human
population without corresponding increase in the area operated. This has resulted in
proliferation of marginal and small farmers in the state. Other possible reasons for
this situation are put as (i) breaking-up of joint families resulting in fragmentation,
(ii) marginal, less than 5 bigha land acquired under land to landless programme
(including bogus entries). and m) putting new areas under cultivation due to
availability of irrigation facilities. District-wise distribution of operational holdings
shows that while the number of holdings has increased sharply in all the districts, the
area operated has expanded only marginally. In case of marginal farmers, both the
number and area of operational holdings have increased significantly. On the other
hand, for medium and large farmers, the number and operational area have decreased
sharply (see Appendix V for figures on cultivated land-man ratio in Himachal
Pradesh over several decades).
21

2.5 Operational Landholding in Himachal Pradesh under Different
Categories
More than 8 lakh farmers of Himachal Pradesh cultivate about ten lakh hectares of
land with an average operational landholding of 1.2 hectares as depicted in table
below. About 84% of the farmers have less than two hectares of land while 16% own
between 2 and 10 hectares. Due to sub-division and fragmentation, land holdings are
becoming uneconomic. Besides, due to the lack of land consolidation, the holdings
are scattered and a.re often unmanageable and are limiting factor for crop production.
Land lease and tenancy regulations do not allow farming on large areas.
Table 2.2 : Distribution of Operational Land Holdings (1990-91)
Category N0 of Per cent Area Per cent Operati
Farmers (in onal
Lakhs) (Lakh ha) I
Holdin
gs (ha)
Marginal (1 ha)
Small (1-2 ha.)
Medium (2-4 ha.)
Large (4-10 ha)
Extra Large
5.32
1.66
0.94
0.36
0.06
63.8
19.9
11.3
4.3
0.7
2.25
2.35
2.58
2.05
0.97
21.3
23.3
25.5
20.3
9.6
0.40
1.42
2.74
5.69
16.17
(>10 ha.)
Total 8.34 100.00 10.10 100.00 1.21
Source: Annual Administration Report, Department of Agriculture, H.P., 2001-OZ.
Partly, as a result of this development (of most people coming under the count of
marginal farmers), Himachalies have moved to other livelihoods. Also, agricultural
practices are influenced by growth of other sectors in the state. For example, the
‘absolute size’ of State Domestic Product (SDP) from agriculture (at 1980-81 prices)
in 1995-96 was Rs. 1594 crore as against Rs. 794.04 crore in 1981. However, the
‘relative size’ of agriculture declined during this period. This suggests that Himachal
22

Pradesh’s economy is undergoing a structural transformation by reducing its ‘relative
dependence’ on agriculture for its income as well as employment generation. The
decline in agriculture’s ‘relative share‘ in the income as well as a workforce is much
more in Himachal Pradesh as compared to that in India (See Table below). This
clearly shows the incidence of multiple livelihoods and hence multiple incomes in
the households in Himachal Pradesh. Indeed, the sectoral distribution of state income
is observed to be shifting in favour of non-agricultural sector (see Table below). It is
evident that the share of primary sector i.e. agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry
and fishing that was 58.74% in 1970-71, which came down to 27.37% during 2000-
01. On the other hand the share of secondary sector increased from 16.59% to 32.5%
during the same period While tertiary sector’s share in state’s economy moved up
from 24.66% to 40.13%.7 (The agriculture sectors‘ contribution to Net State
Domestic Product (NSDP), has fallen from 43.72% in 1980-81 to 22.50% in 2000-
01).
Table 2.3: Share of Agriculture Sector in State Incomel National Income at
Current Prices and Total Workforce in Himachal Pradesh and
India.
Year Percentage Share of Agriculture Percentage Share of Agriculture in
in NSDP/NNPfigure Total Workforce
Himachal
Pradesh
All-
India
Himachal
Pradesh
All-
India
1970-71
49.25
44.01
74.81
69.70
1980-81
43.72
36.90
70.81
60.51
1990-91
33.58
29.90
66.55
64.81
1995-96
28.90
30.06
NA
65.20
Note: NA = Not available
Sources:
1. Government of Himachal Pradesh, Reports on Agricultural Census, 1980-8],
1990-91, Directorate of Agricultural Census, Department of Revenue.
2. Government of India, Indian Agriculture in Brief 25th edition, Directorate of
Economics and Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture.
23

3. Government of Himachal Pradesh, Statistical Outline of Himachal Pradesh
for relevant years, Directorate of Economics and Statistics.
Table 2.4 Sectoral Composition of Net State Domestic Product (GSDP) in
Himachal Pradesh
\ Years \ 1970-71 i 1980-81 \ 1990-91 2000-01
\ Primary Sector \ 58.74 l 47.35 , 37.66 7.37
N)
\ Secondary Sector \ 16.59 \ 19.59 \ 24.59 2.50
LA)
‘ Tertiary Sector ‘ 24.66 33.00 37.82 40.13
Source: Economic Review of Himachal Pradesh (relevant Issues)
An important implication of this shift is that the households have diversified from
(mainly, subsistence) agriculture to practicing multiple livelihoods and deriving
incomes from secondary and tertiary sector. It is notable that this emigration to other
livelihoods has not been adequately noted in census; the agriculture households who
now derive considerable income from nonagricultural sources are not noted.
2.6. Trend in Agriculture and food productivity in Himachal Pradesh.
Himachal Pradesh produced 268 kg food grains per person during 1990-92 in
contrast to 203 kg at all India level (Karol 2000, 7). However, the increase in
agricultural income per rural person in the State was lower than the national average;
it went up from Rs. 373 during early seventies to Rs. 998 during late eighties against
national increase from Rs. 384 to Rs. 1,302 (Gol I994). According to the Planning
Commission‘s estimates of 1994, about 30% of total population was below poverty
line as against the all India average of 35.04%. An alarming figure that emerged
from this study was that Himachal Pradesh had witnessed an increase in the persons
below poverty line at the rate of 5.66% per annum during (I983-84 to 1993-94) as
compared to a reduction by 2.1% at all India level (Chelliah and Sudarshan 1999, 8).
In any event, the poor progress of Himachal Pradesh agriculture could be attributed
to low yield of crops, chiefly because food crops grown in the state have little growth
potential. Table 2.7 shows that though per hectare yield of key crops of the State
have shown an increase during period II (1992-93 to 1994-95) yields of rice, wheat,
24

total cereals, pulses and potato are far below the national average. Maize is the only
crop where the state has a limited comparative advantage.
Some of the key factors responsible for lower yield in the state are: lower
farm size as compared with India, low availability of modern inputs, less area under
irrigation, number of pump sets and tractors, quantum of fertilizer use, per capita
consumption of electricity and the share of agricultural sector in total electricity
consumption is considerably lower than the national average (Indian Agriculture in
Brief, 1996). Suggestions to diversify agriculture through high value cash crops,
mainly fruits and vegetables have been made consistently by several researchers
(Singh, 1990), and have been emphasized in 7th and 8‘h Five-Year Plans.
Within the state. there is a great variation in food grain production and
productivity in different districts of the State (see Table below).
Table 2.5 District-wise foodgrain area, production and productivity
S.N. District 2004-05 2005-06
Area Production Productivity
(1000 ha) (1000 mt) (Kg./ha)
Area
(1000ha)
Production
(1000 mt)
Productivity
(Kg./ha)
1 Bilaspur
55.939
120.753
2159
53.456
54.160
1013
2 Chamba
59.944
113.920
1900
55.809
58.302
1 045
3 Hamirpur
69.243
137.629
1988
67.924
82.811
1219
4 Kangra
195.807
314.566
1 607
194.955
238.195
1222
5 Kinnaur
5.673
5.022
885
4.164
3.656
878
6 Kullu
51.375
94.294
1835
54.349
92.225
1697
7 Lahaul&
Spiti
0.917
1.210
1320
0.795
1.031
1297
8 Mandi
142.026
287.251
2023
139.988
216.615
1547
9 Shimla
47.108
70.503
1497
43.525
65.215
1498
10 Sirmour
60.843
109.029
1792
59.198
91.153
1540
1 1 Solan
56.888
101.265
1780
53.856
84.043
1561
12 Una
65.274
132.203
2025
64.667
81.273
1257
Total
811.037
1487.645
1834
792.686
1068.679
1348
Source: Department of Agriculture HP,2004»05 & 2005-06.
During 2004-05, food grain productivity was the highest in Bilaspur district;
followed by the districts of Una and Mandi. It was least in Kinnaur . The district
25

wise crop intensity is is given Nevertheless, the variation of productivity and
cropping intensity between different districts is given in Table2.6.
Table 2.6 District-wise crop intensity.
S.N. District
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003~04
1 Bilaspur
191.9
190.30
191.50
191.70
2 Chamba
146.50
160.60
157.00
158.00
3 Hamirpur
191.70
198.00
200.00
198.50
4 Kan gra
184.00
190.50
185.10
188.30
5 Kinnaur
123.00
119.90
118.20
116.80
6 Kullu
179.70
165.60
165.00
179.10
7 Lahaul&
Spiti
103.10
102.50
102.60
104.30
8 Mandi
183.90
179.20
185.00
187.20
9 Shimla
129.60
140.60
138.90
141.50
10 Sirmaur
182.30
184.70
183.40
183.20
1 1 Solan
163.30
167.40
157.10
164.20
12 Una
172.30
170.10
183.90
191.90
Source: Department of Agriculture Hibachi Pradesh
Nevertheless, the variation of productivity and cropping intensity between
different districts is wide (see box-2)
Box-2 Agriculture still ruling the roost :
It should be noted that, the declining share of Agriculture Sector, however,
has not affected the importance of this sector in the state economy. The
growth of economy still is being determined by the trend in agricultural
production as it has a significant share in the total domestic product and has
overall impact on other sectors via input linkages, employment and trade etc.
However, due to lack of irrigation facilities, the agricultural production to a
large extent still depends on timely rainfall and weather conditions. Also,
cropping intensity has increased to a point at which fertility becomes the
primary limited factor as depicted in table 2.6. Cropping intensity is the
highest (198.50) in Hamirpur, followed by Una 191.90, Bilaspur (191.70)
and Kangra (188.30). Lahaul Spiti has the lowest cropping intensity i.e.
(104.30) for want of irrigation( GOHP 2002, 357)
26

Table 2.7: A Comparative Statement of Average Yield of Major Cr0p’s of
Himachal Pradesh and India during Triennia 1972-73 t0 1974-75
and 1992-93 to 1994-95 (in Kg—ha)
Crop and
Crop Group
Period I: 1972-73 to 1974-
75
Period
II: 1992-93 to 1994-95
Himachal
Pradesh
India
Himachal
Pradesh
India
Rice
1058
1089
1314
1851
Wheat
1056
1260
1275
2420
Maize
1732
1002
2066
1590
Total cereals
1260
910
1568
1706
Total pulses
492
543
275
593
Total food
grains
1230
821
1490
1501
Potato
5084
8751 10854
15648
Note: Period I refer to triennium I972-73 to I974-75 and period II refers to
triennium 1992-93 to 1994-95.
Source:
1. Government of India, Indian Agriculture in Brie)‘, various issues.
2. Government of Himachal Pradesh, Annual Season and Crop Report of
Himachal Pradesh, various issues.
It should be noted that, the declining share of agriculture sector, however, has not
affected the importance of this sector in the State economy. The growth of economy
still is being determined by the trend in agricultural production as it has a significant
share in the total domestic product and has overall impact on other sectors via input
linkages. employment and trade etc. However, due to lack of in”igation facilities the
agricultural production to a large extent still depends on timely rainfall and Weather
conditions. Also, cropping intensity has increased to a point at which fertility
becomes the primary limiting factor. Cropping intensity is the highest (196.7) in
Hamirpur, followed by Bilaspur (192.9), Kangra (186.9) and Una (186.8). Lahaul
and Spiti have the lowest cropping intensity i.e. 102.5 for want of irrigation (GoHP
2002357).
27

Chapter 3
LIVELIHOOD CONCERNS IN HIMACHAL PRADESH
Climatic conditions prevailing in Himachal Pradesh are conducive for
growing fruits ranging from apples and stone fruits in the Northern High Hills and
Low Hills to citrus fruits which are grown in warm temperate and sub-tropical
climatic conditions. As was pointed out in the preceding paragraphs, a large
proportion of operational holdings is being used for growing fruits in the Northern
High Hills. The proportion of total operational holdings being used for growing
fruits is relatively low in Low Hills. The climatic conditions in these two regions of
the State are perfectly suited for growing apple and stone fruits like plum, peach,
apricot, pear and cherries. The apple produced in the relatively colder climate of
High Hills is known for its crispness and relatively long shelf life. Fruit production
received attention in the planning process only in the post-independence era.
The Approach Paper to the Eleventh Five Year Plan of Himachal
Pradesh recognizes the vitality of increasing productivity of the farm sector in the
State. It envisages increasing incomes and employment in the farm sector. Increasing
farm sector productivity through technological interventions and diversification into
the high value crops have been stated as the objectives for the farm sector
development in the State. It mentions of putting in place a framework for opening up
of the farm sector for contract farming and also for the organic farming. The
Approach Paper also recognizes the existence of gap between the irrigation potential
created and its utilization and accords high priority to bridge this gap through
farmers‘ associations and extension work by the agriculture and horticulture
departments.
It has generally been observed throughout the State that the Women
contribute in majority of the activities in farm sector livelihoods. Barring ploughing
and disposing off the marketable surplus, women contribute more than the men do in
all other farm related activities, Right from sowing, irrigation, using fertilizers,
reaping and post harvest management of the produce has large contribution from
women in all the three regions of the State. Same pattern has been observed in fruit
production and livelihoods based on the livestock. The women would manage all the
activities related to the livestock except for grazing and disposing off the marketable
28

surplus. Women would manage not only the fodder and other feeding requirements
of the livestock but also all other issues related to the health of the livestock. If
viewed from the participation angle, the picture seems to be pretty good in terms of
women empowerment, however, sad part of the story is that none of the women from
the sample households which have both men and women engaged in farm activities
has reported to have known the quantum of monetary returns the household has
received after selling off the marketable surplus. Same pattern regarding
participation of women has been observed across all the three regions. However,
over the years some of the Women Self Help Groups (WSHGs) formed through the
intervention of the Government and also through NABARD have done pretty well
not only by undertaking economic activities related to farm sector but also those of
non-farm sector. The Government ensures credit to such groups and helps them to
becorne financially sustainable after providing initial financial assistance on loan
basis. Quite a few WSHGs, especially in the districts of Kangra, Sirmaur and Solan
have been reported to have become self dependent after repayment of the loans. All
the members of the WSHGs have to compulsorily save some fixed amount in the
bank out of their income on monthly basis. This intervention has also inculcated the
habit of saving besides engaging the female members in economic activities. The
Plan will promote such women centric enterprises in the following activities.
3.1 Concerns in the Farm Sector
Land being the primary assets for adopting livelihood strategy in farm sector,
people have to look for other livelihood strategies to supplement their incomes.
Number of supplementing livelihood strategies being adopted largely depends on the
monetary outcome of not only the primary strategy but also of the supplementary
strategies. Mechanization of farm activities for most of the households in the Low
Hills and in Plains and Valleys is also not economically viable because of small size
of land holdings owned by a majority of households. As has been mentioned in the
earlier section, that a low percentage of irrigated land out of the total cultivated land
is in Low Hills and Valleys and Plains also results in a great difficulty in sustaining
the livelihood strategy involving cultivation. These households in all the three
regions have no other option but to diversify their livelihoods not only in farm sector
but also in non farm sector.
29

Scope of extensification of cultivation is very limited in the Northern
High Hills as a very large proportion of land in this region is already either under
cultivation or has orchards or forests on it. The land classified as forest land can not
be brought under cultivation because of extremely steep slopes and environmental
considerations in regard to non-diversion of land use from forests to any other. Only
option left in Northem High Hills to make cultivation a more successful strategy is
its intensification by using technological inputs suitable for small land holdings.
Extensification of cultivation in the Low Hills and the Valleys and the
Plains is the possible livelihood intervention to bring more land under cultivation.
Extensification of cultivation in these regions can help in making cultivation
economically more viable by bringing more area under cultivation and also by
bringing in an appropriate mix of crop diversification towards making cultivation
based livelihoods more sustainable in these areas. But such an option also suffers
from the constraint of overall availability of the land stock which can be brought
under farm operations. Among the major options are discussed as under.
( a) Vegetable and Fruits:
Production of the off—season vegetables and quality vegetable seeds besides the
seasonal vegetables is one of the fields into which the diversification has been
reported during the past decade in all the three regions of the State in farm sector. In
those belts of the Low Hills and also of Valleys and Plains where irrigation facilities
are available, growing off-season vegetable is picking up. The produce has found
place in the markets of Delhi and the neighbouring States of Punjab and Haryana
also. Good quality road network and availability of reasonable modes of transport
further work as an incentive to take up this activity. Needless to say, the vegetables
fetch attractive prices when they appear in markets during a time of non-availability
of locally produced vegetables. The maximum area under vegetables, apart from
potato and ginger, accounts for peas and tomatoes. Productivity of tomatoes is quite
high i.e. 34,645 kg per hectare as against 24,000 kg in Punjab and 15,000 kg for all
India average. Productivity of cauliflower is about the same as the all-India average
while Punjab has higher productivity in case of cauliflower. Fresh peas grown in the
State are of premium quality and fetch a higher price particularly in the plains where
it is an off-season luxury. Vegetable seed production is a dominant feature of
vegetable cultivation in the State as the climate of the Low Hills and Valleys and
Plains is very conducive to seed production. Cultivation of exotic vegetables like
30

broccoli, asparagus, leek, parsley, Brussels sprout, and others is catching up fast as
these vegetables are demanded in hotels and by foreign tourists. The advantage of
topography and availability of adequate irrigation water enables cultivators of Low
Hills and Valleys and Plains to grow out-of-season vegetables. Cultivators in the
Northern High Hills have also diversified into the production of off-season
vegetables, however, the region has not caught up with this phenomenon to an extent
as the other regions have largely because of scanty irrigation facilities in this region
and also because of high transportation costs involved in taking the produce to
market due to long distances to the market from the place of production.
(b) Fruit growing
Climatic conditions prevailing in Himachal Pradesh are conducive for
growing fruits ranging from apples and stone fruits in the Northern High Hills and
Low Hills to citrus fruits which are grown in warm temperate and sub-tropical
climatic conditions. As was pointed out in the preceding paragraphs, a large
proportion of operational holdings is being used for growing fruits in the Northern
High Hills. The proportion of total operational holdings being used for growing
fruits is relatively low in Low Hills. The climatic conditions in these two regions of
the State are perfectly suited for growing apple and stone fruits like plum, peach,
apricot, pear and cherries. The apple produced in the relatively colder climate of
High Hills is known for its crispness and relatively long shelf life. Fruit production
received attention in the planning process only in the post-independence era. Prior to
independence exotic varieties of apple were introduced in Himachal Pradesh by
American and European missionaries early in the twentieth century.
Temperate fruits cover about 60 percent of the total area under fruit
cultivation in the State out of which about 70 per cent is under apple cultivation
(area under apple cultivation comprises of 46 percent of the total area under fruit
cultivation). The area under fruits has more than doubled in the last two decades. The
productivity of apples also doubled to about more than 5000 kg per hectare during
this period, but the productivity of nuts and dry fruits, citrus and other sub-tropical
fruits decreased even though the area under these crops increased. Shimla and Kullu
districts of the Northern High Hills and tribal district of Kinnaur predominantly
produce apple and peach is the main crop of Sirmaur district in the Low Hills. Stone
fruits like plum and peach and pears are mainly grown in Kullu and Shimla districts.
Citrus, mango and litchi are grown in the Valleys and Plains of Kangra and Una
31

districts. The area under mango is about 39 percent of the total area under sub-
tropical fruits in the Low Hills and the Valleys and the Plains regions and about 6
percent of the total area under all fruits in the State as compared to 19 percent under
citrus fruits.
About one seventh of the fresh fruit bearing trees are non-bearing while
this proportion is about one eighth in case of dry fruits which covers about l6 per
cent of the total area under fruits. Shimla and Kinnaur districts have the largest
number of non-bearing trees of fresh as Well as dry fruits. The average productivity
of apple (kilogram per hectare) has been 5830, other temperate fruits 990, nuts and
dry fruits 450, citrus 510 and other subtropical fruits 1370. The comparative figures
for citrus fruits in Punjab are 10 to 15 tonnes per hectare and in Israel these figures
vary from 43 to 65 tonnes per hectare. Fruits like strawberry, pomegranate, olive,
kiwi, hazelnut etc. which have been identified as the potential crops of future. Some
high bearing clones of these fruits have been imported and are being tested for
commercial cultivation. Planting material being imported includes cultivars for
apples, cherry and plum.
The Government in its annual plans makes adequate provisions for
providing quality seeds, storage and testing and certification programmes.
Government envisages providing Soil Health Cards to all the farmers in the State by
the end of the Tenth Five Year Plan so as to enable the farmers to choose right
choice. ‘Rashtriya Krishi Bima Yoj ana’ was introduced in the State in the year 1999-
2000 to give a sense of security to the farmers. Crops covered are Wheat, paddy,
maize, barley and potato. Insurance is mandatory for all loanee farmers and optional
for non-loanee farmers. The scheme provides comprehensive risk cover against
drought, hailstorm, floods and pest diseases etc. Government also takes care of the
design and fabrication of agricultural/horticulture tools suitable for varied climatic
conditions through departments involved in extension services. In brief, the
Govemment is making all possible efforts to make cultivation based livelihoods of
the rural people of Himachal Pradesh secure and sustain in the long run.
(c) Floriculture
History of commercial floriculture in Himachal Pradesh is not very old.
It started in the decades of 80s with the Government intervention through the
Department of Horticulture of Himachal Pradesh. It was declared as a thrust area for
economic development of the State. The District Rural Development Agencies
(DRDAs) in the districts of Kangra, Mandi, Shimla and Solan are engaged in
32

promoting floriculture among the cultivators of these districts. The Govemment has
set up several nurseries throughout the State for propagation of floriculture and
distribution of planting material to the cultivators. Gladiolus, carnation,
chrysanthemum, tulips and daffodils are the main varieties being cultivated in the
State. Some of the traditional varieties like marigold are also being cultivated in
certain areas like Rajgarh in Sirmaur district. Area under flower cultivation has
increased from five hectares in 1991 to 467 hectares in 2006. Some of the Self Help
Groups and the NGOs especially, in the districts of Chamba, Sirmaur and Bilaspur
have really come up in the field of commercial cultivation of exotic and traditional
varieties of flowers. The flowers being produced in Himachal Pradesh are exported
to the places like Chandigarh, Amritsar, Delhi, Haridwar, Hrishikesh and other
places. The floriculture in the State is still in its infancy and requires appropriate
interventions to make it remunerative enterprise in order to exploit the vast potential
in this field.
Handling the produce during transportation and finding immediate and
appropriate market are the most crucial components in the field of floriculture.
Highly delicate and fragile nature due to extremely short life of the floricultural
produce makes it of critical importance that the produce reaches and is disposed off
in the market immediately at a place which fetches the best price for the produce.
Absence of availability of market information at the right time and lack of technical
know how in post harvesting handling of the produce among cultivators are the main
factors responsible for keeping the cultivators away from taking up this enterprise.
An intervention under Watershed Management for imparting necessary training to
cultivators and use of IT to establish a comprehensive market information system
(MIS) could help in exploiting the vast potential of this produce in international
markets.
(d) Mushroom Cultivation
Under the Technological Cooperation Programme of the FAO,
mushroom cultivation technology was first introduced in Himachal Pradesh on trial
basis in 1961. Commercial propagation of this technology was later undertaken
under the FAO and UNDP assisted project at Chamba Ghat in Solan district during
1977-82. Another project with the joint assistance of the Government of India and
the Dutch Government aiming at commercial mushroom production was launched at
Palampur in Kangra district. These initiatives helped in encouraging cultivation of
‘button mushrooms‘ (Agaricus bisporus) in the State and its productivity increased
from six kilograms per square meter in 1992 to 10 to 15 kilograms currently. 4318
33

metric tonnes of mushroom were produced during 2005-06 and the bulk of this
output was produced in the districts of Solan and Kullu of the Low Hills. During
2005-06, 421 metric tonnes of pasteurized compost for mushroom production was
prepared in the two development projects located at Chamba Ghat in Solan and
Palampur in Kangra and was distributed to the mushroom growers.
These units supply pasteurized compost to about 400 new production
units mainly concentrated in Kangra, Kullu, Mandi, Solan and Bilaspur districts of
Low Hills. Around twenty small units are operating in the private sector in Solan
district which produce pasteurized compost. There are nine spawn production
laboratories in the State of which six are in the private sector and three are with the
research institutions. An export oriented unit has been set up at Paonta Sahib in
Sirmaur district with a capacity of exporting 150 metric tonnes of mushrooms and
processed products in various forms.
Mushroom production is an activity that is associated with high returns on
investment if a harvest is reaped in full. However, there is a great risk of getting the
whole lot spoiled if it catches infection due to inappropriate temperature and
moisture combinations. Great care is required to be taken in providing appropriate
climatic conditions to the mushrooms while being produced. The DPR will identity
for areas with potential land and provide training to the cultivators interested in
taking up mushroom production commercially.
(e) Bee-Keeping
A great diversity in agro-climatic conditions in flora in Himachal Pradesh
provides enormous potential for production of honey. The British first introduced the
bee-keeping in Kullu valley in 1934 and in Kangra valley in 1936. Bee flora from the
Northern High Hills was brought down to lower altitudes during winter months of
1952 when migratory system of bee-keeping was introduced for the first time in the
State. Himachal Pradesh took a lead in the introduction of exotic honey bee, Apis
melzfera (Italian honey bee) for the first time in 1962-63. Prior to this, the honey was
produced form Apis acerana and production was ten metric tonnes per annum from
2500 bee colonies maintained by 150 bee-keepers. Now there are about 26,000 bee
colonies maintained by 939 bee keepers producing over 650 metric tonnes of honey
of diverse flora every year. The target of production of 1000 metric tonnes of honey
during 2006-O7 is likely to be met. The honey produced from the flora growing at the
high altitudes of the Northern High Hills is said to have some unique medicinal
properties and hence fetch more price in the market.
34

Private entrepreneurs have established breeding and multiplication
centers with the assistance under various State and centrally sponsored schemes.
These schemes have become very popular among the upcoming bee-keepers. Bee
keeping is also resorted to by the fruit growers of all the three regions of the State on
rental basis during the flowering season as it helps in pollination/cross pollination of
fruit trees resulting in better fruit yields besides producing honey. The targets set by
the Government in terms of distribution have always been met and some times the
actual distribution well exceeds the targets. One honey processing unit with the
installed capacity of I20 metric tonnes of honey processing every year has been
established in the public sector at Kandrori in Kangra district and is managed by the
Ago Industries Corporation Limited. The plant procures honey from the local
producers as the first priority and imports it from outside the State if adequate honey
is not available locally to ensure working at full capacity. The State Government has
provided financial assistance during 2006-07 for improving financial health of the
plant. Some of the private companies like Dabur India Ltd. also procures honey from
the local producers and processes it Presence of private players in the field will bring
in competition and help the public sector players to compete in the self sustaining
mode.
(f) Animal Husbandry
A reasonably large proportion of people follow animal husbandry based
or supported livelihood strategy. Main commodities being produced through this
strategy are milk, wool. meat and hides. Most of the households owning milch
animals sell milk though in small quantities within the village. Out of the total
annual milk production of 784.082 thousand tonnes, MILKFED, the only large scale
and functional milk cooperative in the State procures just 1.5 per cent of it. This
indicates to the existence of a large unorganized and obviously highly decentralized
market for milk in the State. A sizeable part of the demand for milk in the urban
areas is met by the imports from Punjab and Haryana which clearly indicates the
scope for expansion of this particular pursuit of livelihood strategy either in
conjunction with others or as a stand alone strategy.
A large proportion of the milch animals in Northern High Hills and Low
Hills are indigenous varieties with very low levels of yield when compared to those
of improved and exotic varieties. The proportion of indigenous milch animals to the
total milch animals is about 54 percent in the Northern High Hills and about 67
percent in Low Hills. Livestock of exotic and improved has, per force, to be reared in
an entirely different manner than the indigenous stock. Indigenous stock is habitual
35

of open meadow/grassland/open forest area grazing whereas the exotic breeds need
to be only stall fed. The milk yields drastically fall if these animals are sent out for
open grazing. In this context, cultivation of high protein/nutrient fodders has to
accompany the rearing of exotic/improved breeds. Fodder cultivation also offers
opportunities for further refurbishing the farm based livelihoods. The plan proposes
to ta.ke up these activities in all District of the State.
(g) Non Timber Forest Product
Extraction of herbs and medicines from forests is generally pursued as a
supplementary livelihood strategy. Whatever extraction of herbs and medicines is
being done, its marketing is being done in an unorganized manner. Lack of market
for herbs and medicines within the State makes people sell these to the middlemen at
throw away prices. Middlemen reap huge profits by selling these in the proper
markets of Punjab, Utter Pradesh and Delhi. Existence of common properly rights to
natural resources is negligible. Rather free access rights to the natural resources are
being exercised by the rural people making natural resource based livelihoods
vulnerable to their early extinction. Various national and international organizations
have also been exploring the natural wealth of the State to exploit the potential of
highly valued medicinal and aromatic herbs. The State has enormous potential of
growing herbs and medicinal plants in private as well as common land. The
perspective plan aims at promoting this activity and ultimately linking it with health
tourism in areas of potential for generated employment. There are about 70
units/pharmacies in the State which manufacture Ayurvedic medicines. Profit being
the sole motive of these private sector units, the scientific extraction of herbs and
medicinal plants do not fomi a part of overall operations of these units.
Indiscriminate exploitation by the outside agencies of these plants is likely to bring
many species to extinction. Two bigger units in the Govemment sector are functional
at J oginder Nagar and Majra and they procure raw material from the local producers,
process them and supply to outside agencies as ingredients to various Ayurvedic
medicines. Four herbal gardens have been set up by the Ayurveda Department of the
Govemment of Himachal Pradesh to raise germplasm nurseries. These herbal
gardens have been yeaming for perfecting the conservation and other agro-
techniques for the sustenance and multiplication of such plants which suit best to and
are grown in the given agro-climatic conditions.
3.2 Concerns in the Non Farm Sector
With the rapidly increasing industrialization, educational infrastructural
facilities and new emerging economic enterprise options in Himachal Pradesh, any
36

planned intervention in the rural agro economic scenario should focus on concems in
the non farm sector. This is also important from the strategic point of view as it is
necessary to off load burden of dependence on the farm sector and natural resources.
Over the past few years, the Govemment of Himachal Pradesh has given emphasis
on setting up of hydro-electric projects in the State, exploring and expanding tourism
activities into the rural and far flung areas and setting up of industries in different
parts of the State. Special incentives are also being given for setting up micro and
small enterprises in the rural areas. However, among the major limitations in
expansion of employment avenues in these areas despite the condition of employing
seventy percent people from Himachal Pradesh imposed by the Government are:
i) There is a gap between the kind of skills demanded by the
enterprises being set up in the State in all the above sectors and the kind of
skills available in the market. Often, industries opt for labour from outside
the Stae as people with requisite training and experience are not available. A
planned effort has therefore to be made for identifying manpower
requirement of the enterprises coming up in a watershed area and tie up with
the existing training facilities in the public and private sector for providing
market related skills. For this, convergence with SGSY scheme of the Rural
Development Department and RUDSETIs being set up in the State would
also be necessary;
ii) In order to encourage local youth to set up micro and small
enterprises in the State to encourage expansion in the rural areas, training on
entrepreneurial skill development is required to be undertaken. Along with
this, appropriate interface with the banking institutions will also be required
to be developed to ensure adequate flow of credit; and
111) With the expanding service sector infrastructure in the
State in the Transport, Tourism, Communication and IT related activities and
marketing; potential for employment is large especially in view of the fact
that with the increased educational infrastructure, the reasonably qualified
work force is already available, which can be employed with some hands on
training. In the non-farm activities likely to be taken up under the watershed
management, this aspect will be required to be kept in view.
37

Chapter-4
WATERSHED MANAGEMENT INTERVENTIONS IN HIMACHAL
PRADESH
Presently the watershed development programme/projects are being
implemented through Rural Development Department, Forests Department and
Agriculture Department. The Department wise position of programmes /projects
being implemented is as under:
4.1 RURAL DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT
With the objectives to ensure over all development of rural areas, harvesting
of rainwater, employment generation, poverty alleviation, community empowerment
and development of human and other economic resources of the rural areas,
mitigating the adverse effects of extreme climatic conditions & development of
natural resources, the Government of India launched Watershed Development
Programme on watershed approach during 1995-96. The main activities taken up
under watershed development programmes are Soil moisture conservation, Water
Harvesting, Afforestation, Pasture Development & Horticultural /Agricultural Dev.
etc.
As per guidelines issued by the Govemment of India time to time, the
following three programmes are being implemented in different districts of the State:
(a) Integrated Wastelands Development Programme (IWDP)
This programme is being implemented in districts Chamba,Hamirpur, Kangra,
Kullu, Mandi, Shimla, Sirmour,three blocks of district Solan ( Nalagarh, Solan,
Kandaghat ) and two blocks of district Kinnaur ( Kalpa & Nichar). Under IWDP, 67
Projects consisting of 873 micro Watersheds costing of Rs.254.l2 Crore have been
sanctioned in phased manner from 1994-95 and funds to the tune of Rs. 178,63 Crores
have been released upto September, 2008 against which the expenditure is
Rs.l43.74 Crore. In l4 Projects all due instilments have been received and these
projects almost have been completed or nearing completion.
(b) Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP) z
This programme is being implemented in District Bilaspur, Una , and in Two
blocks of district Solan (Kunihar & Dharampur). Under this programme 412 micro
38

watersheds costing of Rs. 116.50 Crore have been sanctioned in phased manner
from 1994-95 and funds to the tune of Rs.62.92 Crores have been released upto
September, 2008 against which the expenditure is Rs.51.9O Crore. In 71 Micro
Watersheds all due installments have been received and these projects almost have
been completed or nearing completion.
(c) Desert Development Programme (DDP):
The Desert Development Programme is being implemented in district Lahaul
& Spiti and Pooh Division of district Kinnaur. Under DDP 552 micro Watersheds
costing of Rs.159.20 Crore have been sanctioned in phased manner from 1994-95
and funds to the tune of Rs.77.1l Crores have been released upto September, 2008
against which the expenditure is Rs.73.36 Crore. In 80 Micro Watersheds all due
instalments have been received and these projects almost have been completed or
nearing completion
4.1.1 Cost Norms.
The programmes are implemented as per provision of the guidelines and
accordingly the funds are utilized. The cost norms according to guidelines are as
under:
a) Prior to 1-4-2000
Sr. Prog. Rate per ha. Sharing Pattern
No.
ll IWDP Rs. 4000/- per ha.(Rs. 100% GOI
20.00) lakhs) per
2_ DPAP Rs. 40()0/- per ha.(Rs. 50:50 GOI & State Govt. w.e.f. 1.4.1999 75:25 per
20.00) lakhs per watershed) watershed between GOI & State Government
3. DDP Rs. 5000/- per ha.(Rs. 100% GOI . w.e.f. 1.4.1999 75:25 per watershed
25.00 )lakhs per watershed) between GOI & State Government
b) After 1-4-2000
1_ IWDP Rs. 6000/- per ha. (Rs. 30.00 Rs 55001500 per ha. between GOI and State
lakhs per watershed) Govemment
2. DPAP Rs. 6000/» per ha. (Rs. 75:25 per watershed between GOI & State
30.00 lakhs per watershed) Government
3_ DDP Rs. 600()/- per ha. (Rs. 75:25 per watershed between GOI & State
30.00 lakhs per watershed) Govemment
The projects sanctioned prior to 1.4.2003 are being implemented on
old guidelines and the works are being executed through watershed Committees. The
Projects sanctioned after 1.4.2003 are being implemented as per Hariyalli guidelines and
39

the Works are being executed through Panchayati Raj Institutions. The main differences
in old guidelines and Hariyalli guidelines are as under:
S.No.
Old Guidelines (Pre- Hariyali)
1. Execution through Watershed
Associations/Watershed Committees.
Hariyali Guidelines.
Execution through
Institutions.
Panchayati Raj
2. Allocation of funds.
1. Administration = 10%
2. Training = 5%
3. Entry point activities. = 5%
4. Works = 80%
Allocation of funds.
l.Administration = 10%
2.Training & Community Mobilization.
=5%
3. Works = 85%
3. Prescribed installments =7
< 15% 1“ year, 15% +15% in 2″“ and
3’“ yea.r, 15% 4“ year and 10% in 5″‘
yew)
Prescribed installments = 5
(< 15% in 1*‘ year, 30% each in 2″“ and 3″‘
year, 15% 4’“ year and 10% in 5″‘ year)
4 Mid term evaluation required to be
conducted before release of 4“
installment.
Mid term evaluation required to be conducted
before release of 3“ installment.
Although, the Watershed Projects are being implemented as per
provisions of the Guidelines for the programme issued by the GOI, and are to be
completed Within a period of 5 years. But the progress has been rated slow due to
lack of awareness amongst the community of Watershed area. The organization of
awareness camps. training and finalization of work plan took more time resulting
delay in execution of Works. The other important factor is topography of Himachal
Pradesh which is tough having hill terrain and working season is limited particularly
in snow bound areas.
4.2 FOREST DEPARTMENT
(a) Mid-Himalayan Watershed Development Project.
The Mid Himalayan Watershed is operative in 10 districts of the State w.e.f.
1“ October 2005 with the financial assistance of World Bank. The project builds on
the successful experience of Integrated Watershed Development Project Kandi
which culminated on 30”‘ September 2005. Mid Himalayan Watershed Development
40

project would aim at scaling up the success of Integrated Watershed Development
project with two main differences. ls‘ it would expend upwards from the Shiwalik to
the mid hills, a region which covers about of l/3’“ of the State and over half of the
cultivated land. Secondly it would responsibility for most project implementation
with local Govemments (Gram Panchayats) rather with the village development
committees. The goal of the project is to reverse the process of degradation of
natural resource base and improve productive potential of natural resources incomes
of the rural household in project area. Second objective is to support policy and
institutional development in the State.
(i) Project Scope: The Project will cover around 272 Micro- Watersheds spread over
602 GPs,42 blocks and 10 districts(viz Bilaspur, Chamba, Hamirpur, Kangra, Kullu,
Mandi, Shimla, Sirmaur, Solan and Una).
(ii) Project Area 2 Mid Hills and High Hill Zone of the State with in the altitude of
600-1800 meters.
(m) Project Cost : The total project cost is Rs. 365-00 Crore involving World Bank
share Rs.270.00 Crore, State share Rs.67.50 Crore and beneficiary contribution
(app.) Rs.7.50 Crore.
(iv) Implementation Arrangements
The Project is being implemented by the Himachal Pradesh Natural Resource
Management Society (HPNRMS), a society registered under the Societies
Registration Act, 1860. The nodal department is the H.P Forest Department. The
head office of the Project is located at Solan and there are two Regional Watershed
Development Offices located at Dharamshala and Bilaspur each headed by a
Regional Project Director (RPD). There are ll Watershed Development Divisions
headed by Divisional Watershed Development Officers (DWDO), under each WDO,
there are 4-5 Watershed Development Coordinators (WDC) with a multi-disciplinary
“Front Line Multi Sectoral Team”
A key feature of the Project is the proactive involvement of village
level institutions of self-govemance i.e. the Gram Panchayats (GP). It is envisaged
that substantial Project activities, and the Project funds, would be canalized directly
41

through the GPS. The GPs will implement the approved works under the Project
through User Groups, though some works can be implemented directly by the GPS
through qualified agencies. Livelihood enhancing activities will be implemented
through User Groups, Self Help Groups and Common Interest Groups. These groups
will ultimately ensure empowerment to the community. The GPs are being assisted
by its budget and works committees in the implementation of the Project activities
(v) Project Components and Expenditure upto July, 2008: The main
components of the projects are i) Institutional Strengthening ii) Watershed
Development Management m) Enhancing Livelihood Opportunities iv) Project
Coordination. An amount of Rs. 97.25 Crore has been spent under the project till
Jully, Z008.
(b) Swan River Integrated Watershed Management Project Una.
Out of total 180 Gram Panchayats in district Una, 60 Gram Panchayats have
been selected in the project as per criteria of selection. The areas already treated by
Kandi Project and DFID are not the part of project area.
(i) Objectives.
¢ To generate the forests, to protect the agriculture land and enhance the
agriculture and forestry productions in catchments area of nallahsl rivers.
0 To secure protection and optimum use of resources in the catchments area.
‘ To augment the resources of existing flora, fauna, vegetable, Horticulture and
Agriculture produce.
Q To reduce soil erosion and decrease sediment production.
(ii) Roles and Responsibilities.
The Forest Department is a nodal agency for the project and is
responsible for overall project management implementation, monitoring and
execution of project activities through Watershed Development committees/Line
department after approval of micro plan.
(m) Project Costl Project Period and Expenditure: Total Project cost is 4,045
Mil. Yen including GBIC portion 3385 Mil. Yen and others 660 Mil. Yen. The date
42

of agreement is 31.3.2006 and Project period is 8 years.( upto July 2014). An amount
of Rs.9.55 Crore has been spent under the project till July, 2008
4.3 AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT
The Department of Agriculture is taking up watershed development
activities under Centrally Sponsored Scheme NWDPRA for Rainfed Areas which
has now been merged into Micro Management Scheme of Ministry of Agriculture
Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Govt. of India. Under this scheme, no
staffing support has been provided by the GOI as per guidelines. The Watershed
covering an area of 500 ha. to 1000 ha. are taken up in the 1“ year of Five Year
Plan which are saturated by the end of Five Year Plan period. In these watersheds,
besides Agriculture, other activities of Horticulture, Animal Husbandry are also
taken up with the assistance of line departments. The department of Agriculture is
the Nodal Department and for 11’“ Five Year Plan. the Department has taken up 40
Watersheds in different parts of the state covering area of 24692 ha. with a total
outlay of Rs. 14.81 Cr.
Besides above, the department is also taking up water harvesting
activities under RIDF programme supported by NABARD and under Rastriya
Krishi Vikas Yojna and State Plan. Annually Rs 2 to 3 Cr. are being spent for
Water harvesting activities under these schemes. The works are executed through
the Water User Associations registered under Societies Registration Act.
4.4 Experience
With the implementation of Watershed development programme in rural areas
by the different departments, the experience gained reveals that in some projects
good Water harvesting activities have been taken up and positive results/impacts
have been seen in the project areas. As per information gathered from various
quarters approximately 1300 traditional Water sources have been revived by
creating the rain water harvesting structures under Watershed development
programme. In District Hamirpur, Kangra , Solan, Sirmour etc. the traditional
cropping system have been changed by adopting the off searson vegetable and
43

other cash crops by the inhabitants of the project areas. During interaction With
villagers of Gram Panchayat Khart Khas and Rajyana Khas in District Kangra it
was apprised, that after execution of water harvesting structures in their areas and
by introducing improved variety of grasses, the drinking Water and fodder
problems have been solved. Now the services of tankers during summer for
drinking water and arrangements of fodders from outside the State are not required
due to availability of sufficient water and fodder in their area
“Gaon Ka pani gaon mein” Construction of Check Dam.
44

Protecting Soil & Conserving Water Check Dam
Recharging Ground Water by Harvesting Rain Water
45

Pasture Development
Water Management (construction of Tank)
46

Vegetable cultivation after Water Management
47

Watershed Bhadyara (Buhla) District Mandi (C/O Check
Dam and Kuhal)
48

Micro Watershed Kharshali (Chirgaon) DRDA, Shimla (After
Water Management Plantation of Fruit Plants)
“Z-..
¢– zy-
> \.\._§_
\%’ fig
1@;f’c
However the experience also reveals that the soil conservation
activities such as gully plugging, crate work etc are not linked to the livelihood
enhancement as such the impact is not visible in project areas in majority of cases.
The activities defined in the old guidelines for watershed development projects
mostly confine to the land development and due to low land holdings of the people
49

in the State the direct benefits of the programme could not be provided to the
watershed communities. Moreover the hilly ranges of the State remained covered
under snow approximately 5 to 6 months in a year and the people earned their
income from other sources like bee keeping, wool, poultry farm and non timber
products etc. The convergence issue was missing in the previous guidelines and
coordination between line departments in the implementation of watershed
development programme remained paralyzed. Ridge to valley approach also could
not be followed due to lack of coordination, convergence and certain conditions
about the identification of areas like forest areas, private land etc. The small
structures have been constructed in view of the limited financial resources and the
impact of the activities is invisible in most of the cases. The inhabitants of
watershed area have inadequate knowledge of the programme as such active
participation of village community particularly deprived section of the society
could not be ensured in the implementation of watershed development programme.
Similarly separate provisions for livelihood enhancement for vulnerable groups
were lacking in the previous guidelines resulting less impact on poverty
eradication have been observed in the project area even after taking up the
activities for Watershed development.
50

Chapter-5
DRAINAGE AND WATERSHED
5.1 Introduction
The concept of watershed as planning unit for development
of land and water resources has gained importance since 1974 when the Ministry of
Agriculture, Govemment of India initiated various developmental programmes like
Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Desert Development Programme (DDP),
Hill Area Development Programme (HADP), etc. Therefore, it is necessary to
delineate watershed boundaries at various levels of hierarchy to identify
development activities under various schemes in each watershed. Drainage network
helps in delineation of watersheds and for suggesting various water harvesting
structures and soil conservation measures. In Himachal watersheds have been
delineated within the catchments boundary nearest to the ridgelines.
5.2 Drainages
Himachal Pradesh fall partially under three major Water Resources
Region. They are the Indus, Ganga and the Ephemeral Water Resources Region. The
river basin that falls under Himachal Pradesh under the Indus Region comprises of
Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Satluj. Those basin falling within I-Iimachal under the Ganga
Region is only the Yamuna and those are falling within Himachal under the
Ephemeral Water Resources Region are Kaushaliya and Markanda river basin.
The area falling within the drainage area of Chenab River forms
part of the Chandra and Bhaga watersheds. The area can be broadly divided into
three zones on the basis of drainage systems, viz. i) the Upper zone, 2) middle zone
and 3) lower zone. All the rivers flow in the North-East to South-West direction. The
drainage of Bhaga River in the northem zone originates from the Bara La Cha La
Pass range and flows over the slopes in the south west direction and finally drains in
the Bhaga river at Tandi which finally drains to the main course of Chenab River, a
tributary of Indus River. Prominent streams exhibits a dendritic river pattern. The
Chandra River also originates from the Bara La cha la Pass and initially flows in the
east direction then to the south along the Kunzum La pass. This change in its course
51

from east to south direction indicates the change in the underlying litho logy.
Downstream it takes a sharp turn to the where it meets the Bara Sigri River west
before meeting the Bhaga River at Tandi. After flowing through these dissected
mountains the drainage maintains its regular course in the Southem direction.
The area falling within the drainage area of Ravi River comprises part of the
Budhil, Tundahan, Beljedi, Saho and Chirchind rivers. The upper drainage of Ravi
river in the east originates from the Bara Bangal and flows over the slopes in the
west direction and finally drains in the Chamba valley till it meets Siul river at
Chamera which finally drains to the main course of Ravi river downstream that falls
finally in the Indus river. The streams exhibit a dendritic river pattern all along its
course.
The drainages falling within the Beas river comprises part of the Parvati,
Hurla, Patlikuhl, Sainj. and Tirthan river in district Kullu, Uhl, Bakhli and Suketi
river in district Mandi. Awa, Banner, Banganga. Neogal, Luni, Gaj, Bhed, Dehar,
Chakki in Kangra, Bakkar and Man in Hamirpur district. All the major rivers
mentioned above finally drain into the Pong Reservoir that further drains into the
Indus River. All the streams represent a dendritic drainage pattern all along its
course.
The drainages falling in the Satluj river comprises of Spiti river in the nonh
followed by Baspa river, Nogli river downstream, by Gambar river in Bilaspur are
and by Sir and Sulckar river in Hamirpur and Bilaspur. These entire rivers finally
drain in the Govind Sagar reservoir. Downstream of Govind Sagar reservoir Satluj
River is joined by the Swan River from Una valley. Satluj finally joins the Indus
further downstream. The overall drainage pattern is dendritic.
The drainages falling within Himachal Pradesh in the Yamuna region
comprises of Pabbar, tons, Giri and the Bata River in district Shimla and Sirmour.
The river flows through the outer Himalayas and forms a dendritic drainage pattern.
The drainages falling in the Ephemeral region of Himachal is the Kaushalya
River around Dharmpur in district Solan and Markanda River and its tributaries in
the Kala Amb area of district Sirmour. The overall drainage pattem is dendritic in
nature.
52

5.3 Demarcation of Watersheds
Watersheds are natural hydrologic entities that cover a specific
aerial extent of land form, from which rainwater flows to a defined gully, stream or
river at any particular point. The size of the watershed is governed by the order of
the stream or river and the point of interception of the stream or river.
The All India Soil and Land Use Surveys of the Ministry of
Agriculture have developed a hierarchical system of Watershed delineation like
Water Resources Region, Basin, Catchment, Sub-Catchment, Watershed, Sub-
Watershed. However, for land use planning at Block level the following eight levels
of watershed delineation has been adopted. These are as follows:
1 Water Resources Region (as defined by the watershed Atlas of India)
2. Basin (————————do———————–)
3. Catchment ( ———————- –do ——————— –)
4. Sub-Catchment ( ———————- –do ——————— –)
5. Watershed ( ———————- –do ——————— –)
6. Sub-watershed (30 to 50 Sq. Km.)
7. Mini-Watershed (10 to 30 Sq. Km.)
8. Micro-watershed ( 5 to lO Sq. Km.)
Survey of India topographical maps on l:50,000 scales have been
used for extracting surface water body spread, drainage network and water divides.
Latest Geo-coded satellite images have been used to update the drainage information
for any addition or modification Wherever required.
53

Figure : 5.1 Major river basin map of Himachal Pradesh
MAJOR RIVER BASINS IN HIMACHAL PRADESH
N
W%E
S
Chamba ‘ ‘ _ ‘ /\__
“ Che ‘
I I W
Lahul :. Spiti ‘
. _ . a
Kangra i ” ‘
‘ _
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t ./
L
git»-“
3 R|\/er Basin
El 15

Legend I i I
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5.3.1 Indus Water Resources Region:
The Indus River rises from the Tibetan plateau and enters the
Himalaya. The drainage basin of the Indus river system extends from Jammu &
54

Kashmir to Himachal Pradesh. It includes the Whole of Jammu and Kashmir and
most of Himachal Pradesh. In Himachal Pradesh the tributaries of Indus basin like
Chenab comprises of Chandra and Bhaga River that includes the cold desert of
Lahaul valley. Ravi River also forms a tributary to the Indus Region that includes the
Bharmour, Chamba and Tissa valley. Other tributary includes the Beas River that
comprises of the Kullu valley and the Kangra valley and the largest tributary of
Indus in Himachal is the Satluj River and its sub-tributaries that includes the Spiti
valley, Kinnaur, Sangla valley upstreams and the Rampur, Karsog and Bilaspur area
in the lower reaches in Himachal. Climatic conditions in the Indus river system vary
from arctic to sub-tropical. The cold desert area remains devoid of rainfall and
experiences heavy snowfall.
5.3.1.1 Satluj River:-
Satluj rises from beyond Indian borders in the Southern slopes of the Kailash
mountain near Mansarover lake from Rakas lake, as Longcchen Khabab river ( in
Tibet ). It is the largest among the five rivers of Himachal Pradesh. It enters
Himachal at Shipki (altitude of 6,608 metres ) and flows in the South-Westerly
direction through Kinnaur, Shimla, Kullu, Solan, Mandi and Bilaspur districts. Its
course in Himachal Pradesh is 320 km. from Rakastal, with the Spiti, the Ropa, the
Taiti, the Kashang, the Mulgaon, the Yula, the Wanger, the Throng and the Rupi as
right bank tributaries, and the Tirung, the Gayathing, the Baspa, the Duling and the
Solding as left bank tributaries. It leaves Himachal Pradesh to enter the plains of
Punjab at Bhakhra, where the world’s highest gravity dam has been constructed on
this river. Its total catchment area in Himachal Pradesh is 20,000 sq. km. The Satluj
finally drains into the Indus in Pakistan. The catchments area of about 50,140 sq. km.
of Satluj river is located above the permanent snow-line at an altitude of 4,500
metres. The upper tracts of the Satluj valley are under a permanent snow cover. The
prominent human settlements that have come on the banks of the Satluj River are
Namgia, Kalpa, Rampur, Tattapani, Suni and Bilaspur. Its total length is l,44-8 km.
a) Baspa River:- Baspa is an important tributary of the river Satluj in its upper
courses. The Baspa is joined by many smaller channels draining snow melt waters.
The Baspa River has cut across the main Himalayan range. Thereafter it empties
55

itself into the river Satluj in district Kinnaur and leaves Kinnaur district in the West
near Chauhra and enters Shimla district.
h) Spiti River: – The Spiti river originates from Kunzum range. Tegpo and Kabzian
streams are its tributaries. Its position across the main Himalayan range deprives it
from the benefit of the South-West monsoons that causes widespread rain in most
parts of India. The river gets a major contribution of discharge in late summers due
to glacier melting. After flowing through Spiti valley, the Spiti river meets Satluj at
Namgia in Kinnaur district traversing a length of about 150 km. from the North-West
beyond that it flows in South-West direction. Huge mountains rise to very high
elevations on either sides of the Spiti River and its numerous tributaries. The
mountains are barren and largely devoid of a vegetative cover. The main settlements
along the Spiti river and its tributaries are Hansi and Dhankar Gompa.
C) The Nogli Khad:- It joins Satluj just below Rampur Bushahar. The confluence is
opposite the Kullu district in Nirmand tehsil opposite to Rampur tehsil of Shimla
district. The river Satluj enters Mandi district near Firnu village in the Chawasigarh
and passes through the areas of Mahunm, Bagra. Batwara, Derahat and Dehar. The
main tributaries of the Satluj in district Mandi are Siun, Bahlu, Kotlu. Behna. Siman,
Bantrehr, Khadel and Bhagmati.
d) Soan River:- The Soan river rises from the Southern slopes of the Shivalik range
also known as Solasinghi range in the tract to the East of the Beas gap across the
Southern periphery of the Kangra valley. It joins the boundary of Himachal Pradesh
and Punjab. Its gradient is not very steep and the slopes of the Soan catchments vary
from gentle to steep. In the summer the discharge drops drastically, while during
monsoon it is in spate.
5.3.1.2 Beas River:-
The Rohtang pass at 4,350 meters, 51 km. North of Manali is the source of
the river Beas. This river provides the water to the fields of Punjab and Pakistan
before flowing into the Arabian Sea. The river emerges from a cavern at the Rohtang
pass and assumes different identities as the seasons go by. From a clear blue easy
flowing mountain river in the non-monsoon period it turns into an awesome torrent
river during the monsoon.
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On the South of the Rohtang pass lay the civilized state of Kullant ( Kullu ),
while to the North lay the more desolate and barren areas of Lahaul and Spiti. There
are two mountain streams that meet at Palachan village, IO km. North of Manali to
form the river Beas. The tourist resort of Manali is situated on the right banks of the
river Beas. From Manali, this holly river after passing through dense evergreen
forests reaches the town of Kullu. After covering hundreds of Kilometers through the
hills, the river at Ha.ri Ka Patan in Ferozpore district of Punjab embraces the river
Satluj before flowing into Pakistan.
Its main tributaries are the Parbati, the Spin and Malana nala in the East; and
the Solang, the Manalsu, the Sujoin, the Phojal and the Sarvati Streams in the West.
In Kangra, it is joined by Binwa, Neugal, Banganga, Gaj, Dehr and Chakki from
North, and Kunah, Maseh, Khairan and Man from the South. The Beas enters district
Kangra at Sandhol and leaves it near Mirthal. At Bajaura, it enters Mandi district
situated on its left bank. In Mandi district, its own Northem feeders are Hansa,
Tirthan, Ba.khli, Jiuni, Suketi, Panddi, Son and Bather.The northern and Eastern
tributaries of the Beas are perennial and snow fed, while Southem are seasonal. Its
flow is maximum during monsoon months. At Pandoh, in Mandi district, the waters
of the Beas have been diverted through a big tunnel to join the Satluj. It flows for
256 km. in Himachal Pradesh.The important settlement on the bank of Beas river are
Kullu, Mandi, Bajaura, Pandoh, Sujanpur Tihra, Nadaun and Dehra-Gopipur. The
total lenght of this river is 460 km.
a) Awa River: Rises from the Dhauladhar range in the Kangra valley of Himachal
Pradesh. It flows in a South-Westerly direction before joining the river Beas. It
receives both snowmelts as well as rainfall water from smaller channels.
b) Banner River:- It is also known as Baner Khad. It is a tributary of the Beas river
and drains the central part of the Kangra valley. The Baner Khad rises as a small
snow fed channel on the Southern slopes of the Dhauladhar range near Palampur.
The general direction of flow of the Banner River is towards South-West.
C) Banganga River:- It joins the Beas River in the Kangra valley. It rises from the
Southern slopes of the Dhauladhar range. The river is fed by snow melt and channels
57

emanating from springs. Large fertile sediments have been formed all along the river
near its mouth.
h) Chakki River:- It drains the South-Western part of Himachal Pradesh. The
Chakki River rises as a small snow-fed and rain-fed stream from the Southern slopes
of the Dhauladhar range. The river enters Punjab near Pathankot and joins the Beas
River.
e) Gaj Khad: – It rises as a small stream from the snows on the Southern slopes of
the Dhauladhar range in Kangra district. A number of small streams form the Gaj
Khad. The Gaj River joins the Beas River a little upstream of the Pong dam lake
(now known as Maharana Pratap Sagar).
f) Manuni River: – It rises from the Southem slopes of the Dhauladhar range and
joins the river Beas. Steep slopes form the upper catchment of the Manuni River.
There is a sharp fall in its gradient. Huge river terraces occur on the both sides of the
river bed, which are used for cultivation extensively.
g) Luni River: – Luni rises from the South slopes of Dhauladhar in the Kangra
valley. It merges with the river Beas in the central part of Kangra valley.
h) Parbati River:- It rises in the snowy areas upstream of Manikaran on the foothills
of the main Himalayan range in Kullu district. The glacier which feeds this river
descends down from the steep Southern slopes of the main Himalayas. It joins the
river Beas at Shamshi in Kullu valley.
i) Patlikuhal River:-This River is a tributary of the Beas River in the Mandi area of
Kullu district. It rises from the snow on the Southem slopes of the Pir Panjal range
and thereafter it flows into the Beas River upstream of Kullu.
j) Sainj River:- It rises from the water divide of the Beas and Satluj rivers in the
lower ranges of the main Himalayas to the East of Kullu. Thereafter it flows towards
South-West to join the Beas River just before it cuts across the Dhauladhar range
near Larji.
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k) Hurla River:- Hurla river rises as a small channel from the snows in the
depression of the North-Western plank of Kullu valley. It joins the river Beas near
Bhuntar. Numerous snow-fed streams join the river Hurla.
1) Suketi River:- This river is a tributary of the Beas river in the Kangra valley. It
rises from the South facing slopes of Dhauladhar range. A number of small channels
join the Suketi River in its upper reaches. The river has formed huge terraces, most
of which are under cultivation. The upper catchments of the river consists of steep
slopes.
l) Tirthan River:- It is a tributary of the Beas river. It rises from the base of an
offshoot of the main Himalayan range to the South-East of Kullu. Thereafter it
follows a South-Westerly course and flows into the Beas at Laiji just before it cuts
across the Dhauladhar range.
n) Uhl River: – It is another tributary of the Beas river which rises as two feeder
channels in the area to the North of the Dhauladhar range in Himachal Pradesh.
Thereafter the two channels cross this gigantic mountain barrier and merge at the
base of the Southem slopes to form the main channel of the Uhl River in Kangra
area. It flows for a considerable distance along the base of the Dhauladhar range.
Then tums towards the South-East to merge with the Beas near the town of Mandi.
5.3.1.3 Ravi River:-Ravi river rises from the Bara Banghal ( a branch of Dhauladhar
) as a joint stream formed by the glacier-fed Badal and Tant Gari. The right bank
tributaries of the Ravi are the Budhil, Tundahan Beljedi, Saho and Siul, and its left
bank tributary worth mentioning is Chirchind Nala. Town Chamba is situated on the
right bank of the river Ravi. The Ravi River flows by the foot of Dalhousie hill,
through the famous Chamba valley. The river with its length of about 158 km. in
Himachal has a catchments area of about 5,451 sq. km. As the Ravi River flows
down from the heights, it passes hill sides with terraced fields. The river looks
devastating in its fury. It carries away even sturdy trees. The Ravi river first flows
Westward through a trough separating the Pir Panjal from Dhauladhar range and
then turns southward, cutting the deep gorge through the Dhauladhar range. It flows
nearly 130 km. in Chamba region, before leaving it finally at Kheri..
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The Ravi river forms the biggest sub-micro region of Chamba district.
From Bara Bangal of Kangra district, it flows through Bara Bansu, Tretha, Chanota
and Ulhansa. The Ravi River merges with the Chenab in Pakistan. The well known
human settlements along the river are Barmaur, Madhopur and Chamba town. Its
total length is 720 km.
a) Bhadal River: – It rises from the snowy range of the area lying between the Pir
Panjal and Dhauladhar ranges in the Bara Banghal area of the Central Himachal
Pradesh. It flows in a Westerly direction before merging with the Tant Gari River to
form the mainstream of the Ravi.
b) Siul River: – It is the tributary of the Ravi River. It rises from the tract between
the Dhauladhar and Pir Panjal ranges near Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal
Pradesh border. Thereafter this river flows towards East, takes a U turn and attains a
South-Westerly course before flowing into the Ravi River downstream of Chamba.
River Baira is the prominent tributary of the Siul River. This river is fed by both
snow melt and spring waters.
c) Baira River:-It rises from the snows on Southern slopes of the Pir Panjal range in
Himachal Pradesh. Numerous tributaries of the Baira River are also fed by the snow
and so make it a Perennial river before it joins the Siul River, which is a tributary of
the Ravi River. Its catchments consist of steep slopes, deep valleys and terraces that
have been laid down by the river since a long time.
d)Tant Gari:- It is a tributary of the Ravi river. This river rises as a small stream
from the slopes of an off-shoot of the Pir Panjal range in the area East of Bharmaur
in Chamba district. The Tant Gari valey is U shaped. Its bottom is strewn with
boulders and moronic deposits laid down by the glaciers in the past.
5.3.1.4 Chenab River:-Two streams namely Chandra and Bhaga rise on the opposite
sides of the Baralacha pass at an elevation of 4,891 metres and meet at Tandi at an
elevation of 2,286 meters to form the river Chenab. The Chenab rises from the
South-East and Bhaga from the North-West of the Baralacha pass. It enters Pangi
valley of Chamba district near Bhujind and leaves the district at Sansari Nala to enter
Podar valley of Kashmir. It flows in Himachal for 122 km. With its total length of
1,200 km., it has a catchments area of 61,000 sq. km., out of which 7,500 sq. km. lie
60

in Himachal Pradesh. It is the largest river of Himachal Pradesh in terms of volume
of waters. The Chenab valley is a structural trough formed by the great Himalayan
and Pir Panjal ranges.
a) The Miyar Nullahz – It joins Chenab in Lahaul, while Saicher Nullah joins it in
Pangi valley. It meets the Indus River at Mithankot in Pakistan and ultimately joins
Arabian Sea. The important human settlements that have come up along this river are
Udaipur, Killar, Doda and Ramban.
b) Bhaga River: – This river originates from the Lahaul valley. A number of
Snowfed Rivers join it during its course, before it joins the Chandra stream at Tandi.
From its origin it flows in South-South-Westerly direction as a raging torrent before
joining the river Chandra. U shaped valleys, Waterfalls, glaciers and moraines
characterizes the upper catchments of the BhagaRriver. The entire tract is devoid of a
vegetative cover. The discharge of this river increases during the summer months,
when the snow on the high mountains starts melting.
c) Chandra River: – It rises in the snows lying at the base of the main Himalayan
range in Lahaul-Spiti district. Thereafter it flows for a considerable distance along
the base of thin range in the South-East direction, before making a 180° turn and
taking a South-West course in Spiti valley. The entire area is a vast cold desert that
receives little or no rain as it lies in the rain shadow of the Pir Panjal range lying
towards South. The important human settlement along the river is Koksar.
5.3.2 Ganga Water Resources Region: – In Himachal Pradesh the tributaries of
Ganga Region comprises of Yamuna Catchments and falls in the south eastern part
of Himachal. This catchment area comprises the Pabbar in Rohru, Tons and Giri in
Shimla and the Bata River in Sirmour area.
a) Yamuna River:-
Only a small part of Yamuna river system which is a tributary of Ganga river system
flows through the state of Himachal Pradesh. Yamuna enters Himachal Pradesh at
Khadar Majri in Sirmour district. Yamuna River is the largest tributary of the Ganga.
It rises from Yamunotri in Gharwal hills and fonns the Eastem boundary with Uttar
Pradesh. The Yamuna is the Eastem-most river of Himachal Pradesh. Its famous
61

tributaries are Tons, Pabbar and Giri.The Giri rises from near Kupar peak just above
Jubbal town in Shimla district, Tons from Yamunotri and Pabbar from Chandra
Nahan Lake near the Chansal peak in Rohru tehsil of Shimla district. Its total
catchment area in Himachal Pradesh is 2,320 sq. km. It leaves the state near
Tajewala and enters into the Haryana state.
The main geomorphic features of the Yamuna valley are interlocking
spurs, gorges, steep rock benches and terraces. The latter have been formed by the
river over the past thousands of years. The area drained by the Yamuna system
includes Giri-Satluj water divide in Himachal Pradesh to the Yamuna Bhilagana
water divide in Gharwal. To be more precise the South—Eastern slopes at the Shimla
ridge are drained by the Yamuna system. The utilization of water of the river system
is being done by the way of transportation of timber logs, irrigation and hydel power
generation. After Himachal Pradesh, the river flows through the state of Haryana,
Delhi and Uttar Pradesh where it merges with the Ganga River at Allahabad. The
Yamuna is 2,525 km. long.
b) Jalal River:-Jalal River is the small tributary of the Giri River in Himachal
Pradesh. It rises from Dharti ranges adjoining Pachhad and joins Yamuna at Dadahu
from the right side. It also joins the river Giri at Dadahu. The origin and entire course
of this river lies in the lower Himalayas. This is the Rainfed River and has abrupt
flow during the rainy season. A number of human settlements have come up along
the Jalal River. These include Bagthan and Dadhau.
c) Markanda River: – Markanda is a small river of Nahan area of the Sirmaur
district. It rises from the Southern face of the lower Himalayas on the Western
extremity of the Kiarda dun (Paonta) valley. The lower Himalayan hills of Nahan
occur on the right flank of the Markanda valley while the low rolling Shivalik hills
are on its left flank. It is a rainfed river and has very low flow in the winter and
summer months but rises abruptly in the monsoon.
d) Andhra River: – This is a tributary of the Pabbar River which in turn drains into
the Tons River. This river rises from a small glacier in the lower hills of the main
Himalayas in the area to the North-West of Chirgaon in Shimla district. Thereafter it
62

flows in a general direction towards South-East and merges with the Pabbar River at
Chigaon.
e) Giri River: – The River Giri is an important tributa.ry of the Yamuna river. It
drains a part of South-Eastern Himachal Pradesh. The Giri or Giriganga (as it is
famous in the Jubbal, Rohru hills) rises from Kupar peak just above Jubbal town and
flows down in the South-Eastern direction and divides the Sirmaur district into equal
parts that are known as Cis-Giri and Trans-Giri region and joins Yamuna upstream
of Paonta below Mokkampur. The river Ashni joins Giri near Sadhupul (Chail) while
river Jalal which originates from Dharthi ranges adjoining Pachhad joins it at
Dadahu from the right side. The water from the Giri River is led through a tunnel to
the power house of Girinagar and after that it is led into the Bata River.
f) Asni River: – The Ashni River is a tributary of the Giri River. This river flows along
a deep V shaped valley whose side slopes vary from steep to precipitous. It has
carved a steep gorge across the off-shoots of the Nag Tibba ridge. Numerous small
spring fed tributaries join the Ashni River at various places along its course.
g) Bata River: – This River originates in the boulders below the Nahan ridge in the
South-Westem comer of Himachal Pradesh. It is mainly fed by the rain water that is
cycled as underground water before finally coming up on the surface as a spring. The
river flows below the surface for a part of its length in its upper reaches, thereafter
the water flows on the surface. Large and wide terraces have been formed by it. The
small tributaries which join the Bata River in the Paonta valley are Khara-Ka-Khala
flowing in a Southerly direction from the Nahan ridge, and Kanser-Khala originating
from the Southern slopes of the Nahan.
h) Pabbar River: – The Pabbar River is a tributary of the Tons River, which in turn
drains into the river Yamuna. This rises from the Dhauladhar range (South facing
slopes) near the border of Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh. The main stream is
fed by the Chandra Nahan glacier and springs originating from underground waters.
It joins the Tons River at the base of the Chakrata massif near the border of Uttar
Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh.
i) Patsari River:-It is a small spring fed tributary of the Pabbar River. This river
rises from the lower Himalayan hills near Kharapathar in Shimla district of Himachal
63

Pradesh. This river joins the Pabbar River near the mountain hamlet of Patsari about
l0 km. upstream of Rohru. Its bed is strewn with boulders of various sizes. Small
villages and hamlets have come up along this river.
j) Tons River: – This River is an important tributary of the Yamuna River and joins
it at Kalsi in the North-Western part of Dehradun valley. It has two feeder streams –
the Supin River which rises from in the Northern part of the Tons catchments near
the Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh border and the Rupin River that rises from a
glacier at the head of the famous Har-Ki-Dun valley in the North-North Eastern part
of the Tons catchments. These two feeder streams merge near the mountain hamlet
of Naitwar and the channel downstream of Naitwar is known as Tons river. The river
flows along a V shaped valley. A number of settlements have come up along the
Tons River such as Tuni, Naitwar and Menus.
5.3.3 Ephemeral Water Resources Region:
A very small but covering a significant area of the state is drained by
the Ephemeral Water Resources Region in the south. This basin extends from the
ridges around Dharmpur area in Himachal and forms a part of the Solan district.
Further east it forms a part of the Markanda river catchments south of Nahan and the
Kala Amb area.
a) Kaushalya River:-It is a small spring fed tributary of the Ghaghar river. The
river rises from the southem part of Dharmpur and eastern part of the Kasauli area of
Solan district.
b) Markanda River:-The River Markanda originates from village Utamwala
south east of Nahan town and flows westward along the Shiwalik ranges to Kala
Amb in district Sirmour. At Kala Amb it leaves the hills and entres into the Indo-
Gangatic plains downstream it meets river Ghaghar in the Panjab plains.
64

Chapter-6
LAND AVAILABLE FOR WATERSHED INTERVENTIONS
As per information of Wastelands given in the Atlas Of India for the
year 2003 by National Remote Sensing Agency, Department of Space, Government
of India Balangar Hyderabad Andhra Pradesh out of total 55,67,300 hectare
geographical area of the State, 28,33,680 hectare area is Wastelands which is 50.90
% of total geographical area of the State. Similarly in Annual Seasons and Crop
Report (2003-04) issued by Director of land Record Himachal Pradesh, the total
geographical area of the State according to Surveyor General of India is 55,67,300
Hectares. In comparison of this geographical area, the total cadestrally surveyed area
by village papers in the State comes to 45, 44,156 hectares revealing thereby that 10,
23,144 hectares of area is un-surveyed and is not appearing in revenue record.
According to the information given in the above crop Report, out of total
Geographical area i.e.556730O hectare (by professional survey) an area 10,99,055
hectares is forest lands, 6,72,512 Hectare is barren and uncultureable land, 4,53,498
Hectare is Land put to non agriculture use and 15,15,011 Hectare is pasture land.
The quantum of rainfall and proper distribution are the most crucial variables
for the State like Himachal Pradesh Where the development of irrigation
infrastructures is restricted by its topography. The extent of assured irrigation is
limited and net irrigated area as per above report is 1, 05,081 Hectares which is
19.40% of net sown area. The 81% of area is still rainfed and the production of
crops depends upon the quantum of timely rainfall and its proper distribution during
the crop seasons. Thus the land must be preserved and utilized carefully to fulfill
multifarious requirements. The status of agriculture land utilization is given in table
below:
65

Table 6 – Agriculture land (‘O00 Hectares)
SN Item 2002-03
2003-04 2004-05
1. (a) Total geographical area by professional survey 5567.3
(b) Total geographical area by village papers 4543.1
2. Forests 1099.6
3. Area not available for cultivation 1125.5
4. Other uncultivated land excluding current fallows 1698.2
5. Fallow land 75.4
6. Net area sown 544.5
7. Total cropped area 945.2
8. Area sown more than once 400.7
123.9
5567.3 5567.3
4544.1
1099.1
1126.0
1705.9
72.6
540.5
955.6
415.1
105.1
4544.9
1101.1
1130.0
1695.3
74.5
542.7
953.6
410.9
104.5
9. Net irrigated area
10 Percentage of gross irrigated area to gross cropped area 19.7 19.0 —
11 Percentage of net irrigated area to net area sown. 22.8 19.4 19.3
73.6 76.8
12 Percentage of area sown more than once to net areasown. 75.7
Source:— Annual season and Crop Reports. Directorate of Land Records. l-l. P.
6.1 Irrigated area in H.P.
Whatever proportion of the operational holdings is put to cultivation, only
19.40 per cent of it is irrigated and the remaining land under cultivation has to be
dependent on the rain for irrigation (sample data). Data published by the Department
of Land Records of Himachal Pradesh shows net irrigated area as 19.40 per cent of
the net sown area which comes about 1.05 lakh hectares. The information about
source of irrigation is given in table below:
Table :6.1. (i) Agriculture Irrigated area (Haectare)
SI. No Source 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05
1. Canals 3.510 3,520 3.379
2. Tanks 267 3 28
3. Wells and Tube Wells 11,764 13.569 15,512
4. Other Sources 1,08.377 87.989 85,571
Total .. 1.23.918 1.05.081 1.04.490
Source- Annual Season and crop Reports, Directorate of Land Records, H.P.
66

The State Govemment has been implementing various major and
medium irrigation projects and efforts to add more and more culturable command
area (CCA) are on. However, actual utilization of the created CCA is a matter of
concem. The Economic Survey of Himachal Pradesh (2006-07) says that against the
total irrigation potential of 3.35 lakh hectares available in the State, 2.09 lakh
hectares of the CCA has already been created by the end of December, 2006. Thus,
there is a vast gap between the created CCA and area under effective irrigation and
there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the two so that the massive
investment already made in CCA creation is put to use and also lead to imparting
resilience to the issue of sustainability of farm based livelihoods. An important
comment on this data is that as the topography eases up and the altitude reduces, the
proportion of operational holdings being cultivated also increases. It implies a higher
intensity of land use in Valleys and Plains as compared to that in the Lower hills and
the Northern High Hills.
Table: 6.1. (ii) Irrigated land by source. (%age of total irrigated land)
Regions Canals! Kuhls Nallah Community Private ownership
(Flow Irrigation) ownership
Northern High Hills 98.46 1.54 Nil Nil
Low Hills 88.95 0.11 10.94 Nil
Valleys and Plains 93.16 Nil 6.73 0.11
Total 92.46 0.21 7.27 0.06
Source: Based on the sample data
As is evident from the table 6.l.(ii) almost all the irrigation in Northern
High Hills is done through flow irrigation as the costs of lifting water from the
nearby gorge or valley are exorbitant and does not meet the economic criteria of
evaluation of lift irrigation projects. A major proportion of the uncultivated land in
Northern High Hills is being used as orchards mainly for growing apple and stone
fruits. The proportion of cultivated land in Low Hills is large as compared to that in
Northern High Hills and is still larger in valleys and plains. A very large proportion
of the operational holdings in the Low Hills and Plains and Valleys of the State are
classified as the barren lands or Ghasni (land used for grazing or abundant in grass).
67

The climatic conditions of the valleys and the plains are conducive for growing
citrus fruits yet proportion of land as orchards is very less both in Low Hills and in
Valleys and Plains. A very large proportion of irrigation is done either through
irrigation canals or Kuhls. Most of the irrigation is done through these two sources of
flow irrigation. Community owned and private irrigation is almost missing from
Northern High Hills and the Low Hills and their presence in Valleys and Plains is
negligibly small. A huge investment is required to bring un-inrigated land under
irrigation. It, however, needs to be underlined that with the high O&M costs of
future expansion of irrigation and low cost recovery even from the earlier irrigation
assets will remain formidable constraints for a rapid expansion of irrigation facilities.
This will certainly impact the farm sector based livelihood options and strategizing
such options vis-a-vis others.
6.2 Forest Land
The information in respect of legal classification of forest has been taken from
website of forest department. The legally defined forest area is 37,03,30 Hectare, and
further breakup of classified forest lands is given in the Table below:
Table 6.2. (i)- Legal classification of forest area
S.N. Class of Forest Area in Kn/2 Area in Hect.
l Reserve Forests 1,896 l.89,60O
2 Demarcated protected forests ll,830 ll,83,000
3 Un-demarcated protected forests 21,213 21,21,000
4 Un-classed forest 977 97,700
5 Other forest (managed by forest Deptt.) 369 36,900
6 Other forests (Not managed by forest 748 74,8000
Deptt).
Total 37,033 37,03,300
Out of total legally classified forests are 37,03,300 Hectares, the district-wise
forest cover as per forest survey of India report 2005, the tree cover area is 14,36,900
68

Hectare, out of which the area under dense forest is 8,92,800 Hectare and open forest
area is 5,41,100 Hectare. The District wise break up is given in the Table below
Table: 6.2. (ii)- District Wise forest cover in Himachal Pradesh.
District Geographical Legally Tree Covered
Bilaspur
Chamba
Hamirpur
1 16700
652500
1 1 1800
Area Classified
Forest area Very Moderate Open
42800
503000
Deuce
Dense
Forest
Forest
Total
% oi
Geo.Area
1100
9300
25800
36200
31.02
43600
113100
84600
241300
37.00
21900
300
10600
13300
24200
21.65
Kangra
573900
284200
13400
125000
49500
187900
32.74
Kinnaur
640 1 00
509300
1600
32400
25 700
59700
9.33
Kullu
550300
495200
11700
129700
52700
194100
35.27
Lahl& Spiti
1384100
1013300
700
2800
15000
18500
1.34
Mandi
395100
186000
7800
92900
64400
165100
41.80
Shimla
513100
341800
19200
157600
61100
237900
46.37
Sirmour
282500
184300
5900
62800
69200
137900
48.81
Solan
193600
72800
3900
31100
47300
82300
42.51
Una
154000
48700
500
15800
35500
51800
33.64
Total
5567300
3703300
109700
783100
5441 00
1436900
25.81
As mentioned in above table the dense forest area is 8,92,800 Hectare
(1,09,70O + 7,83,l0O = 892,800 Hectare) and open forest area is 5,44,10O Hectare
which is proposed to be treated under watershed development projects.
6.3 Left out area for treatment
After excluding Net Irrigated, Dense Forest, Land put to non-Agriculture
uses. Lands treated under ongoing WD Programme and snow covered areas, the total
left out area is 3112472 hectare for treatment under Watershed Management
69

programme in all the districts of the State. The district wise information about left
out area is given in table below:
Table- 6.3: District-wise leftout area.
District
Total
(Eeograp
hical
area
Net
Irrigated
area
Snow
covered
area
Area under Area treatedl Total area Left-out area
dense forest under which will
watershed
development
Prog.by
Rural Dev.
Deptt.
not be
coveredin
Perspective
Plan
(3+4+5+ 6)
for
treatment‘
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Bilaspur
1 16700
3164
0
10400
35200
63176
53524
Chamba
65 2200
5712
5504
156700
38222
217860
434340
Hamirpur
111800
1731
0
10900
47552
78208
33592
Kan gra
57390()
35598
()
138400
38343
289743
284157
Kinnaur
640100
4487
130859
34000
40322
334270
305830
Kullu
550300
2878
0
141400
21719
172050
378250
Lah1&
Spill
1384100
3()43
415831
3500
64674
622778
761322
Mandi
395000
13774
0
100700
13588
128062
266938
Shimla
513100
2493
0
176800
25213
219463
293637
Sirmour
282500
13883
0
68700
32064
125305
157195
Solan
193600
9762
0
35000
54808
110401
83199
Una
1 5 4000
8556
0
16300
39550
93512
60488
Total
5567300
105081
552198
892800
451255
2454828
3112472
70

6.4 Proposed Area.
As is evident from the above table, total 3112472 hectare area is left out which
is proposed for treatment under Watershed Management programme in all the
districts of the State. The district Wise information about category wise proposed
area is given in table below:
Table:6.4 District wise & categorywise proposed area
S
.N. District
Open Forest Area
proposed for
treatment.
Other Rainfed / Waste lands
area proposed for treatment
(includes Agri.Land.
Pastures, Forest. community
and private areas.)
Total proposed area
for treatment.
(Colmn. 3+4)
l
1 2
Bilaspur
3
25800
4
27724
5
53524
2
Chamba
84600
349740
434340
3
Hamirpur
13300
20292
33592
4
Kan gra
49500
234657
284157
5
Kinnaur
25700
280130
305 830
6
Kullu
52700
325550
378250
7
Lah1& Spiti
15000
746322
761322
8
Mandi
64400
202538
266938
9
Shimla
61100
232537
293637
10
Sirmour
69200
87995
157195
11
Solan
47300
35899
83199
12
Una
35500
24988
60488
Total
544100
2568372
3112472
6.5 River Basin Approach:
The first step of watershed planning process is to develop water
management goals and objectives. It is, therefore, essential that Water management
planning be prepared on watershed basis following river valley approach. The
71

logical sequence of actions of river valley approach would be preparing the
watershed plan, sub- Watershed plan and then site specific plan
Integrated water management planning will involve the multi resource
thematic information on resources availability at micro watershed level will be
prepared through the process of participatory mechanism. Based on this information,
base prioritization of the watershed will be attempted and guided by the following
principles:-
i) Degradation status of micro watershed.
ii) Livelihood and socio-economic status of the inhabitants of the micro
watershed.
m) Sc/ST population.
iv) Water scarcity and drought proneness areas of watershed.
v) Contiguity with the already treated watershed areas etc.
6.6 Delineation of micro watershed:
As already mentioned in Chapter -5,the Sate of Himachal Pradesh has six
major river systems draining its territories which are mainly Satluj System,
Yamuna System, Ephermeral System, Beas Stystem, Ravi System and Chenab
System. Using the Watershed Approach as stipulated in Watershed Atlas of India on
l:l Million Scale with stream names on 1:250, 0000 scale by the All India Soil and
Landuse Survey, Department of Agriculture, GOI , the micro watersheds have been
attempted . Five stages starting with Water resources region, basin catchments, sub-
catchments watershed, sub-Watershed and micro-Watershed. Codifications of each
micro watershed have been done as per the approach suggested by All India Soil and
Land use Survey. Coding of micro watershed has been carried out starting from
downstream upstream. The Basin wise Maps in respect of all the Basins in Himachal
Pradesh are enclosed as Annexure- A to F.
6.7 Basin wise break up of proposed area:
As per basin wise position explained in chapter- 5, the proposed area falls in all the
basins. Although the detailed exercise / base line survey is required to get the
realistic figure of proposed area in each basin but this process involves more time
and as such on the basis of information collected from the field agencies the tentative
72

basin wise proposed area for treatment under watershed management projects is as
under:
i) Yamuna System:
The Yamuna System mainly confines to the major part of district Sirmaur,
parts of Shimla and Solan districts. Out of total area 6.34 lakh hectares falls under
this basin in Himachal Pradesh, an area of 3.02 lakh hectares (approximately) is
proposed for treatment under watershed management projects.
ii) Ephemeral Basin:
The area coveredunder this basin in Himachal Pradesh is very small which
falls in district Sinnour and Solan. Out of total area 0.57 lakh an area of 0.22 lakh
hectare is proposed under watershed management projects
m) Satluj System:
The Satluj System covers the majourity area of the State comprising of
districts of Kinnaur, Bilaspur, Una and parts of Shimla, Mandi, Solan, Kullu,
Hamirpur and Lahaul& Spiti. Out of total area 20.50 la.kh hectares, an area of 11.72
lakh hectares (approximately) is proposed for treatment under watershed
development projects.
iv) Beas System:
The Beas River Basin mainly covers the major part of districts Kullu,
Kangra, Mandi and Hamirpur. Out of total 13.82 lakh hectares area falls in
Himachal Pradesh, an area of 7.48 lakh hectares (approximately) is proposed for
treatment under watershed management programme.
v) Ravi System:
The Ravi Basin covers mainly the large portion of district Chamba (except
Killar area) and smaller part (Bara Bhangal area) of district Kangra. Total area under
this basin falls in the state is 5.15 lakh hectares, out of which an area 3.61 lakh is
proposed for treatment under watershed management projects.
73

vi) Chenab System:
The Keylang area of district Lahaul & Spiti and Killar area of Chamba
district falls under Chenab Basin. Total area under this basin tin Himachal Pradesh is
9.30 la.kh hectares out of which 5.08 lakh hectares (Approx.) area is proposed for
treatment under watershed management projects
The proposed area is inclusive of Pasture lands, Community lands, Private &
Forest Lands. Under Watershed Development Programmes implemented by the
Rural Development Department, an area of 4, 51,255 hectare has been treated up to
November 2008 which has not been included in the proposed plan. But due to
limited financial resources it can not be ensured that the entire project areas have
been treated for the fruitful purpose. Thus the possibilities of additions of left out
area can not be ignored in future. In Common Guidelines for Watershed
Development Projects (Para 6) it has been mentioned that “a series of evaluation
studies have been conducted by Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR)
Institutes, State Agriculture Universities (SAUs). National Remote Sensing Agency
(NRSA) etc. Besides, impact assessment studies were carried out by the Ministry of
Agriculture, Ministry of Rural Development, Planning Commission and Intemational
Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) and the technical
Committee constituted by the Department of Land Resources (DOLR). These studies
support the observation that in several watersheds, the implementation of the
programme has been effective for natural resources conservation by increasing the
productivity of land, bringing additional area under agriculture, employment
generation and social upliftment of beneficiaries living in rural areas. But these
successes have been sporadic and intermittent. The overall impact at the state and
national levels has generally inadequate. Additional demand and supply driven
socio-economic and risk managing paradigms are emerging.”
Moreover in the Wastelands Atlas of India the total Wastelands area of
Himachal Pradesh is 2833680 Hectares which is 50.90% of total geographical area.
This figure also confirm that lot of areas in the State are still required the
interventions under Watershed management. Some lands in the category of culturable
waste have neither falls in the category of Wastelands nor in cultivated lands and
these lands are also needed to be treated under Watershed projects. Thus as already
74

mentioned above the total area Which has been proposed under the Perspective Plan
is 3112472 hectare which is 56 % of total geographical area.
The major problems identified in the proposed areas are deterioration of
land due to lack of appropriate water and soil management or on account of other
natural calamities. The deforestation, unscientific agricultural practices and
overgrazing continuously are the reasons of increase wastelands day by day
adversely affecting the fertility of land. The growth of population and stressing needs
of inhabitants, the degradation of land should be prevented and the
wastelands/rainfed areas should be put in the maximum use without disturbing the
ecological balance to meet out the increasing requirement of local community.
Erratic behavior of rainfall, excessive deforestation and conservation of pasture in to
cultivation, all such denudation has resulted in disturbance of the water regime,
causing damages to the top soil and adversely affecting the productivity of land. The
rain fall during rainy season is very high and due to lack of vegetative cover the rain
water causing severe soil erosion and damages to the cultivated land. In the absence
of proper Water management, the Water flowing down from the hills simply drains
away as surface runoff and cause floods in the plains. When the rain fall is
inadequate, the upper catchments areas experience droughts in the absence of in situ
water conservation. Thus the absence of proper water management results in flood in
the down lands and drought in the uplands.
6.5 Preparation of resource information:
Resource information available within each micro watershed such as present
land use, land degradation category, soil and water availability. Socio-economic will
be prepared using the scientific methodology as well as through participatory
approach. The database available with the Remote Sensing Centre of Department of
Science, Technology and Environment has database prepared on l:50,000 scale and
the same will be utilized for evolving micro Watersheds Wise DPRs.
6.6 Preparation of Action Plan
Based on the database compiled through various modes, site specific
Action Plans will be prepared solely using the participatory approach. Prioritization
of action will be carried out taken into consideration the local needs and priorities.
75

The proposed area is required to be treated under watershed development
projects in phased manner with in a period of IO-15 years. All these lands would be
developed, but the priority would be to cover the untreated areas. The duplicity and
overlapping if come to the notice will be avoided at the time of preparation of
Detailed Project Report for sustainable development of the proposed areas, the
community action through demographic process would be ensured in all the stages of
the project, right from framing Action Plans, their execution, sharing of usufructs
and their long term sustainability. The local communities will be organized into Self
Help GroupsfUser Groups. In view of the availability of funds, the consortium
approach for strengthening of capacity building can be considered to motivate and
trained the stakeholders in relation to watershed technologies and activities. Suitable
Training Programmes, work shops, exposure visits, video shows etc. will be
organized. Other Income generating activities for increase in the economic status of
the Watershed community will be propagated and necessary financial support will be
provided from the project fund and converging the funds from ongoing other
schemes.
In the project areas, the priority of activities/Works would be linked directly
or indirectly with livelihood enhancement. The rain water harvesting with pucca
structures, irrigation, plantation of fodder, fruits plants, renovation & augmentation
of water sources, de-siltation of village tanks for drinking irrigation, repair
restoration & up gradation of existing common property assets etc. would be the
main activities in the watershed areas which would be carried out with the active
participation of the watershed community. The agro-climatic conditions of the State
are best suited for Agro Forestry and Horticulture activities and these activities
would be carried out in watershed areas including private lands. Pasture
Development by silvipastural methods including plantation of leguminous species,
nutritious grasses and other economically useful species on the village pasture will
be adopted.
76

Chapter-7
STRATEGY FOR WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT
Watershed management‘s underlying principle is that people, land, and water
are connected. People use land in a variety of ways, and affect ecosystems, and
ultimately, their own communities for better or worse. Managing and protecting the
environment while providing a high quality of life for people is a complex process
that is most successful when goveming bodies, community members and experts in
various fields are true partners in the planning process. It shall be the endeavor of the
watershed management approach to bring all these factors together to provide long-
term well being for communities by integrating people, land, and water in a
watershed area.
It is often seen that within any watershed, there are natural resources that
have both ecological and economic value. Human activities can affect those
resources, often with unintended consequences. It is therefore important to work on a
watershed approach that recognizes those consequences by seeing the entire system
in a holistic manner rather than considering each aspect independently as was the
case with watershed programmes earlier. The perspective plan aims at developing
strategies to manage resources and human activities in a coordinated way. Its focus
will be on integration of the efforts of landowners, land use agencies, water
management experts, and communities. Institutional arrangements will be put in
place in a way that these stakeholders work together to ensure proper stewardship of
our natural resources, compliance with regulation and efficient management. The
underlying purpose is to strive toward efficient, sustainable and intelligent solutions
to our Watershed issues: land use, Water supply, Water quality, storm water runoff,
water rights, air quality, planning and utilization. The watershed approach changes
this mindset to develop recognition among members of a community of the value of
their own resources, and to guide a holistic, balanced program of stewardship that
achieves community goals while complying with rules. A watershed approach
integrates biology, chemistry, hydrology, economics, and social considerations into
decision-making. It recognizes needs for water supply, water quality, flood control,
77

navigation, hydropower generation, fisheries, biodiversity, habitat preservation,
recreation, and development; and it recognizes that these needs can compete. It
establishes local priorities, accounts for state and national goals, and coordinates
public and private actions.
7.1 Philosophy
While traditional approaches are reactive, precautionary, regulatory, single-
purpose, and driven by enforcement, watershed management plan aims at making it
proactive, scientific, uses agreement-based approaches to achieve multiple benefits,
and is driven by the self-interest of stakeholders. Watershed protection measures
seek to stop or reduce pollution and prevent degradation. Measures that prevent
degradation before it occurs typically cost less than restoration measures
implemented after watersheds are impaired. When restoration is required, it is more
challenging to establish acceptable and measurable goals. This is where stakeholder
collaboration is most essential. Some will see restoration as the re-establishment of
pre-disturbance aquatic functions, but others may focus more on recreation, flood
protection, or water use efficiency. It is critically important that stakeholders work
out a balance among competing “public goods”, which no single discipline is
equipped to achieve.
In a mountainous state like Himachal Pradesh Where the vast majority of
population has been dependent on natural resources for their livelihoods,
“development” will have to be based primarily on long-term sustainable productivity
enhancement and, in the drought prone regions, on increasing the dependability of
production and, consequently, the security of livelihoods. The interconnectedness of
the biophysical and the social is intrinsic to watershed development and draws
strength from this interconnectedness. The plan sites on the principle that biophysical
and social interventions are not two separate processes, but aspects of a single
unified process and ecosystem processes and resources are basic economic resources
as well.
A review of Watershed development projects in Himachal Pradesh highlights
an immediate need to re-orient the present approach to Watershed development and
put an enabling policy framework in place to ensure that watershed development
78

programmes adequately meet the requirements of the four central concems, namely,
sustainability, livelihoods, equity, and participation/self-govemance. Previous
studies have concluded the following drawbacks in approach and implementation:
0 Problems related to lack of coordination;
0 The need to help community catchments groups mature;
1 Confusion between bottom up consultation and community participation and
top down policy and government investment;
Q The lack of integration of economic development with ecological
management;
‘ Institutional barriers to effective integration; and
‘ The effectiveness of local community institutions
Thus there is a need for a reorientation of approach to watershed development
based on the following: a sustainable productivity enhancement orientation; pro-
active measures to deal with sustainability and equity issues; preceding resource
generation with institutional arrangements to handle those resources; making
adequate technology choices; and taking dependability into account in watershed
planning.
There is also an urgent need for an enabling policy framework for collective
regulation of groundwater use and eventually moving towards Integrated Water
Resource Management. Many policies, which may not be directly related to
watershed development programs per se, also impinge on the outcomes, e.g. tourism
Hydro Power, Industry and TCP electricity tariffs, irrigation policy, agriculture
research and extension policy, fertilizer and agricultural produce pricing, and forest
policy. There is also a need to restructure the watershed development program by
increasing the watershed development allocation and period, and conduct it in
phases. The areas that need particular attention are:
(i) Hydrological: a) cross-scale and inter-scale hydrological effects (upper to valley
portions, intra- and inter-watershed relations up to basin scale); b) surface water-
groundwater interactions; c) aquifer behavior, in particular balance between shallow
and deep aquifers, their sizes, recharge rates, locations, and so on; d) net effect of
79

different soil and water conservation measures as well as afforestation and
agricultural practices on quantities like infiltration and erosion under different
geophysical conditions.
(ii) Land-Vegetation-Water interactions: a) agro ecological relationships and
impact on one another as an ecosystem; b) grazing and forest management, in
particular productivity, sustainability, and offsite effects.
(m) Socio-Economic and Institutional aspects: a) compare asset-based approaches
with income based approaches, in terms of benefits, their distribution and
sustainability; b) scope for biomass-based value addition — biomass, labour, energy,
capital and financial requirements, and identification of possible bottlenecks; c)
scope of watershed and NRM-based development in different regions, limits, and
implications, especially in resource poor areas; d) indigenous knowledge, its scope,
and issues in its interface with modem knowledge; e) role of CVOs and SHGs in
improving participation and sustaining benefits beyond project period; f) ways of
better addressing the problem of local heterogeneity by equitable and sustainable
reconciliation of interests and conflict resolution; g) social and institutional
mechanisms and capability building for incorporating rigorous participatory
grassroots benchmarking, monitoring, and assessment in watershed based
development programs.
7.2. Approach for Watershed management
Based on the experiences of implementation of watershed management
project in the State and elsewhere in India, the new plan proposes to use watershed
development as an opportunity to combine an integrate water conservation with
livelihood concerns. Enhancing sustainable livelihood options of the people shall be
the key objective in Watershed Management activities. The goal of watershed
development would be sustainable productivity enhancement and consequent
increased livelihood option for the local community. As opposed to the traditional
water conservation approach which focused on minimization of run-off as a unilinear
strategy, the new approach will aim at productivity oriented hydrological planning
approach that maximizes agriculture and other bio-mass production within the limits
80

of Water availability and promotes agronomic practices with sustainability and equity
as the key concemed.
The following aspects will constitute the key elements of the approach
followed for watershed development in Himachal Pradesh:
(i) Interconnectedness of the bio-physical and the social aspects.
(ii) Fulfilling livelihood needs.
(m) Sustainability.
(iv) Equity.
(v) Participation.
Interconnectedness of the bio-physical and the social aspects.
The proposed watershed development plan will keep the element of
interconnectedness of bio-physical and the social aspects as intrinsic to the
very concept of watershed development. The underlying philosophy will be
that reads watershed as a bio-physical entity in an eco system comprising of
all bio-physical processes within the watershed and their interaction with
larger systems. Bio-physical and Social interventions are actually not two
separate processes but aspects of the same unified process. What appears as a
soil erosion in the case of bio physical process would appear as inability to
meet food needs in the social aspects due to reduced farm productivity.
Likewise, purchase of fertilizer may be an aspect of bio physical intervention
but the resultant pollution would be the social implication of the same. The
strategy proposed to be adopted under the perspective plan would therefore
keep this bio physical and social aspect in view in deciding technological
interventions.
(11) Fulfilling Livelihood needs
A Livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets and activities required
for a means of living. A livelihood is sustainable when it can cope with and
recover from stresses and shocks and maintain or enhance its capabilities and
assets both now and in the future, while not undermining the natural resource
base. The interventions would be so designed that result in fulfilling
minimum livelihood needs consisting of domestic water (including drinking
water and water for livestock), food, fuel, fodder, some bio mass in put to the
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V)
agricultural system to maintain soil productivity and other goods and services
that may have to be obtained from the larger system, for example, health and
education.
(m) Sustainability
Maintaining and enhancing the products and assimilative (as sinks)
potential of the local eco systems would be the objectives to be achieved
through using water within renew ability limits, using common property
resources (for example, forest and forest produces) within renew ability
limits, enhancing and sustaining the productivity of crop land uncultivated
land and enhancing dependability of availability of resources, for instance,
water.
(iv) Equity
The fulfillment of livelihood needs depends crucially on who has access
to how much and what kind of productive resources thereby bringing the
element of equity to the watershed management. The equity may have several
dimensions including intra generation distribution of human well being
across barriers of class, ethnicity and gender. Concerns about special or
locational inequality in the level of development require distributing fruits of
development equally in different regions. In the context of water availability
inter-sectoral equity also becomes relevant. Often, the prioritization of water
availability follows the following sequence namely; drinking water: water for
domestic use and for cattle: water required for eco system regeneration and
for livelihood activities: and surplus/extra water that could be used for cash
or commercial crops. The impact of watershed development on all the
dimensions of equity will be an important evaluating criterion of success of
the programme.
Participation
The approach followed in watershed development will see participation as a
goal of a developmental (decentralized) process in that it helps communities
make informed choice and also as a mean of more equitable, sustainable and
efficient outcome. The emphasis will be on creation or enhancement of
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genuine participated democracy at the grass roots. Participation is seen as a
means to enable the local community to make informed choices and ensuring
more equitable, sustainable and efficient outcomes. However, it is important
to view critically the constituents of local community that are engaged in the
decision making process. General expectations are that homogenous societies
would respond very differently to opportunities of participation available
within the framework of watershed programmes as compared to
heterogeneous societies. Since, in their current form, the Watershed
Development Programmes necessarily require partnership in some form with
outside agencies (governmental and non- governmental organizations,
international donors, etc.), the nature of this collaboration is bound to affect
the efficiency of the participatory communities within the watersheds. In this
context, the increased importance of the institutions of local self government
Panchayats as brought about by the Hariyali Guidelines and further refined
under common guidelines is expected to change somewhat the participatory
dynamics.
7.3. Strategy
(a) Integrated Watershed Management
Watershed Management has evolved and passed through several
developmental stages. In the initial stages, it was confined to soil conservation
mainly handled through Agriculture and Forest Departments with little or no
involvement of people. During the second stage, it became land resource
management related, including activities with an eye on economic benefits. At this
stage, the focus was on beneficiaries. Under the proposed perspective plan, it is
intended to be made participatory and integrated watershed management with
involvement and contribution from local people. The emphasis will be on making
watershed natural source management as a part of local socio economic
developmental processes. The detailed project report will incorporate ways of
integrating natural resource management with socio economic development,
sustainable livelihood and poverty alleviation. Special attention will be given to
strengthening the capacity of local actors to manage the three main components of
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watershed management namely land management, water management and biomass
management will be kept in focus.
The land management will incorporate major land characteristics like terrain,
slope, formation, depth, texture, moisture, and infiltration rate and soil capability of
the proposed project area. Necessary interventions of different kind like structure
measures, vegetative measures, production measures and protection measures will be
taken depending upon the sight requirement. Structural measures will include
interventions like contours bunds, stone bunds, urban bunds, compartmental bunds,
contours terrace walls, stream bank stabilizing, contour trenches, bench terracing and
check dams etc. Where watershed contain natural ecosystem like grass land, wet
lands, mangroves, marshes, water body, appropriate vegetative measures will be
planed to provide vegetative cover, hedges, grass land management, and agro
forestry etc. Linkage of watershed activities with appropriate agricultural practices
is an important dimension of the watershed management. The DPR prepared for
various sites will include appropriate production measures to improve farm
productivity like mixed cropping, crop rotation, cultivation of shrubs and herbs, use
of improved variety of seeds, cash crop cultivation and horticultural plantation.
Wherever needed, protective measures like land slide control, gulli plugging, run of
collection etc. will also be suggested. Adoption of all the above interventions aimed
at land management will be done in accordance with the characteristics of the land
taken for management.
Economic use of water and avoidance of affluence in use of water at
individual and community levels will be a major concern for water management
under this perspective plan. Water characteristics like inflows (specification, surface
water inflow, ground water inflow) water use (evaporation, evapotranspiration,
irrigation, drinking water) out flows (surface water out flow, ground water out flow)
storage (surface storage, ground water storage, root zone storage) are the principle
factors to be taken care of in sustainable water management. The broad intervention
for water management to be planned under the detailed project reports to be prepared
for each site shall be rain water harvesting, ground water recharge, maintenance of
water balance, preventing water pollution and economic use of water. Rain water
harvesting forms the major component of water management. The rain water
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collected can be recharged into the ground. Roof top water harvesting, diversion of
peremmial springs and streams into storage structures, farm ponds etc. will also be
used for rain water harvesting. Along site, water harvesting, appropriate measures
will be planned to ensure economic use of water. One such most effective measure is
often the introduction of user charges for water usage to recover operating cost and
at the same time introduce behavioral change among the water users by
incorporating cost of water in their usage decision.
Under the integrated watershed management, along site land and water
management, bio-mass management is an important area of concern. Under the
traditional approached followed so far in Himachal Pradesh, no efforts have been
made to establish clear cut linkage between land management, water management
and the bio-mass management. Resultantly the water management structures have
often ended up as stand alone intervention in any area without a clear linkage
without a clear forward and backward linkage in terms of land management and in
terms of bio-mass management. Both land management and a bio-mass management
outcome in fact becomes the key indicator of the watershed management
performance in any area. Appropriate biomass intervention namely eco preservation,
biomass regeneration, forest management and conservation and plant protection and
social forestry will be planned for each area.
(b) Participatory Watershed Development and Management
People participation and collective action are critical ingredients for
watershed management. The perspective plan aims at achieving the three core
elements of participatory watershed management namely sustainability, equity and
participation. Watershed level interventions have the potential of enabling
technological intervention to work better from both technical and social stand point,
given the strong interaction between different stake holders in the watershed
community. However, key challenges of ensuring appropriate and effective
participation are confronted in terms of ensuring equity in such negotiated outcomes
by making a move away from interest based to more equitable decision making. The
watershed action plans will be prepared at the grass root level i.e. by the Gram Sabha
with diverse users and with different priority and the levels of influence. Decision
making at the watershed level will only be done after watershed units have elected
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representatives and established a frame work for more Wide spread feed back and
validation. For this to be effective performance criteria for elected representatives
would be established prior to the identification of individual to avoid the tendency to
reflect existing power dynamics rather than robust leadership criteria. The second
strategy to be followed in this case would be greater devolution of decision making
and management within the watershed and moving to higher levels of negotiation
only in those case where absolutely necessary.
The second consideration when seeking effective participation in watershed
management is often the issue of developing a general watershed action plan versus
plan around specific issues. While the former enables an integrated approach to
planning, the latter is more suited to an emphasis on stake holder equity. This
involves the identification of sta_ke holders specific to each issue, followed by multi
stake holder’s negotiation at village or Watershed level. A stake holder approach
minimizes involvement to only those who have a direct stake in the issue at hand,
and lends itself more easily to effective representation since for any given issue the
individuals directly involved in negotiation will hold views that approximate those or
their constituents. The main objective of this component is to facilitate a
participatory process at the village level to establish Watershed Committees and
develop proposals within a budget envelope provided to each GP and then to enable
implementation of these plans through the GPs. The participatory decision-making
process, including all stakeholders in the village is critical to the implementation and
shall be achieved through the following sub components:
(i) Promotion of social mobilization and community driven decision
making
Key activities under this sub-component would include: (i) facilitation of
participatory watershed and development planning processes at the village level
with the involvement of all stakeholders and, using a budget envelope as the basis
(ii) identification of specific interventions for treatment of the Watershed on arable
and non-arable lands (m) identification of the vulnerable sections o f the village (iv)
integration of proposals into GPWDPs (v) identification of inter-GP areas and
planning for treatment of such areas by the Panchayats.
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(ii) Watershed treatments and village development
Communities at the village level will prioritize (with the help o f the ESMF),
implement, operate and maintain village development and watershed investments as
articulated in GPWDPs. However, all works will be implemented by GPs.
Communities will prioritize and implement sub-projects for soil conservation on
arable lands (e.g. bunds, vegetative barriers, ago-forestry, etc.); development of non-
arable communal and government lands (e.g. forest regeneration, pasture
development, silvi-pasture development, soil erosion bunds, vegetative barriers,
etc.); and, activities other than watershed-treatment related (e.g. upgrading of link
roads, bridle paths/mule tracks, potable water supply, etc.). Communities will be
required to contribute toward the costs of each sub-project and undertake to operate
and maintain the investments.
(c ) Enhancing Livelihood Opportunities
(i) Farming systems improvement
This sub-component will draw on the lessons o f both the IWDP and the DPAP.
It will focus on: (i) disseminate technologies and provide advisory services; (ii)
produce and distribute quality seeds and seedlings; and (m) establish linkages
between farmers and suppliers for processing and marketing of high value crops.
Farmers will be directly involved in identifying problems, establishing priorities,
and on-farm testing of technologies to enhance productivity. The major emphasis
will be the introduction o f off- season vegetables and high value crops. In order
to cover a part of the risk, the project will support all the inputs (seed seedlings,
bio-agents and bio-fertilizers) of the sub-projects, with the condition that the
land, labour, irrigation and farm yard manure will be provided by farmers. In
order to facilitate the production of marketable produce, the plan undertake
programs that demonstrate improvements in the productivity of crops already
cultivated in the area and the introduction of new high value crops (new varieties
of off-season vegetables, fruit crops, medicinal and aromatic plants will be
introduced based on agro-climatic factors, demand and assured market). Training
will also be provided in application of new technologies; training of para vets
and storage techniques etc.
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(ii) Value addition and marketing support
One of the often lacking areas in all farms related developmental programs is
absence of processing and marketing facilities. The experience of the State in
introduction of cash crops and Horticultural produce has been that in the absence
of such facilities either the farmers switch back to their traditional crops or put up
a pressure on the Government to purchase their produce through market
intervention mechanisms. Such an arrangement is not sustainable in the long run
especially with the resource crunch faced by the Governments at all levels, the
plan will support increased private sector involvement and public private
partnerships in agribusiness development. The project will establish an
agribusiness pilot that will be used to fund consultancies, studies and investments
that would: (i) identify potential rich market opportunities; (ii) establish links
with private sector entrepreneurs who could help in exploiting the market
potential; (m) disseminate appropriate information and technology to farmers to
help them to enter into production; (iv) co-finance sub-projects with private
sector entrepreneurs (on a one-time subsidy basis) for storage, processing and or
marketing infrastructure needed to exploit the market potential. This fund would
be administered in consultation with the GPs and communities and would
complement the needs identified during the village level planning process.
(m) Income generating activities for vulnerable group
This is designed to finance small income generating micro-enterprises for
vulnerable groups (women and landless), which will promote the project’s
objective o f equity and sustainable NRM. These SHGs would be identified
during the Watershed planning process. Training will be provided to vulnerable
groups to encourage their entrepreneurial development. The Income Generating
Activity proposals will be developed after the implementation 0 f the
Entrepreneurial Development Program (EDP) and the GPWDP will only reflect
the overall envelope and the target groups. The funds will be disbursed through
the GPs to the SHGs, who will manage them. Final criteria to prioritize proposals
for the SHGs funding will be developed. The funds will be disbursed in two
installments based on the implementation performance of the SHGs who are
managing the income generating activities.
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(d) Institutional Strengthening
i) Capacity building of Gram Panchayats and local community institutions:
Under this sub-component, the core administrative capacity of GPs in
planning, budgeting, financial management, implementation and reporting would be
strengthened. Capacity will also be built in other tiers of PRIs (block and district) as
needed to ensure efficient and effective functioning o f the project. However, the
initial capacity building strategy for the project will be focused on GPs and will
include programs for GP elected officials, community representatives, SHGs, NGOS
and the Watershed staff involved in project related activities. The capacity building
strategy focuses on: (i) enhancing technical skills in Watershed management; (ii)
improving level of information at the community level on the project and other
relevant issues; (m) training all stakeholders in applying the technologies; and, (iv)
institutionalizing a performance appraisal and reward system for the GPs and WMD
staff in the project. The Coordinator for Human Resource Development and Capacity
Building in the Directorate of Rural Development will he responsible for
implementing training and capacity building strategy in collaboration with other line
departments and training institutes. An Incentive Fund administered by the
Department for Rural Development and Panchayats, will be established to reward
better performing GPs based on clear objective criteria and thereby encourage
behavioral change.
(ii) Information, Education and Communication
This sub-component is designed to implement a strategy that identifies
specific audiences and develops targeted messages to increase general awareness
about the project, terms o f participation and overall transparency. The strategy
would target the general public and the state’s political establishment; staff who
would be implementing the project, NGOs, GPs, and, communities. The media
would include traditional folk theatre and dance, print media and audio-visual. The
Communications coordinator at the district would be responsible for the
implementation of this strategy.
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(m)Project coordination, monitoring and management:
This will finance organizational change management initiatives to realign the
WMD to the new implementation arrangements and the increased role o f GPs.
Under project monitoring, links would be developed between the MIS, GIS and
impact evaluation. Participatory monitoring of the project activities by the
communities would be introduced in addition to the tracking of physical and
financial milestones. This sub-component will also finance construction of office
and/or residential quarters for DPDs and MDTs if it is not possible to rent
appropriate office and/or residential space in nearby towns. Finally, the sub-
component will finance incremental operating costs of the project office.
(e) Monitoring and Evaluation
An effective monitoring and evaluation strategy needed to capture trends in benefits
capture and other social impact as they emerge. Without such monitoring systems in
place that make the distribution of benefits and social impacts explicit, it is likely
that current intervention cause problems for certain social groups and further existing
inequalities. Continuous monitoring also enables continuous (re-) planning; a pre-
requisite to adaptive management in that reality encountered during implementation
do not always reflect best approaches as prescribed early in the planning process and
therefore, require continuous adaptation. Appropriate socio culture, economic and
environmental indicators will be developed in each DPR with a definite time frame
to measure performance the socio culture indicators under the following heads will
be specially developed to ensure participation and equity:
0 Decision making power of the community;
‘ Empowerment of women;
‘ Formation of farmer groups/self help groups;
0 Change in ownership of land;
I Improvement in quality of life;
1 Harmonious social life.
The economic indicators would include factors required for livelihood and
economic well being of the people consisting of:
‘ Increase in income level;
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0 Availability of food and food security;
0 Improvement in the standard of living;
0 Off-farm income to family;
Q Improvement in rural economy;
Q Improvement and credit and market supports.
Environmental indicators would include tangible and non tangible factors
influencing the ecology of the community, for example, increase in productive
potential of source base, management of common property resources and
improvement in bio-diversity.
(f) Convergence
One of the important components of integrated watershed management is main
streaming the watershed planning and management by developing appropriate
interface with other ongoing developmental programmes. The possibilities of
identifying and deriving support from other line departments can be subdivided into
the following categories:
a. Infrastructure Development;
b. Productivity Enhancement;
c. Off Farm Initiative;
d. Livelihood Support;
e. Weaker Sections Support;
f. Quality of Life.
g. Capacity Building.
(i) Infrastructure Development
Among the major infrastructure activities that will be taken up within the
watershed areas are Construction of Roads and Provision of Irrigation Facilities.
Among the schemes that are currently handled by various departments and could be
tapped for supplementing resources are:
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Table-7.3. (i) . Infrastructure convergence frame Work
Sr.No. Activity Name of the Scheme Nodle Department
1. PMGSY PWD
Road CMGSY Planning
NREGA RD
2. Water Supply AWRSP IPH
3, [Employment generation NREGA RD
4. Irrigation Medium Irrigation, Flood
Protection, Lift Irrigation Scheme
Irrigation and Public
Health Department(IPI-I)
5, Marketing
Infrastructure
Vikas Mein Jan Sahyog Planning
SGSY RD
Local District Planning Planning
(ii) Productivity Enhancement
Majors aimed at productivity enhancement Will require interventions in the
form of soil conservation, soil quality improvement, improved seeds and fertilizers,
Farm technology equipments, changes in cropping pattem and multiple cropping etc.
Some of the existing schemes of the various departments are:
Table-7.3. (ii)- Schemes for productivity enhancement
1″
Z
9
Activity | Name of the Scheme Nodal Department
istribution of improved seeds Agriculture inputs Agriculture
U
Fertilizer Agriculture inputs Agriculture
!‘-’
Insecticide and Pesticide Agriculture inputs Agriculture/Horticulture
E”
4. Poly Houses Horticulture Technology Horticulture
Mission (HTM)
(m) Non-farm Initiative
One of the major causes of natural resources degradation is excessive
dependence on land and natural resources. Therefore, development of non-farm
sector activities is crucial to a sound natural resource management strategy. Among
the activities that could be started are:
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Table-7.3.(m)-Schemes for non-farm initiative
Sr. N0. Activity
Name of the Scheme
Nodal Department
l. Micro and Small
Enterprises
i)Rural Industrial Programm(RIP).
Rural Artisan Programme(RAP)/
ii)Prime Minister Employment
Generation Programme(PMEGP)/
m) Self Employment Scheme, Him
Swablambhan Yojana (HSY),
Laghu Vikray Kendre Yojana,
Interest free loan Scheme.
iv) Loan to OBC people on lower
interest (6%)
Industries
KBIB
SC/ST Corporation
Backward Classes
Corporation
2. Rural Tourism and
Home Stay Scheme
Tourism
Hospitality related
enterprises
(g) Livelihood Support
The average size of land holding is low especially in high hills of the State.
Terrace farming is widely practiced. Due to difficult terrain, road connectivity is not
always good and health infrastructure is poor. Drinking water and electricity
facilities are available to the majority of households. There are high dependents on
forests property and water resources. The best terms in this zone come from fruits, at
an average return of nearly Rs. 75000/- per ha. However marginal farmers depending
on subsistence agriculture produce at least four-five months a year. The food
insecure months are from January to April, September and October. The poor people
supplement their income from wage labour in mining, other labour Work under any
scheme of the State Government /GOI, in their adjoining local areas. Some villagers
are also supplementing their income by selling their livestock’s and their produce
such as of Goats, Sheep and wool, milk etc. Diary products consumption is less due
to low productivity of milk from local breed milch cattle’s.
On the whole, there is a dominance of marginal farmers who face several
problems including lack of irrigation, poor quality lands, fragmentation, Weather
shocks and in many remote locations poor access to state and marketing
infrastructure.
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The separate provision of funds to cover livelihood components to generate
extra income of the poor inhabitants in the rural area has been made in the common
guidelines for watershed development projects. However the state government is
committed to enhance the livelihoods opportunities in the rural area of the State by
providing sufficient water potential and other avenues in the field of horticulture,
forestry, Mushroom cultivation, sericulture, animal husbandry etc.
In the implementation of Watershed development projects the priority
would be the harvesting of rain water with active participation of village
communities. By creating irrigation potential, the coordination between the line
departments Who are associated with agriculture and allied activities will be ensured
to provide the latest technology and other available benefits to the watershed
community. Presently some schemes for the benefit of individual farmers in the field
of Agriculture, Horticulture Technology Mission, and NREGA etc are being
implemented in rural areas of the State. The other benefits for forward- backward
linkages to the rural families will be provided out of watershed funds for upliftment
of their socio-economic conditions. The assistance for poor people would be
provided not only in Agriculture and allied sectors, but due consideration would be
given to village and cottage industries, and small scale business activities. The
possibilities of marketing potential will be explored and the watershed community
will be motivated for growing of marketing based produce to get maximum
benefit.
(i) Weaker Sections Support
Particular attention needs to be given true address the problem of weaker sections of
the society namely SC/ST, Backward Classes, Women, BPL families and land less
households. The main departments catering to these categories under the existing
schemes are Welfare Department, Rural Development Department, Education and
Food Supplies Department. Among the schemes operated by these are:
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Table-7.3.(g).(i)- Weaker section support
Sr. Activity Name of the Scheme Nodal Department
No. ‘
RD and Welfare
Department
IAY/AAY and Housing Scheme for
SC/STs for the Welfare Department
l. Construction of Houses
SGSY RD
2. ‘ SelfEmployment I
Free text books, scholarship scheme for Education Department
different categories of students, Mid-day
Meal Scheme, Computer Literacy.
3. Education and Trainee
Moduler Employable Scheme, Training TeChniCalEdu‘:ali°“
under different trades through ITI
(ii) Quality of Life
Improvement in Socio-economic indicator which is an important factor for
performance under integrated watershed management could only be achieved if the
activities contributing to improvement in quality of life could be integrated with the
watershed development plan. Among the main activities under this section would be:
Table-7.3. (g). (ii)- Schemes for improving quality of life
Sr. No. Activity Name of the Scheme Nodal Department
Maternal and Child Health ICDS Welfare
Preventive Health NRHM Health
F‘-’
Sanitation TSC RD
P’
Education SSA Secondary Education
P
(m) Capacity Building
Table-7.3. (g). (m)- Capacity building schemes
‘ Sr. No. ‘ Activity ‘ Name of the Scheme Nodal Department
l. skill up gradation SGSY RD
‘ 2. [Entrepreneurial Development Programmes ‘ EDP Training ‘ Industry & Tourism
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Chapter -8
INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
The institutional model and implementation arrangements have been
developed to ensure the achievement of the project objectives in efficient and
effective way. In view of common guidelines for watershed development projects the
institutional arrangements at State; District, PIA and Panchayat level have been
designed.
8.1 State Level Nodal Agency (SLNA)
In pursuance to para 28 of the common guidelines for Watershed
Development Projects-2008, a dedicated State level Nodal Agency (SLNA) has been
constituted under the chairmanship of Chief Secretary to the Government of
Himachal Pradesh. A copy of notification is enclosed as Annexure-I
(a) Responsibilities and Role of State Level Nodal Agency
‘ To coordinate Planning, review and facilitate the implementation and
evaluate the progress of watershed development programme.
Q Support policy and institution development to harmonize watershed
development and natural resource management with the best practice.
0 Consider and approve the Project Proposal.
‘ Add and to amend the rules of State level Watershed Development Cell.
0 Secure effective coordination between different departments and other
0 Government]Government added Institutions for the benefit of achievements
of the objective to the society.
0 Preparation of perspective and strategic plan under Watershed Development
Programme on the basis of Plans prepared at the District level.
¢ Preparation of State specific process guidelines.
¢ Approve and finalized the list of independent Institutions for strengthen
capacity building at various level.
0 Approve Project Implementing Agency.
‘ Regular review of the on line monitoring system of the Department
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¢ Constitute and approved a panel of Independent Institutional Evaluators for
Watershed Projects in the State.
0 Perform such other functions as are entrusted to it under the guidelines.
I Under the over all control of SLNA the Department is proposed to constitute
State level Watershed Development Cell and State level Data Cell.
(b) State Level Monitoring/Evaluation Cell
As per para 26 & Z7 of common guidelines for Watershed Development Project a
team of 4 to 7 professionals from disciplines like agriculture, water management,
capacity building social mobilization, economic information technology,
administration , and finance and accounts will be engaged to assist the State Level
Nodal Agency. Requisite number of administrative staff will support this team of
experts. The numbers of officers/officials to be engaged will be decided in view of
the admissibility of the funds. Apart from above a State level data centre will be
created for technical support to district watershed development units all over the
State and to ensure the regular and quality on line monitoring of watershed projects.
The State Level Data Centre will be connected on line with National Level Data
Centre.
(c) Role and Responsibility of State level Monitoring and Evaluation Cell
‘ Prepare a perspective and strategic plan of Watershed Development of the
State and got approved in the meeting SLNA.
¢ Implementation of the project activities in true spirits primarily through the
Watershed Development Committees in conformity with development plan
and objective of the project.
0 Mobilization of the community of the selected watershed /Panchayat of the
catchments to participate in planning and implementation of the programmes
‘ To built the capacity of the staff on technical, financial, administrative and
managerial aspect of the programme through meeting, Workshop, training
and exposure visits at various level
Q Monitoring and review the programme on fortnightly basis and submission
of reports to the concerned quarters.
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¢ Ensure regular and quality on line monitoring of watershed project in the
State.
0 Provide guidance and support to Watershed Development Team and
Executive Agencies in Planning, technical aspects, financial aspects and
decision making process.
I Plan development and to implement livelihood plans at various watersheds of
the catchments through watershed development team.
Q Ensure proper financial managements system.
0 Approve a list of independent institutions for capacity building at various
levels within the State as well as outside the State.
‘ Constitute a panel of independent institutional Evaluator for Watershed after
concurrence and approval of Central Nodal Agency.
Q Consider and approve the projects as well as Annual Work Plan of the
programme.
0 Formation and strengthening of the existing and new community based
organization.
I Other important issues such as Vidhan Sabha matters, Audit and other
general correspondence with the GOI and different offices at State,
District and Block Levels.
8.2 District Watershed Development Unit (DWDU) at District Level
Presently the Watershed Development Programmes at District level are being
implemented through the DRDAs with the involvement of Panchayati Raj
Institutions and local communities. As per common guidelines for Watershed
Development Projects a dedicated District Watershed Development Unit (DWDU)
are proposed to be constituted in all the districts where the area of the District to be
covered under the Watershed Development Project is about 25000 Hector or above.
The officers/officials in the unit will be taken up either on deputation from line
departments of the State or recruited from open market on contract basis only after
keeping in view the qualification and expertise in related fields. The number of
officers/officials to be engaged will be decided as per admissibility of funds under
the programme.
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Role and Responsibility of DWDU/DRDA
0 Identify Project Implementing Agencies (PRIs) in consultation with
SLNA.
¢ Take up the overall responsibility of facilitating the preparation of
strategic and annual action plan.
‘ Providing professional technical support to project implementing
agencies in planning and execution of the watershed development
projects.
I Develop action plans for capacity building with close involvement of
resources organizations to execute the capacity building.
‘ Carry out regular monitoring evaluation and learning.
0 Ensure smooth flow of funds to watershed development projects.
0 Ensure timely submission of required documents to SLNA/ Nodal
Agency of the department at centre level.
¢ Facilitate coordination with relevant programmes of agriculture,
horticulture, rural development, animal husbandry etc. with Watershed
development project for enhancement of productivity and livelihood.
0 Integrate Watershed development project] plans into district plan of the
district planning committees.
I Establish and maintain the district level data cell and link it to the state
level and National Level Data Centre.
8.3 Project Implementing Agency (PIA)
The implementation of Watershed projects in different districts will be done
through the Programme Implementing Agencies (PIAs). As per common guidelines,
these PIAs may include relevant line departments, autonomous organization under
State/Central Govemment, Panchayat Samiti, Voluntary Organizations (VOs).
However, the selection of PIAs will be prefer on the basis of prior experience in
Watershed related aspects or management of watershed development and they should
be prepare to constitute dedicated Watershed Development Team. (WDT). In view
of common guidelines the PIAs would be decided by the State Level Nodal Agency
on the recommendation of District Watershed Development Unit.
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Role and Responsibility of PIAs
I Providing necessary technical guidance to the executing agency for
development plan through participatory rural appraisal (PRA)
exercrse.
I Preparation of Micro planning and detailed project report.
‘ Conducting the participatory base line survey and Capacity building
arrangement of village communities, Panchayats through meetings,
workshops, training, and exposure visits etc.
‘ Preparation of Action Plan for Watershed Development Programme.
‘ Convergence and networking with respective line department.
‘ Responsibility for planning and designing the implementation
strategy for enhancing livelihood sub component of the project.
‘ Guidance to the Watershed Development Committee in the formation
of the Watershed Action Plan.
‘ Formation of user groups and Self Help Groups.
‘ Coordinate and monitoring the implementation of the programme.
I Maintenance of project accounts.
0 Ensure the post project maintenance and sustainability of the assets
created under the project.
8.4 Watershed Development Team
After sanction of projects, the Watershed Development Team (WDT) will be
constituted at PlAs level from the field of Agriculture, Horticulture, Social Science,
Water Management, and Animal Husbandry Forestry etc. having professional
qualification and sufficient expertise. It would be ensured that at least one women be
selected as WDT member as per provision of guidelines. The role of the WDT
members would be to guide the Watershed Committees in the formation of Action
Plan, Preparation of Detailed Project Report, to provide technical assistance in the
execution of Works etc. The expenses towards the salaries of the WDT members
would be charged from the 10 % Administrative Cost admissible in the guidelines.
The training to the WDT members will be provided by the District Watershed
Development Units (DWDU) /DRDAs.
9
8.5 Institutional Arrangements at the Village Level and Peoples
Participation.
It will be the efforts of the department to implement the watershed
development Projects with active participation of local people. The Self Help Groups
(SHG) and User Groups (UGs) of local communities dependent on area would be
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formed and assisted under livelihood activities. User Groups of the beneficiaries
would be constituted, those having land holding in the watershed area and will drive
direct benefit from the activity/work. These User Groups will be responsible for
operation and maintenance of all the assets created under the project.
(a) Watershed Committee
At the village level the Gram Sabha will constitute the watershed committee
comprising of at least 10 members from SHGS, UGs, Weaker sections of the village
etc. to implement the Watershed Projects with the technical supports of the WDT at
the grass root level. The Watershed Committee would be registered under the
Society Registration Act-1960. Where watershed projects cover more than one Gram
Panchayat, separate committee will be constituted for each Gram Panchayat. The
Gram Sabha will appoint any suitable persons from the village as the Chairman of
Watershed Committee. The Secretary of Watershed Committee will be a
independent paid functionary of the Watershed Committee and salary of the
Secretary will be charged from the administrative expenses.
(b) Role and Responsibility
0 Ensure quality works and implementation of the programme as per work plan.
0 Ensure proper maintenance of records of project activities and
Watershed Development funds.
¢ Convening meetings of Gram Sabha, Gram Panchayat Watershed
Committee for facilitating the decision making process of the
Programme.
0 Taking follow up action on all decision.
0 Ensuring payments and other financial transaction.
Q Maintenance and sustainability of assets created after completion of the
projects.
(c) Role of Gram Panchayat
The Gram Panchayat would have to perform the important role in the
implementation of projects and execution of the activities. The main function of the
Gram Panchayat will be to facilitate the convergence of various projects/schemes
besides supervise, support and advise the watershed committee and authenticate the
accounts/expenditure statement etc.
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Chapter 9
PROPOSED PLAN
As per provisions of the common Guidelines for watershed Development Projects,
the proposed area will be treated according to the funds provisions made by the
Government of India. The administrative expenditure such as salary/ honorarium to
the staff engaged in the implementation of Projects, contingencies and other
expenses of stationary, IEC activities etc. would be meet out from the provisions of
Administrative Head.
9.1 Monitoring and Evaluation
Monitoring is one of the most important components of the Watershed Development
Programme. The Department is of the view that independent dedicated Monitoring
Cell be include Within its purview that will handle all aspect of monitoring project
across the State. Its functions will include developing a Management Information
System on the basic data of the projects, canying out physical monitoring of the
project besides financial and social audits. The Perspective Plan is based on the
Watershed approach and hence the key focus of the project will be on the building
capacities of the people and the project organizations to achieve a truly demand
driven approach. This implies that the project has to adopt a flexible strategy to be
able to be responsive to the change.
The Project will support an integrated information management, monitoring and
learning system for assisting in effective implementation, facilitating inter-sectoral
coordination, and mainstreaming knowledge management. The objective of
monitoring , evaluation and leaming system is to (i) provide regular and timely
feedback to the project management and other stakeholders on the quality and pace
of project implementation; (ii) regularly assess outcomes and impact of the project
vis-a-vis the objective (m) facilitate inter-sectoral coordination and mainstreaming of
knowledge management ; (iv) provide effective use of leaming forum at various
levels to review project performance; and (v) facilitate appropriate and timely
decisions.
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9.1.1. Monitoring and Evaluation System.
The Monitoring and Evaluation system shall have five distinct components,
namely
‘ Baseline study- for assessing the pre-project conditions.
‘ Performance monitoring- Management Information System based input
system to track the progress and performance on a periodic basis.
¢ Institutional Performance monit0ring- Internal and External process
monitoring to track the processes (to provide leads and direction on the
progress towards the achievement of the various end results of the project
component) and Comprehensive group, self-monitoring system for tracking
institutional development at community based organizations.
Q Internal Learning- Internal management review and learning system
(monthly) review the implementation and monthly reporting by the project staff
at various level particularly at district, block and village level).
I Evaluati0n- External impact evaluation involving mid-term review and
impact assessment (by independent agency). Each evaluation will include physical,
financial and social audit of the work done and to assess the status of Watershed
related intervention as per procedure of new guidelines. The department has already
started the process to constitute the panel of reputed institutes/organizations having
sufficient expertise and infrastructure for National panel of evaluating agency as well
as for empanelment as evaluator for watershed development programme of the
State. The panel of such institutes/organization will be forwarded to the Ministry
after approval and concurrence of the State Level Nodal Agency.
Similarly the evaluation and impact studies will be carried out to ensure the quality
and benefit from the interventions carried out in Project areas. The Evaluation would be
carried through independent agencies approved by the State Level Nodal Agency and
Departmental Nodal Agency at Central Level. The Physical, Financial and Social Audit of
work done would be ensured under each evaluation. The concurrent and Post Project
Evaluation would be conducted to assess the Status of watershed related interventions. The
expenditure under this head will be restricted as per admissibility in the guidelines.
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9.2 Entry Point Activities:-
Under Entry point activities the priority would be to ensure the sufficient
water availability to the local community by revival of traditional water sources.
Repair, restoration and up gradation of existing common property assets like
bowries, tanks, well, pullies, community buildings etc. would be taken up. The
village level institutions such as watershed committees, self help groups and user
groups will be strengthen under this head. All such type of activities which will help
community participation in watershed development programmes will be covered
under this component. But it will be ensured that the expenditure under this
component may remain Within the prescribed ceiling i.e. 4%.
9.3 Capacity Building
The capacity building strategy and action plan of the project aims to build the
competence and capability of targeted village communities including the poor, their
organizations and the GP so as to collectively enable them to achieve the project
objectives.
The main objectives are as under:-
I Strengthening knowledge base.
I Increasing awareness
I Enhancing skills.
I Developing ability to train further.
I Developing share vision
I Developing confidence and self esteem.
The training, Workshop, Seminars, Exposure/Exchange visits, Demonstration, Tele-
conferencing, on the job support etc will be the tools for capacity building of all the
stakeholders. The capacity building needs of the various stakeholders and their
capacity building requirements are in table below:
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Table 9.3 Stakeholders and capacity building requirements
Project Stakeholder
C
ritical Capacity Gaps
Target Community
Participatory Watershed Development and Livelihoods Planning
Livelihoods Skills
Project provisions
GPs
Project Management (Planning and implementation)
Inclusive of the needs of the poor
Project provisions
Post Project sustainability and exist protocol.
Gram Panchayat
Committee s
Project Management (Planning and implementation)
Inclusive of the needs of the poor
Project provisions
Post Project sustainability and exist protocol
SHGs
Group Dynamics
Funds Managements
Marketing Awareness
User Groups
Planning, Implementation, Operations, Maintenance
Project provisions
Project Process
Watershed Dev. Team
Members.
Para-skill
Project provisions
Project implementing process.
Business promotion and marketing
Watershed Development Plans
Participatory Natural Source Management.
Project Implementing
Agency
Formations of Watershed Committees.
Institutional building
Community learning
Project provisions
Project process
Watershed Development
Committees
Community Mobilization &Community learning
Implementation Process
Project rule, Financial rules and budgeting process
Exit Protocol systems
Livelihoods enhancement
Business promotion
Marketing
Convergence
9.3.1 Strategies for Capacity Building
The various strategies that could be adopted for building the capacities of the various
stakeholders are as follows-
(i) Gradual scaling up- A phased approach for implementing the project in different
batches so as to provide opportunities to leam by experiences would be followed.
For the subsequent batches of GPs/WCS the previous GPs/WCS will serve as
learning grounds for building their capacities.
(ii)Experiential learning- The capacity building approaches will focus on all
opportunities of experiential learning including interactive learning and exposure
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visits .Reviewing and sharing of project learning will be an important element of CB
strategy.
(m) Internalizing capacities locally- For building the capacity of GP
members/WC members, SHG and UG members so as to empower the community
Organizations to manage their livelihood affairs by themselves, the funds Will be
provided as per provisions of guidelines
9.3.2 Capacity Building Programs
In order to accommodate the capacity building needs of all the stakeholders of the
project and also to meet the demanded capacity needs during the evolving later
stages of the project, the following broad capacity building programs have been
identified.
Table 9.3.2- Various Capacity Building Programs
Z Programs
Participants
Key Contents
Tools
l Sensitization
programs
Community, GP,WDC and PIAs
Innovative project
approaches and Key
Project Principles
Workshop
/campaigns
2 Induction
programs
Project Management staff and WDC
team members
Project principles,
community manual,
participatory
methodologies,
Livelihood planning
process, SHG formation
Training on COM,
Field
placementl village
immersion
programs
3 Orientation
programs
Empanelled appraisers outsource
technical service providers, resource
agencies, line department
Key Project Principles,
project institutional
model, project
processes
Workshops and
Field visits.
4 Thematic
Training
programs
Specialist in PlAs, WDC, GP office
bearers SHG/User groups office
bearers. professionals.
Social mobilization,
livelihood planning,
marketing, micro
finance, institution
building,
entrepreneurship,
procurement, accounts,
monitoring
Separate modules
on each thematic
areas, experiential
learning, thematic
workshop and
discussion forums.
5 Skill
building
programs
Service providers, community resource‘
persons (Livelihood) Project
professionals, community groups and
their leader, GP. Master trainers,
external resource persons, project staff
and WDC member, communication
team, skills for enhancing the
livelihoods of poor-poor, managerial
skills for community leader.
Accounting and
monitoring, planning,
community monitoring,
learning and reporting,
conflict resolution, joint
appraisal mechanisms,
negotiation skills,
operations and
maintenance
On the job training,
field based
training.
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Based on needs,the content and scope of the programs will be finalized at the levels
of the Secretaryl Director (Rural Development) office and Deputy Commissioner-
cum-Chief Executive Officer DRDAs. . Sensitization on the issues of gender,
environment, tribal etc. will be part of all the programs mentioned above.
9.3.3 Institutional arrangements for Capacity Building
The following arrangements for capacity building of project stakeholders will
be made.
9.3.3.1 State Level
The State level Resource Agencies will be utilized to train the State level and
District/Block level key staff and will hire appropriate physical facilities to
undertake state level training programs and workshops. Appropriate national level
institutions will be identified to run thematic training programs as and when required
which will also be followed by refresher programs. Periodic exposure visits will be
undertaken to learn from experience of similar projects being implemented in other
States. A National Level pool of resource persons will be identified to run workshops
and short-terrn programs for state level specialists.
9.3.3.2 Capacity building service providers at, State, District and Block Level.
The project will hire the services of capacity building agencies to plan and
implement capacity building activities at State, District, Block and Gram Panchayat
level. The primary task of the capacity building agencies will be to impart required
knowledge altitude and skills to the PIAs, WDT members and WDC Teams. In
addition, these agencies will design and implement specialized programs for GP and
Watershed Committees office bearers on a demand responsive basis. The agencies
will use wide range of capacity building tools and techniques including innovative
approaches. It will be the responsibility of the capacity building agencies to develop
the capacity building implementation plans and training materials based on
Community Operation Manual, Project Implementation Plan and other Project
Manuals. It will also be the entire responsibility of the capacity building agencies to
review the emerging capacity building needs evaluate the effectiveness of the
capacity building activities and to make appropriate changes in the training material
and capacity building action plan.
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The capacity building agencies will field a team of trainers at State/District level
comprising of all essential expertise required for the project. Regular monitoring of
the capacity building service rendered by the agencies will be reviewed at State as
well as District level. The capacity building agencies will sign performance-linked
contracts and the payments will be linked to the successful achievements of
milestones. The TOR for the capacity building agencies is to be developed.
9.3.3.3 GP level capacity building
The PIA will be responsible for building the capacity of the target poor, the
GP, Watershed committees, User Groups, SHGs etc. including providing
handholding supports. The capacity building at the GP level will primarily be on the
Community Operation Manual (COM). The COM will have all the details of the
project relevant to the community clearly explained and therefore, COM will be the
main resource material for training at village level to the community. In addition to
this, the other major focus of capacity building component at GP level will be
orientation of Gram Sabha and elected representatives to the project processes and
building capacity of 10-l2 paraprofessionals for each GP. As a part of capacity
building strategy at the GP level, the project will put special efforts on exposure
visits for community members.
Apart of Livelihoods component, the provision will be made for demonstration of
best practices for various livelihoods at the district/regional level. These funds can be
utilized to build suitable models within the reach of the poor in their neighborhood.
These sites will be used for exposure visits and influencing the poor/poorest to adopt
the best practices.
9.3.4 Indicative Modules for Various Capacity Building Programs.
Based on the project requirements, the various modules required for training
the project stakeholders have been categorized into l 1 generic modules. The
indicative contents in each of the modules have been fumished in table below.
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Table 9.3.4 In
dicative Modules for Various Programmes
Sr. No.
Module
Content
l
Understanding
Poverty,
Environment,
Ecology and
Development
Poverty- dimensions, coping mechanisms, poverty webs and vicious
cycles Participatory Identification of the poor
Development» process, dimensions, approaches
Delivery- roles of state, civil society and markets, functions, evo
and growths;
Government Programs- their approach, present programs
Vulnerability Sensitization- Gender, Tribal, Youth
Environment and Ecology
Watershed and Natural Resources
lution
2
Management Sills
Visioning- Strategic planning
Financial- Costing, Budgeting, Accounts, Financial Statement and
auditing
Markteting- Marketing basics, Market Intelligence, Consumer
Behaviour, Product,
Management, commodity Marketing-Forward Linkages
Project Management-Project Planning, Sequencing and activity
scheduling, Responsibility matrix. monitoring and evaluation
Human Resource Management-Monitoring. Team Building
Management, Performance Measurement, Review
Communications and Information Technology- Document
Written and Oral Communication, Written Analysis, Facilitation
and
ation.
3
Institution Buildin
E
Community Mobilization-process
Structure of the primary and federations of poor and their groups-
group dynamics. group development processes
Design Prnciples of the People’s Institutions
Promotion Process of the Institutions
Institution Development- Organization Development-life cycles
Systems for the Institutional Requirement- Statutory, Transparenc
Institution rating-credit rating, groups and federations rating
Conflict resolution and Accountability
Bylaws and Business Rules

4
Watershed
Development and
Natural Resource
Management
Watershed concept, micro-watershed, ridge-to-valley approach
Natural Resource Cycles
User Groups
Various elements of watershed development including soil and
moisture conservation
Operations and Maintenance
Ownership and access- individual, common and public properties
Enquiry considerations
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Engineering works
Rural Infrastructure
Fodder Conservation and Augmentation
Livelihoods, Micro
finance and Micro
Insurance
Livelihoods basics, concept, frameworks, Sectors, local economy
Livelihood mapping and analysis-tools
Livelihoods-value chains, sub-sector assessment
Livelihood Opportunities, New Livelihood Development Process
Feasibility, Viability and Cost-effectiveness considerations
Enterprises for livelihoods opportunities-management
Collective Enterprises for Livelihoods
Gender, Tribal, Youth, Disabled, Vulnerable and Environment-
Livelihoods
Marketing-Backward and Forward Linkages
Fund Management-Revolving Fund, Financing Livelihoods
Risk Management-Insurance, People Institution based Insurance,
Insurance»life asset, health etc. futures options
Project
Management and
Values
Project Scope, Objectives, Outputs, Components, Indicators,
Processes, Value Non- negotiable, key principles»Sustainability,
Equity and Productivity
Project Budget and Implementation Arrangements
Livelihood Skills
Sectoral requirements
Sectoral Understanding and Inputs
Participatory
Planning, Process
and Research
Participatory Identification of Poor (PIP)
Participatory Research- processes, tools, methodology, sampling
framework
Participatory processes- decision making, planning, monitoring,
evaluation, review
Visioning and
Strategic Planning
for Institutions,
Units and
Individuals
Strategic Management-Basics
Visioning, Development of Vision and Plans
Monitoring the Plans- progress-quantitative and qualitative
Leaming-feedback, review, view of poor
Individual
Development
Personality development, Career Development
Counseling, Monitoring
Development Worker- Characteristics, Love
Leadership-skills
Conflicts, Time Management
Specific functional
Knowledge and
Skills
Training Needs Assessment (TNA) and Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training specific to Functional Area at cluster, district and State levels
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In addition to the content of the modules, the mix of the knowledge, skills and
attitude needs to be fine-tuned for each of the various levels of the programmes.
Institution Development and Participatory Development Specialists and the Capacity
Building Agencies can further reinforce and detail the content with extensive
consultation based on the ground reality.
Project wise Detailed Project Report will be prepared by the concemed
DRDAs / PIAs under the technical guidance of Watershed Development Team
Members (WDTs) for integrated development of watershed area with active
participation of the watershed committee on the basis of perspective and strategic
plan of the State and procedure exist in the common guidelines for watershed
development project after PRA exercise and comprehensive beneficiary level
database separately for private and community land development with linkages to
the cadastral data base under overall supervision of the department. This will
facilitate spatial depiction of action plan. The DPR should include the basic
information on watershed including rainfall, temperature location including
geographical coordinates, topography , hydrology, hydrogeology, soils, forests,
demographic features, ethnographic details of communities, land-use pattem, major
crops & their productivity, irrigation, livestock, socio-economic status, institutional
mechanisms, micro watershed wise land classification, detailed mapping. The details
of expected User Groups and Self Help Groups , activities to be taken in the project
area, expected contribution of watershed development fund, information about soil
and land —use, existing assets related to water harvesting, recharging and storage etc
will be provided in the DPR. The problems in the project areas, and interventions
proposed to enhance the livelihoods will be specified in the report. Every detail
about the activities to be undertaken, financial projection and time table along with
technical details and drawing will be reflected in the DPR. Detailed mapping
exercise will also be incorporated in the report. The emphasis would be on the active
participation of community in decision making equity and sustainability of the
benefits. All the issues prescribed in the common guidelines will be kept in view on
finalization of DPR for the particular project.
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9.4 Work Phase
Under this component the objectives are:-
‘ Economic development of community through optimum and sustainable
utilization of natural resources like land, water, forest etc. to save environmental
degradation and employment generation through works and development of human
and other economic resources by promoting savings and income generation
activities.
¢ Restoration of ecological balance in the villages through soil and water
conservation measures leading to reduction in soil erosion, water conservation,
increase in vegetative cover etc. and sustained community actions to operate and
maintain created assets and further development of natural resources in the
watershed.
‘ Improvement of socio economic conditions of the village community
particularly the resource poor and the disadvantaged sections of the community such
as asset less, SC/ST and the Women through ensuring their effective participation in
the programme, more equitable distribution of the benefits of land and Watershed
resources development and biomass production and greater access to income
generating opportunities.
9.4.1 Activities
9.4.1.1Water Management Activities:
To improve the water availability in the project area by evolving various water
harvesting technologies and promoting optimal use of available water for the purpose to
improve the rural livelihood & economy of the farmers of the project area and to reduce the
chances of floods and soil erosion in the areas down below, the following activities are
proposed:
a) Rain Water harvesting. It is common that in the State like Himachal Pradesh, the
rain water flows top to down which generally run away from surface into deep drain in
Nallas and waste away. As such to conserve the rainwater for domestic as well as for
irrigation purpose the following rain water harvesting activities are proposed:-
i) Construction of Ponds/Tanks: The ponds are constructed by excavating earth and
forming embankments with stone lining to harvest rainwater. An approach path with stone
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pitching is provided in these ponds. Size of these ponds depends upon catchments area and
space available. The ponds are main source of rain water harvesting in rural areas because
the water stored in the ponds are used by the villagers not only for irrigation purposes but
also for their domestic and cattle use. These ponds a.re also helpful in recharging of ground
water table. The irrigation tanks to provide the irrigation potential in watershed areas will be
constructed keeping in view the suitable sites, availability of water and provisions of funds
in the guidelines. No doubt with the construction of ponds and tanks the harvesting of rain
water will be ensured and with the recharging of traditional water sources the problem of
drinking water in project areas will be reduced.
ii) Rooftop rainwater harvesting structures: The Government is very keen to construct
maximum roof rainwater harvesting structure to meet out the drinking as well as domestic
needs . These are underground stone masonry tanks in which roof run off are lowered
down through pipes for kitchen gardening and domestic use etc. is having capacity of 9 to 10
cum. Such type of activities will also be given due consideration in the implementation of
watershed development projects in rural areas of the State.
m) Dams: The soil conservation and rain water harvesting are the major component for
treatment of area under watershed development projects. The construction of dams will be in
the priority areas to harvest the rainwater and to check the soil erosions of the area
concerned. Keeping in view the geographical conditions and position of sites the following
type of dams will be constructed in the watershed areas.
(a) Earthen Dams: These are constructed with rammed earth and a central core wall of
some impervious material across the nallah having slope less than 5% and have sufficient
pondage on the u /s side. Suitable spillway is provided to dispose of the surplus run off.
Harvested water is used for providing irrigation, development of fish; cattle’s drinking etc.
height of dam depends upon water demand. storage, catchments areas etc. But generally
average height proposed is 6.00 meters.
(b) R.C.C. Dam: These types of dams are constructed of mass concrete where foundation is
rocky & cross section of nallah is small and stone aggregate is cheaply available. In these
types of dams spill way is provided within the dam body.
(C) Masonry Dams: These dams are constructed of stone masonry at places where stones
are cheaply available as compared to stone aggregate. The purpose and size of the masonry
dam are same as that of RCC Dam.
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b) Water use
9.4.1.1.2 Minor Irrigation Activities
The irrigation is the major component that play pivotal role to improve the
agriculture horticulture production and attractive income generation to the watershed
communities, The proposed activities under this component are:
i) Lift/Gravity irrigation scheme: In take structures are constructed at the available Water
sources from where it is taken to the fields either by lifting or by gravity through irrigation
channels and accordingly the scheme is called lift or gravity irrigation scheme. In case the
discharge at the source is not sufficient to meet the requirement, storage tanks are
constructed from Where the stored water is recycled to the command areas.
ii) Makowal type structure: At locations Where river beds are generally sandy and an
impervious layer lies at a small depth, harvesting of sub-surface flow is done by construction
of a head wall across the nallah up to the impervious layer, a water collection chamber with
filters and Wing walls. Water from the water chamber goes to the storage tank constructed on
d/s side banks from where it is delivered to the fields through pipes/irrigation channels.
m) Irrigation channels (kuhls): Under this activity, lining of existing water channels is
done with cement concrete or stone masonry in cement mortar so as to reduce the water loss
due to seepage and more area is brought under irrigation. Size of channels depends upon the
availability and requirement of water.
9.4.1.l.3 Snow Harvesting Activities:
From climatic to geographic to human-induced challenges, the hardship for livelihood and
habitation in cold deserts of the State are one of the most acquit and part of the solutions lays
harvesting snow in sensible Way. Harvesting snow in this region is a way to rehabilitate the
land for crop growth. It can bring live to cold desert and renewal traditional heritage as an
example of sustainability that all of us can learn from globally.
Snow harvesting requires the construction of pit, generally ranging in size from
about 6 to 8 meters in dia-meters and l0 meters in depth. This pit is heavily compacted and
the collected snow is dumped into the pit to a depth of 2 to 3 meters. The compacted snow is
covered with the earth, which acts as an insulator and a bamboo tube is placed about 50 CM
about the base of the pit to serve as an outlet. As the snow melt around the bamboo pipe
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water tickles along with bamboo and into a pot beneath the outlet. This technology can be
effectively implemented at small community levels.
All the works/activities under Non-arable Land Treatment will be identified in
micro watershed basis as a part of watershed planning and will be implemented through
Watershed Development Committee(in the jurisdiction area of Watershed Committee with
technical support from the Project staff) and by the Project staff.
Since the objective of the Project is to reverse the process of degradation of the
natural resource base, soil and water conservation measures will receive priority. The basic
principle of ridge-to valley approach in watershed management will be followed. As such,
treatment of the catchments area before or along with the development of water resources
will be the essential process for Project implementation. The soil and water conservation
measures will be areas specific, need based and will be decided for specific catchments area.
Maximum importance will be given to vegetative and engineering measures for
enhancement of livelihood of local communities.
9.4.1.2.1 Afforestration
Since the rural population of the state depends mostly on forest to meet their fuel and fodder
needs, due to which there has been gradual depletion of forest wealth in the Himalayan.
Afforestation is thus essential for the sustainability of Himalayan ecosystem. The forest
blank are potential area for carrying out afforestation under which mix spices are suggested
in various patches mainly to produced multi purpose forests products to improve the
economic status of the watershed community.
The catchments area treatment will receive priority over general improvement of
forest area. The treatments will be site specific and will include not only tree plantation but
also improve the grass production which is more attractive to the community due to quick
and visible benefits. Concept of Ridge-to-Valley treatment is to be followed strictly.
The plan of work and selection of tree and vegetative species will be the choice of
the community/GPs and execution will be done by the GPs/WC.The Watch and ward of
plantation, to ensure the effective use and maintenance would be the responsibility of
GPs/WCs. The need—based training to the Project staff and local community will be provided
under this component. The treatments in inter-GP areas (i.e. those areas outside the
jurisdiction of GPs) will be executed by the Project Implementing Agency.
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i) Rehabilitation plantation (Normal and lantana):
The objective is to improve, restore and maintain the stocking of desired species in the
degraded forest areas where natural regeneration is deficient or absent. Temporarily un-
stocked-forests, away from habitations and inter G.P areas will be taken up for treatment.
Indigenous species or specie growing under similar habitat condition elsewhere will be
preferred.
ii) Conservation plantations:
The objective is to raise productive plantation in the form of three tire combination
of grasses, shrubs and trees to check, soil erosion by both falling and flowing water, promote
in situ moisture conservation and improve soil fertility, productivity and biodiversity.
Ravines, erosion prone areas, large slips and catchments of reservoirs and dams,
water harvesting structures will be taken up for treatment with species of soil conservation
base of thick foliage. Efforts to control lantana will be made by special treatment of cutting
twice a year till there is enough vegetative cover to suppress it.
111) Community Plantation:
The productive plantation of grasses and trees with people’s participation for augmentation
of availability of fodder, fuel and small timber in the rural areas will be raised. Reducing the
pressure on forestlands, Fringe areas between forests and habitation, common lands and
wastelands will be taken up for treatment with species preferred by the local community.
iv) Development of Non Timber Forest Produce:
Keeping in view the geographical conditions and marketing potential, the medicinal grass,
shrubs and tree species of economical importance to augment the rural house hold income
will be introduced. Choice of species will be according to locally factors, choice of villagers
and marketing possibilities.
v) Nursery raising:
Under this component a centralized nurseries are raised at—least on 2 hac of land each in
order to ensure adequate and low cost supply of desired spices for plantation purpose. It is
also proposed to setup decentralized nurseries particularly in distance located watershed
where the cost of transporting the plants become uneconomical so that the area proposed to
cover under a forestation sector can be treated more effectively
With the active participation of watershed communities, the nurseries will be established
with modern techniques to ensure the quality planting material for plantation in watershed
areas.
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The capacity building measures will be initiated under the project to enhance the capacity of
User Groups to collect and market the NTFPs, and sub-projects/activities will be
implemented to encourage the plantation of medicinal and other high value crops- especially
short duration species- to make the forestry plantation as an attractive income-generating
component for the community.
9.4.l.2.2 Pasture Development:
With increase in cropping area under vegetable production (300% increase) alternative
sources of fodder are shrinking and thus pressure on natural pastures is increasing. Natural
grasslands and pastures are the major sources of fodder for wild animalsl cattle and play
critical role in livelihoods of transhumants and locals alike. The production of dry grass
ranges from lO-I5 quintal/ha, which can be raised upto 150 q/ha with better management.
Grasslands are facing major threats from invasion of weeds rendering them unproductive
and women do not prefer cutting grass in such areas. The problem of grazing is further
increased due to stopping of winter grazing facilities of transhumants, which were earlier
available to the grazers of the state in adjoining states and the flocks of these grazers had to
be accommodated in the state for winter grazing. Natural pastures are reported to be
overgrazed to the extent of three times their carrying capacity. As already mentioned in
Chapter VII, an area of 1515011 hectare is permanent Pasture and other grazing lands in the
State which is roughly 27 % of total geographical area. Such huge portion of land ment for
permanent pasture can not be overlooked for development under watershed development
programme. Thus the Pasture lands will be developed by silvipasture methods including
plantation of leguminous species, nutritious grasses and other economically useful species
with active participation of village people to ensure the sufficient availability of fodder
through out the year. By sufficient quantity of fodder the Animal Husbandry Sector will
definitely be strengthened and quantity and quality of milk production, wool production,
will also be increased substantially in rural areas of the state. The developed pasture land
will be protected by barbed wire fencing and social fencing as suitable for the area and
undesired bushes and weeds and other grasses with less nutrients particularly lantana bushes
besides being harmful for the grazing animals will also be removed and area will be covered
with improved quality grasses and fodder tree plantation.
9.4.2.3 Soil Conservation Activities:
i) Drainage Line Treatment:
To facilitate the establishment of vegetation or to provide protection at points cannot be
adequately protected in any other way. The erosive velocities of run off are reduced
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manifold by flattening out the steep uniform gradient of the gully by constructing a series of
checks dams (commonly known as check dams) with locally available material from top to
bottom. Activities proposed under this component are:
ii) Brush Wood check dams: In gullies having side slopes less than 45 degrees, poles of
about 7.5 cm diameters are driven into the ground in a single or double row across the nalla
at right angle to the flow. The brushwood is packed against the u/s face of the poles.
m) Contour Trenching -Contour Trenches is excavated along the uniform level across the
slope. Bunds are formed down hill along the trench with material taken out of them. The
main idea is to create more favorable moisture conditions and, thus accelerate the growth of
the plated trees. Plants are put on the trench side of the bunds along the berms. The excess
runoff is conveyed through a vertical disposal drain.
9.5. Livelihood Component
In Himachal Pradesh 90% population in rural areas dependent on Agriculture, Horticulture,
Animal Husbandry and other traditional activities like weaving, wood craft work, etc.
Hence, the focus under watershed development will be to improve the socio—economics
conditions of the community of rural areas. In the common Guidelines for watershed
development Projects, specific provisions of outlay have been kept for livelihood
component.
In certain pockets of Himachal Pradesh, it is feared that the crafts like Metalcraft.
Ornaments, Wood Carvings, Wood Turnings, Kinnauri Shawl Weaving, Traditional Foot-
wears, Embroidery, Paintings etc. have either gone extinct or are on the decay. Besides their
employment potential these crafts depict the aesthetic genius and technical competence of
the craftsmen of the Pradesh.
Livelihood is a key component of the household economy in Himachal
Pradesh. It is source of additional income to farming households, especially the
poorest of them. About 73% total rural household in India keep and own livestock of
one kind or another to drive an average 20% of their income from this source.
Women provide nearly 90% of all labour for livestock management. The entire
rural economy of the State Centers on Agriculture, Horticulture, Animal Husbandry,
Sheep and Wool Development, Forests, Fishery, Poultry, Bee Keeping. Floriculture,
Mushroom cultivation, Sericulture. Mining etc. Livelihoods dependent upon Forest
goods and services are very high in many areas. Total rain-fed conditions and lack of
access to markets alone (despite their large landholdings and greater livestock
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numbers) can make the people of such areas much poorer than those Who have small
holdings but live in the valley.
Under Watershed Development the productivity, enhancement and livelihood will be
given priority alongwith conservation measures. The systematic approach would be adopted
for resource development in order to promote farming and allied activities, by resource
conservation and regeneration. Suitable water sources are to be created to ensure irrigation
for the agriculture and horticulture crops round the year for creating community tank,
assistance will be provided to the community/Group of farmers as per provision of the
guidelines, besides providing assistance for maintenance and construction of ponds, wells.
Apart from developing Water sources to ensure round the year irrigation. The use of plastics
for on farm management of water has gained significant importance in recent years. The
plasticulture applications include water distribution network through plastic pipes, plastic
sprinklers, micro irrigation, micro sprinkler, nursery bags, green house, net structures, walk
in and low tunnels, plastic mulching etc. Drip irrigation is useful from the point of view of
judicious utilization of scarce surface and ground Water resources.
In the rainfed areas the animal resources are major source of income and will be integrated
with Watershed Development Projects so that a comprehensive animal husbandry
component would contribute significantly to ensuring a better and sustainable livelihood for
the people of the Watershed / rainfed areas. Watershed approach is gaining importance is
planning and implementation of natural resources management programmes. Such approach
will be used to check soil erosion and denudation of catchments areas of important river
systems for mitigating floods, landslides and for reducing siltation. Synergies between
concerned Government Agencies, PRIs and NGOs will be developed for supporting
watershed approaches for natural resources management. This will be coordinated through
nodal agency. The state will explore the potential of market-based infrastmctures for
facilitating protection and development. The Government will also liaison with other
mountain state in the country to explore market or ensuring payment for watershed services
to the State and village community for protecting, managing and developing Watershed.
(a) Livelihood Frame Work:
‘ Choosing the right livelihood activities for intervention through techno-
marketfeasibility.
0 Choosing an appropriate form of household level groups to mobilize.
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0 Choosing an appropriate structure at the cluster level to federate village level
organizations and identify what they should do collectively.
‘ Identifying a suitable market to sell the products.
‘ Ensuring adequate finance to operate the whole chain from farm to market.
(b) Institutional Building
0 Promoting/strengthening Community Groupslinstitutionsl User Groups, Self-Help
Groups (SGHs), particularly of the poorl Women.
0 Promote and support the federations (of SHGs, CGs, User Groups).
0 Capacity building of PRIs and other local village level institutions to Plan,
Implement and maintain the assets created under watershed Development
Programmes.
I Building the skills and capacities of the poor and their service providers.
‘ Sensitizing line departments and banks to extend their moral suppon and
responsive behavior according to the needs of inhabitants of the watershed area.
I Organize Exposure visits for community leaders and representatives of the
federations, GP representatives and the project staff.
(c) Livelihoods Gaps/Opportunities
Since the project’s livelihoods interventions would target the poor sections, it
become critical to define who will be those poor since many of the criteria for defining and
understanding poverty at the village level may not be uniformly applicable. For instance, at
high altitude, remote village or Panchayat land holdings may be comparatively larger than
the valleys or livestock numbers may be greater, but total rain— fed conditions and lack of
access to markets alone can make the people of such areas much poorer than those who hold
less land but live in the valley. For the marginalized groups who are generally the poorest,
traditional occupations like grazing the village livestock, fuel wood and fodder collection,
tree cutting and timber conversion, NTFP collection, etc. still form major livelihood.
The Gram Panchayat with the help of SHGs, Professionals and WDC, will initiate
participatory process for preparation of Watershed Development Plan for the GPfMicro
Watershed. This plan will be a result of livelihoods analysis that include resource
mapping/assessment, analyzing existing livelihoods and new livelihoods opportunities
against items like availability of raw materials, Skills available, existing livelihoods, existing
Market demand, Marketing facilities within and outside the village, transportation networks
etc. Potential livelihood opportunities for CGs will also be identified during this process.
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Natural resources form the livelihood basis for most people of the state. There is a
high degree of dependence on these resources and as a result often conflicts are observed
between resources managers and other stakeholders. With the active involvement of PRI,
SHG and USGs all the conflicts will be resolved by introducing equitable distribution
system.
9.5.1. Livelihood Activities
i) Agricultural! Farm Sector activities: Out of total 55.67 lakh hectare area of the
state, 5.82 lakh ha (12%) is net sown area out of which 82.3% is rain-fed area. Ninety
percent of the population (mainly women) is engaged in agriculture. The climate of the State
is suitable for growing non —seasonal vegetables and there is sufficient scope for increase in
production of off-season vegetables under watershed development projects. Similarly, the
production of cereals and pulses can be increased with the interventions under of watershed
management.
Production of cereals and pulses has increased from 923 thousands tones to 1446
thousand tones over last 30 years but during the same time period, total cropped area
declined marginally from 874 thousand hectare to 822 thousand hectare. Area under
vegetables has registered an increase of 300% during the last three decades. For traditional
crops, fertilizers use is generally 40 kg/ha, whereas for both HVC and fruits, this is up to 60
kg/ha. Agricultural practices are contributing to soil erosion and people are facing marketing
related challenges. These gaps will be bridged through implementation of watershed
development projects.
This subcomponent will improve cropping systems through promoting adoption of
new agronomic practices, crop diversification into high-value crops, reducing post-harvest
losses, and increasing value-addition. It will also improve water availability in the Project
area using evolving water harvesting technologies and promoting optional use of available
sources. The activities such as Land Development and to introduce improved cropping
system, Introduction of High—Value Crops/varieties, Improve Cropping Systems
(Horticulture), Homestead Horticulture and High Yielding Cultivars will be introduced in
the watershed areas. The Agriculture will continue to remain the main source of income for
the community in the Project area, support will be provided for the traditional crops as well
as the High—Va.lue Crops (HVCs).
While preparing the DPR the main focus will be given for the land development
activities particularly for the development of lands of weaker section with the active
participation of the beneficiaries. The activities such as protection of soil erosion and
introduction of vermin-culture will be given priority under watershed development within
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the prescribed limit of outlays as per common guidelines for watershed development. The
convergence of other on going schemes relating to area development and poverty alleviation
will also be taken into account on formation of action plan. Major emphasis will be given
on the production of HVCs especially for those areas where new irrigation resources will be
developed. This will include off-season vegetables, spices, floriculture, medicinal and
aromatic plants. For vegetables and spices where the local market is available or can be
stored before sale, demonstrations will be laid out in an area of maximum 0.2 ha for one
family. Besides the seed planting material, training/exposure visit, demonstration will be
provided to build the confidence and know-how about the latest technology.
For HVCs such as medicinal and aromatic plants which have no local market and
the produce has to be partially or fully processed, a strategy will be developed to identify a
new potential crops which: (a) can be successfully cultivated in the Project area; (b) perfect
production technologies are available; (c) quality seed and planting material can be made
available in time; (d) facilities exist for processing or can be made available if essential
before the produce can be marketed; and (e) assured markets are available (specific trader
with commitment and an important stakeholder). Following will be the approach to facilitate
introduction of such crops:
To assure minimum marketable produce, cluster approach will be followed and if
required clusters will be federated on commodity basis. Emphasis will be on value addition,
organic farming and IPM besides field demonstrations with necessary inputs including seed
and planting material support for efficient use of water through sprinkler and drip irrigation,
poly houses and processing will be provided following the basic principle of subsidy for
individuals and the group. This will be complemented with the existing practice in the State
by making suitable amendments;
Farmer’s nurseries will be encouraged through training and providing support on
cost sharing basis for greenhouse, plastic tunnels etc. The benefits of green houses for high
breed vegetables, floriculture and for nursery rising will be admissible to the fanners from
project funds as per provisions exist under Horticulture Technology Mission.
The support will be provided for the introduction of fruit crops in terms of quality
seedlings for a family with the condition that all other practices will be implemented by the
beneficiary as per agreed technology.
ii) Animal Husbandry and Diary Development: Rising up of livestock is an integral
component of rural economy in Himachal there is a dynamic relationship between common
property resources such as forest, water and grazing land, livestock and crops. Livestock
depend to a certain extent on fodder and grass grown on common property resources as Well
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as on crops. At the same time the animals returns, fodder, grass and crop, residues to the
common property resources and fields in the form of manure and provide much needed
draught power. The contribution of major livestock production during the year 2006—2007
was 8.72 lacks ton of Milk, 1605 tones of wool, 77.00 Million eggs and 31110 ton of meat
which will like to be of the order of 8.73 lacks tones of milk, 1615 ton of wool, 80.00
Million eggs and 31 15 ton meat during 2007-2008.
Comparison between various livestock censuses in H.P is given in Table below.
Table 9.S.1.(ii) Livestock population in Himachal Pradesh
Name of livestock Livestock census
1987 1992 1997 2003 2007
(inlakh)
Cattle (Cows&Bulls) 2,24 4,815 2,165,034 2,001,826 2,196,538
IQ
2.78
Buffaloes 794991 03549
\l
O\
52373 73229
\l
.\’
o\
no
Sheep ll 12768 1078940
08831 906027
\o
>5
0
Goats 1120139 1118089
0
46529 1115587 12.41
Total 5272713 1 5065617 4509559 1 4991381 1 51.82
The perspective plan laid emphasis on the livestock sector and established Cows
semen processing lab for breed improvement, emphasized mineral-mixture feed
supplements, provided chaff cutters, and promoted stall-feeding and other facilities to the
farmers in project areas as per admissibility in the guidelines and in other on going schemes.
The main activities which will be considered under Watershed Development Project
to enhance livelihood are as under:
Himachal Pradesh has no recognized breed of cattle and buffaloes and the livestock
population mostly comprise of non-descript type with relatively low milk production
potential. The productivity of animals maintained under village conditions is comparatively
low. Cattle and buffaloes rearing for milk production is the prominent animal husbandry
occupation of the rural people and 90% of these nlral households are engaged in keeping the
livestock for supplementing their source of income and nutrition,
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In predominately agrarian economy of the State, agriculture and animal husbandry is
the main stay for more than 80% of the rural people. The agriculture in general is restricted
due to hilly-terrain, full of climatic hazards and small and scattered land holding with limited
irrigation. Besides, agriculture, the farming families are having livestock as a primary or
secondary source of earning from the sale of livestock and their produce such as milk, milk
products, wool mutton etc. As a result of the ongoing cattle breeding programmes, the
average milk production of cross breed cow is very low per day. The department has planed
to increase the population of crossbreed cows from the present level in order to enhance the
milk production substantially per day. The milk production shall be achieved by
supplementing the present infrastructure by providing l0O% breeding facility through the
artificial insemination. Milk production shall be simultaneously sustained by boosting fodder
production by cultivation in the field during both the Rabi and Kharif fodder production
season for which a timetable for green fodder production round the year shall be evolved.
Improved fodder seeds shall be distributed to the identified farmers as per provision of the
guidelines so that the farmer grow maximum green fodder as a cash crop to exploit milk
production potential of a cross breed progeny. Factors like cattle breed, feeds and fodders,
age variation, water supply, clean and hygienic sheds, disease free status, macro and micro
nutrient level, stage of milking and frequency of milking are responsible for variation and
production of milk, which needs to be taken into consideration of improvement under one or
the other components for ensuring maximum level of production of milk. To promote these
activities Self Help Group/Society Mode approach can be given emphasis so as to make
them self —reliant and help them grow and progress on sustainable basis. However, majority
of the beneficiaries will be from BPL families giving at-least 60% representation to women
and SC/ST families but the non BPL families can be considered for benefits as admissible
under the common guideline for Watershed management.
The main objective of this venture is to develop the milk production and to generate
self-employment potential. To ensure the availability of fodder during dry season and to
facilitate the weaker section of the society, the provision of fodder stores and cattle sheds
can be considered The milk so produced shall be marketed directly by the self-help groups
or through the already existing net work of Milk Society / Milk Federation
(m) Sheep and Goat Husbandry:
Sheep and Goat farming is a traditional occupation of economically weaker
segment of the society having twin purpose i.e. Wool development and meat
production particularly in Tribal belts and remote areas of the State. Comparatively,
lower body sizes of the two species and their adoptability to vide range of agro-
climatic conditions have rendered them suitable for poor farmers. These animals are
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predominantly maintained under extensive range management on community range
land, cropped land after harvesting of standing crops and forest under mixed grazing
conditions. The management of small ruminants does not required specialized skills;
the surplus labour is gainfully employed for management and upkeeps of the
animals. In the State of Himachal Pradesh, the organized breeding programmes,
feeding management, husbandry practices, health coverage and marketing linkages
are not adequate.
The National Institute of Nutrition has recommended that a balance human
diet should comprise of ll KG of meat per annum. The available figures show that
the current availability of meat is only 2.26 KG. Therefore the rapid increase in meat
production is the necessity. But the lack of technical know how, improved breed and
lack of marketing awareness are the main hurdles which are also effecting the
economic health of particularly those families which entirely depend upon this
activity. In order to boost and make this venture successful and more economic generating
factor the following activities are proposed under this component:-
¢ To supply the veterinary facilities and equipments.
‘ To improve breed through cross breeding with improved quality breed.
0 To impart training and technical know how to the breeders in order to
improve their skill in sharing and breeding etc.
0 To establish wool research and quality control laboratories for research
and extension work in wool.
‘ To established wool procurement and grading centers.
I To initiate welfare measures for sheep breeders.
Q To facilitating marketing of wool within a State and outside the State.
0 To promote production shearing, procurement and processing of the wool.
(iv) Rabbit Rearing:
In Himachal Pradesh because of ideal agro-climatic conditions, Rabbit
Farming has proliferated in hilly areas, which has opened opportunities of self
employment to the educated youths in particular and to others in general. Although
Rebbitary is of recent orgin as an industry yet has gradually acquired the status of
full-fledged, self sufficient industry equipment with many fold sophistication
including breading, production feed manufacturing, pharmaceutical and equipments.
The majority of people In the State have under taken the Rabbit Rearing for wool
production rather to have Rabbit meat.
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With import of German Angora strain by HP Govemment in l986 the
advanced scientific proven techniques also flowed in Rabbit Rearing. It is obvious to
mention that Rabbit Fanning is gaining popularity in cooler and temperate part of the
State. The profitability of Angora farming generally depends upon quality and
quantity of Wool produce. To ensure optimum production of quality Wool planning
and implementation of breeding, general management, veterinary health cover
extension and marketing are of utmost importance. The Angora Wool marketing
reveals that the prices of Angora wool fluctuate a lot, as such proper planning and
policies required to be formulated that wool production in country encouraged and
import duties should be imposed on import of Angora wool and its products.
In feasible areas of the State the Rabbit Rearing would be boosted by
educating the people to adopt this activity for additional income generation
resources. The provision of funds for purchase of improved breeds of Angora Rabbit,
shedsl cages etc. beside other inputs will be kept in the DPR as per provision of
guidelines. But the quantum of subsidy will be fixed as admissible under other
similar ongoing schemes in the State. These activities will also be linked to the loan
facilities from the commercial / cooperative banks if needed. The best marketing
facilities will also be ensured to provide maximum benefits to the beneficiaries under
this activity.
(v) Poultry Farming: In the State of Himachal Pradesh, Poultry Farming has shown vast
potential of self employment opportunity and augmenting the nutritional status of the rural
population by enhancing the availability of proteins in the diet at a reasonable cost in view of
decreasing trend of per capita availability of pulses.
The Poultry Farming in Himachal Pradesh play an important role in improving the
socio economic status of rural population particularly the landless because Poultry Farming
requires minimum capital and ensures quick returns. The sale of eggs on day to day basis
helps in increasing crop production through purchase of essential inputs such as seeds and
insecticides etc., while the broiler faming provide handsome return for major investments at
the farmers level. Therefore, need to start a chicken scheme in rural area under Watershed
Development Programme especially of dual purpose variety, efficient for both egg as well as
meat production in the State of Himachal Pradesh has been felt to make the rural inhabitants
especially poor families self dependent. The people of Himachal Pradesh prefer quality units
of small size i.e 50 to 100 birds each rather then big units. The State Department of Animal
Husbandry has also developed poultry faming in the State through their net work. The
topography and the climatic conditions of the State are such that small size Poultry Farms
are more successful. As such need to start small faming under subsidy especially for the
beneficiary belonging to scheduled caste families and landless in the entire State is felt so
that the poorest families are provided an incentive for starting poultry farming as an
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occupation. Under the proposed scheme one time assistance on sharing basis as per
provision of guidelines in the form of Poultry Farm sheds, chicks, equipments, medicines,
Training and marketing facilities will be provided.
(vi) Fishery Development: The scope of Pond fish Culture existed in the State but due to
hilly terrain valley and complex topography the better results under this component are yet
to be achieved. In cold areas the State has good scope for Trout culture and other cold water
fishes. As such a scheme of fresh water fish culture in the State can be boosted successfully
in private sector. The Trout, which is international known fish is being cultured in the
Government Farm. To take up this activity in project mode, some infrastructure will be
required to setup, awareness activities amongst the people to be taken up on campaign and
sustained basis, beside, raw material, seed and feed and marketing network need to be
strengthen. The objective of the component is to generate more employment opportunity in
fishery sector, to make fish farming a common man livelihood activity and to utilize the
wasteland trout farms.
One unit of trout farming require constmction of at-least two cemented raceway with a
provision of RCC wall (l5mx2mxl.5m) which involve approximately Rs. 1.20 lacs, with
each raceway costing Rs.().6O lac.
Basic principle of Trout Culture is “Running water fish culture”, which lies in
intensive stocking and fish rearing in barricaded longitudinal stretch well guarded by inlet
and outlet properly flow of water required to each unit varies fomi 200-400 L/sec. Besides
this facilitation of transportation for inputs and products, since fishery is a perish
able commodity it needs to be transported in cool chain to the market. For this purpose
special funds provision required.
(vii) Horticulture: The Horticulture section, which includes fruits has ample potential
for development as compare to other crop in the Northern Eastern States, Himachal Pradesh,
Jammu & Kashmir, Uttranchal in view of diverse agro—climate conditions, varies soil types
and abundance of rain fall which has remained unexploited
The development of NE region examined by various commissions and committees
recommended Integrated Development of Horticulture based on the recommendations a
centrally sponsored scheme on technology mission for integrated development of
horticulture.
The Horticulture Technology Mission is working in the State with the goals to establish
convergence and synergy among numerous on going governmental programmes in the field
of horticulture development to achieve horizontal and vertical integration of these
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programmes to ensure adequate, appropriate, timely and concurrent attention to all the links
in the production, post—ha.rvest management and consumption chain, maximize economic,
ecological and social benefits from the existing investments and infrastructure created for
horticulture development, promote ecologically sustainable intensification, economically
desirable diversification and skilled employment to generate value addition, promote the
development and dissemination of eco-technologies based on the blending of the traditional
wisdom and technology with frontier knowledge such as bio—technology, information
technology and space technology, and to provide the missing links in ongoing horticulture
development projects. The components/activities of Horticulture Technology Mission will
be adopted in the implementation of Watershed Development Programme. The small
nurseries will be developed and provision will be made for the availability of plant material,
equipments and Farm Tools besides facilitating the families in watershed areas with
sufficient availability of water, birds’ protection nets, post harvest management technology
in the cluster approach. Green House approach will also be given due weigtage under this
component. Since the State is having hilly terrain and in case of the areas where road
connectivity is lacking the ropeways connectivity for trans-shipment of the agriculture
horticulture produce will be introduced. This will not facilitate the farmers for transshipment
of their produce but also the transportation charges will be less in comparison to
transportation of their produce through roads.
(vm) Bee Keeping: Small farmers of the State have adopted Bee keeping with the
objective to produce disease resistant types as well as best quality honey and to promote the
role of honey bee as agents of pollination for increasing crop productivity. About 85% crop
plants are cross—pollinated, as they need to receive pollen from other plants of the same
species with the help of external agents. One of the most important such external agent are
the honeybees. A few colonies of honeybees when placed in the field, when crop is in
flowering stage, press into service several thousand foragers for pollination. The abundance
of pollinators, help in early setting of seed, resulting in early and more uniform crop yield.
Scientific studies have established that increase in yields of various crops due to the
pollination by honey bees range from 20% to lO0%. On the basis of published information,
l2 crops of economic importance such as almond, apple, coconut, grape, guava, mango,
papaya, mustard, sunflower, cotton etc. are specifically dependent upon or benefit from
honeybees pollination. Honeybees also produce honey, bee wax and royal jelly thus giving
additional benefit to farmers. Moreover, honeybees do not limit their pollination services to
a single species rather 21 large number of agricultural crops are pollinated by them. To
encourage the groups of BPL / small famiers at district level bee keeping equipments with
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latest technology to assist the procurement, storage and marketing of honey will be
patronized under watershed development projects.
(iX) Mushroom Cultivation: The cultivation of mushroom was initially started in district
Solan during 1961, because of rich contents of protein its cultivation has gained momentum,
and there is large scope for cultivation of mushroom in middle hill of the State and small
grower have taken the mushroom cultivation on commercial scale. The Mushroom
Development Project under the aegis of United National Development Programme was
established at Chambaghat District Solan in 1977. Under the progrannne, the inputs such as
compost, casing, soil & spawn etc. are supplied to the mushroom growers. Now this project
has converted into National Center for Mushroom Research and Training by the Government
of India. Besides, making research and imparting training this center is providing various
incentives to the small-scale farmers and un-employed youths for the cultivation of
mushroom. Resultantly Solan district of the State has been able to come up on the
Production Map of mushroom cultivation in the country. In order to enhance the
productivity of mushroom in the State, this activity will be adopted in the suitable areas by
making the provision of funds for construction/renovation of mushroom sheds. Making
provision of subsidy as per admissibility in the common guidelines will cover the other
components of mushroom cultivation such as compost and spawn.
(X) Cultivation of Medicinal /Aromatic Plants. A number of species, mostly important
herbs of mid hills and particularly high hills required special attention for conserving them.
These species are threatened primarily due to habitant degradation, weed invasions and over
exploitation (rampant extraction), as these are sources of livelihoods for poor. Plantations of
sea buckthom will be given high priority in cold desert areas and plantation technology for
sea buckthorn will be standardized through collaborative research for wider adoption and
acceptance. Better and modern nursery management practices will be adopted at block level
to ensure the availability of quality planting stock.
The climate and geographical conditions of the State are suitable for growing
medicinal and aromatic plants. The trade in medicinal plants from the state involves about
165 species, growing wild or cultivated in the state. An important aspect of this trade is that
24 species out of the top 100 medicinal plant species traded in the country are found in the
State. An assessment in the buffer zone of Great Himalayan National Park about the
contribution of medicinal plants to the economy of forest side people reveals that harvesting
and trade of medicinal plants gets every household and average annual income of Rs.l4000.
The trade in medicinal plants is largely unregulated, secretive and exploitative and takes
place in the form of raw material. People therefore, do not get benefits of possible value
129

addition to this raw material, Keeping in view the market requirements, cultivation of
selected medicinal plants such as Kuth (Saussurea lappa) was introduced in Lahaul region in
early forties making the State the largest grower of this important drug. Similarly, Poshkar
(Inula racemosa) and Caraway (Carum carvi) have been successfully cultivated in the tribal
region and have proved very productive for the tribal population of the State. Similar
initiatives in temperate Zone with selected high value specie will be every fruitful to the
farmers in augmenting their cash returns.
Among the forest products, Himachal Pradesh meet almost 70% of the total
requirements of Dioscorea deltoids rhizomes of the Indian drug and pharmaceutical industry
or almost fifteen years and is the largest supplier of many important crude drugs such as
‘Kutaki’ (Picrohiza kurrooa), ‘Choorah‘ (Anglica glauca), ‘Som’(Ephedra gerardiana),
‘Kirmala’ (Artemisia maritime), ‘Mushkbala’ (Valeriana jatamansi), Banaisha, (Viola
serpens), ‘Pashanbheda’ (Bergenia ligulata), ‘Bahera’ (Terminalia belerica), ‘Birmi’ (Taxus
buccata), Amrit Harritaki, a longer sized forest variety of Terminalia chebula much prized
for its therapeutic value and commanding a very high market price, comes exclusively from
Himachal.
Most of these plants are collected from the natural forests and sold to the ‘local’
traders and middlemen on charging a very nominal export and collection fee for exporting
these herbs outside Himachal Pradesh. Regular exploitation of these important plants and
increasing degradation of the forest areas has almost wiped out these important plants from
their natural habitat. Production and collection as recorded by the State Forest Department is
practically too less than the actual and which has also noticed a drastic decrease. Local
people who were dependent on these resources for augmentation of their cash earnings are
facing a lot of difficulty in meeting their day-to-day requirements. Since the agriculture is
the main occupation of the rural people and collection of minor forest produce such as
medicinal herbs was the easiest way of generating income for the families, which needs to be
protected.
Cultivation of selected medicinal plants of known commercial value is the need of
hour and can arrest the on going exploitation from natural forests. Development of
cultivation practices will be useful on one hand to the local people as additional source of
income and on the other hand technology will help in the conservation of these important
biodiversity.
There are a number of Protected Areas in Himachal Pradesh; Access denial to
resources affects livelihoods of communities in and around protected area. Besides the PA,
there are some good quality patches of natural habitats falling in the State and these areas
130

may require special attention. Under Watershed Development Programme the cultivation of
medicinal/aromatic, plants will be propagated for generation of additional income of the
people of watershed areas.
(xi) Sericulture: Mulberry based sericulture is a land-based activity with good potential for
generating productive employment. It has several advantages such as labour intensive
nature, low capital investment, short gestation period, and good market. It has also special
significance in employment of women and aged who have limitation like low resource base
of less physical stamina or due to social custom against working outside the home. In the
lower hills of the state majority of families are engaged in sericulture activities who are
producing good quantity of cocoons and also earning good return. There is an existing
network of technical service stations and mulberry plantation, which provide a technical
input to the farmers and which need to be further strengthened.
However, sericulture is still being practiced in the most traditional way and in
unhygienic conditions, which has restricted growth of sericulture both in quality and
quantity. The need of hour is, therefore, to organize the poor families in SHG’s and
motivate them to adopt latest technology developed by the technical agencies, viz by
adopting low cost humidity free rearing structure along with local technology inputs. Under
Watershed Development Project the technical assistance and other inputs would be provided
to rural poor for adopting sericulture as alternative economic activities.
The benefits to the poorest section of the society by way of organizing them into
S.H.G’s, will be provided from project funds and necessary technical infrastructure will be
created as per requirement of DPR. The capacity building infrastructure, technology, and
credit & marketing support will also be provided.
Under Watershed Project additional area shall be identified and following
opportunities will be created:-
0 Macro propagation of Mulberry Plantation by involving Gram Panchayats,
Yuvak Mandals, Mahila Mandals etc.
‘ To double the numbers of existing sericulture families by introducing multiple
rearing pattern.
0 Forward linkage by way of introducing silk reeling and weaving.
(xii) Mining: Unscientific mining of sand, aggregates, sand stones, limestone etc., is on
the rise. Based on conservative estimate, approximately 35 lakh tones of sand, gravel and
boulders are extracted annually from river/streams. Apart from generating Rs.28 Million of
131

direct revenue it has generated direct/indirect employment to about 20000 persons in far-
flung areas of the state. Although the activity of mining cannot be adopted frequently due to
environmental hazards but where the resource of livelihood depends on mining, this activity
can be consider under watershed development project subject to permission of competent
authority. People earning their livelihood from mining are required to provide scientific
training and mining techniques to ensure minimum damage to environment.
(xm) Handicrafts and Handloomsz Handicrafts are an important cottage Industry of
Himachal Pradesh and have the second largest employment potential in the rural sector
being next to Agriculture. Importance of Handicrafts Industry in the economic lies in the
artistic designs, low capital investment and family based skills, which passes on from
generation to generation with no formal training. The revival of Indo China Trade from routs
through H.P. will give further boost to the Industries in the Pradesh. The State Government
has setup the H.P. State Handicraft and Handloom Corporation limited in the year 1994 with
the primary objective of up-liftment of weavers/artisans of the Pradesh. The handicrafts,
handlooms, and other rural artisan’s activities will be given priority under watershed
development programme for additional income generation by the watershed communities.
(xiv) Eco-tourism: A wide variation in the geographical and climatic conditions
prevailing in Himachal Pradesh has resulted in vast potential in tourism. In fact, the
policy makers have always considered tourism as an industry while formulating
strategy for actualization of this potential. If guided by the right policy, this
particular industry has a potential for long term sustenance as well. Clean and
beautiful environment, sacred shrines, historic monuments and hospitality of the
native people of the State complete the indicative list of prerequisites for sustaining
tourism related activities in the long run. The potential for earning livelihood not
only by the urban population but also by rural population of the State in this sector is
immense. Tourism helps providing employment mainly in three ways:
i) Direct employment by rendering of hotel and catering services, as
porters, transport and working as tourist guides.
ii) Employment through production of goods and services required by
the tourists during their stay at the destination.
m) Employment through the activities undertaken for development of
infrastructure required for promoting tourism.
132

The number of tourists visiting in Himachal Pradesh has been increasing over
the years. The number of tourists Who visited the State in the year 2002 was 51.04
lakh and this number rose to 75.72 lakh in 2006 (upto November, 2006).‘ All the
three regions of the State have vast tourism potential, a large part of which is still
unexploited. The Northern High Hills are known for their clean environment and raw
beauty in terms of high snow clad mountain peaks, meadows, thick forests, wide
range of flora and fauna and places of historic and religious importance. This region
has slight advantage in terms of natural beauty as compared to that available in the
Low Hills and the Valleys and the Plains.
Promoting tourism in the lesser known areas through a suitably designed
policy will surely help in providing livelihood opportunities to the people living in
these areas on sustainable basis. The tourism industry in Himachal Pradesh has
already ventured into the fields of recreational travel, adventure and sports tourism
and cultural tourism. Under Watershed Management. the places of high attraction of
tourists will be developed by adopting the activities linked with eco- tourism in
identified areas. The big Check Damsl Ponds having the scope of boating / Water
games etc., the assistance from watershed management programmes will be provided
to the youths for purchase of boat, Dhabas and other small business activities etc.
Another segment which has a vast potential for promoting tourism is health tourism
in terms of herbal and medicinal plants cultivation. There is also a need to convert
Himachal Pradesh from being a holiday destination to tourist destination. Under
Watershed Management Programme the cultivation of medicinal/aromatic, plants will be
propagated to attract more tourist and to generate additional income of the people of rural
areas.
The quantum of funds for these activities would be made according to the
admissibility in the guidelines.
(xv) Micro Enterprises and Skill Up gradation.
In Himchal Pradesh approximately 24% rural households are living
below the poverty line. Apart from BPL families. some other households are
having very small land holdings or come under the category of landless. These
133

households are mostly dependent for their survival on the agricultural, Animal
husbandry and other labour intensive activities. But due to limited opportunities and
lack or technical know how the youth of rural area are visiting other places
especially in urban areas for employment. Due to meager opportunities of jobs for
non technical persons in industries, these youths are either engaging themselves in
uneconomical jobs or remained ideal for long period involving wasteful expenditure
and wasting valuable time. If the employment opportunities to the youths in micro
enterprises are ensured at their door steps or nearby areas, the valuable time and
expenditure can be saved and financial status of these families will be improved.
Thus the opportunities exist under Watershed Management for skill up gradation of
rural youths through reputed/recognized institutions/organizations in the field of
micro enterprises. In the present scenario the electronic related items are available
with almost every rural household and in case of any defects in these items the
solution is to get repaired these items in the market or by engaging the mechanics
which is time consuming as well as the costlier affair. If the youths of the area or
nearby area are trained in these activities, the wage employment to the needy person
and saving in the expenditure can be ensured at village level. Similarly the
Refrigerator repair, Motor repair, Welding etc. can also be considered as trade for
skill up gradation of rural youth in project area. Other professions like Masson,
Carpenter are also important mean of income generation in rural areas. But due to
change in living standard of the perople, the modem items are being used for
construction/decoration of buildings for which the latest technical skills is required
to be upgraded of the persons involved in massonary and carpenter works to earn
sufficient income from these professions. . The small business such as Dhabas, Tea
Stalls near to common village location /bus stoppage can also be propagated to boost
the income of rural poor people by providing assistance and skill up gradation
training under these trades. The Animal Husbandry is most important mean for
livelihood enhancement in rural area. But due to lack of proper marketing
arrangements, the inhabitants use to sell their produce in through away prices to the
middleman. In case the local youths are trained in the preparation of especially bio
product of milk such as Cheese Khoa etc, the wage employment opportunities will
be increased and producer will also get more income from their products. The other
trade relating to food products like Sepu Bari, Pickles, souses Jams, juices and food-
134

cum medicinal items like Ambla Candi, Trifla, Murba, etc. can also change the
economic status of rural people in case these items are prepared properly in
hygenice conditions by maintaining standard. The training on these trades will be
fruitful in relation to self employment opportunities and to increase the economic
status of rural people. To make the rural youth self dependent the Watershed
Development Programme can be the most useful tools especially to build their
skills/knowledge. It is therefore proposed that the self help groups of village
community in the watershed area will be constituted; and proper training for up
gradation of their skills will be provided as per provisions in the Watershed
Development guidelines to make them self employed by adopting income generating
activities.
To upgrade the skill and to start the income generating activities, the
provisions of subsidy will be kept to all the rural households comes under the
category of landless, agriculture labourer, non agriculture labourer, marginal
farmers and rural artisans through self help groups irrespective of their selection in
BPL list. But the quantum of benefit would not be more than the prescribed limit
under SGSY , in other projects and provision of the guidelines.. However, the first
priority for these benefits will be the BPL families.
135

CHAPTER-10
FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS
To achieve the objectives of Watershed Development Projects and
to enhance the livelihood opportunities total 3112472 Hectare areas has been proposed for
treatment in different districts of the State‘ The proposed area will be treated in a phased
manner within a period of 10-15 years and involvement of Panchayati Raj Institutions and
local communities will be ensured at each level to achieve the objectives of the Watershed
Development Projects. The financial provisions as made in the guidelines are not sufficient
for treatment of whole proposed areas but the concept of convergence is important for
adding additional financial resources to taken up the suitable infrastructure and livelihood
related activities. The additional provisions of funds are required for implementation of
watershed projects in the hilly areas like Himachal Pradesh. However with the possibilities
of increase in per hectare norms for hilly areas, the per hectare cost norms have been
proposed at the rate of Rs. 15000/— per Hectare instead of 12000/-.
In common guidelines para 9.3,the following budget component has been
prescribed.
Table 10.1 Budget Component
S.N. Components
Provi
sions( %age)
1 Administrative Cost.
10%
2. Monitoring
1%
3. Evaluation
1%
Prepatory phase
1. Entry point activities
4%
2. Institutional and Capacity building
5%
3. Detailed Project Report
1%
Watershed work phase
1 Watershed development works
50%
2. Livelihood activities
10%
3 Production system and micro enterprises
13%
Consolidation phase
1 Consolidation phase
5%
Grand total (a+b+c+d)
100%
The total projected amount for treatment of 3112472 1-Iectare area is Rs
4668.71 .Crore and component Wise breakup is as under:
136

10.
1. (a) COMPONENT WISE PROPSED FINANCIAL OUTLAYS FOR
TREATMENT OF 3112472 HECTARE LAND IN HIMACHAL
PRADESH (@ Rs.15,000/ per hactare)
Crores)
S.N. Components
Pr0visi0ns( %age) Amount
l Administrative Cost.
10%
466.87
2. Monitoring
1%
46.69
3. Evaluation
1%
46.69
Sub-Total (a)
12%
560.25
Prepatory ph
BS9
1. Entry point activities
4%
186.75
2. Institutional and Capacity
building
5%
233.44
3. Detailed Project Report
1%
46.69
Sub-Total (b)
10%
466.87
Watershed
work
phase
1 Watershed development
Works
50%
2334.35
2. Livelihood activities
10%
466.87
3 Production system and micro
enterprises
13%
606.93
Sub-Total (c)
73%
3408.15
Consolida
ti0n p
hase
1 Consolidation phase
5%
233.44
Sub-Total (d)
5%
233.44
Grand total (a+b+c+d)
100%
4668.71
(Total Project Cost is Rs. 4668.71 Crore or Say Rs. 4669Cr0res)
137

10.1 (b) DISTRICT WISE FINANCIAL OUTLAYS FOR HIMACHAL
PRADESH
i) TOTAL AREA PROPOSED FOR TREATMENT 3112472 HECTARES
ii) TOTAL BUDGET (@ RS. 15,000/- PER HECTARE) —RS.4668.71 CRORES
(RS.IN CRORES)
S.NO
DISTRICT
TOTAL AREA AMOUNT
PROPOSED TO BE
TREATED
1
1.
Bilalspur
53524
80.29
2.
Chamba
434340
651.51
3.
Hamirpur
33592
50.38
4.
Kangra
284157
426.23
5.
Kinnaur
305830
458.75
6.
Kullu
378250
567.38
7.
Lahaul & Spiti
761322
1141.98
8.
Mandi
266938
400.41
9.
Shirnla
293637
440.46
10.
Sirmour
157195
235.79
11.
Solan
83199
124.80
12
Una
60488
90.73
3112472
4668.71

10.1.2 DISTRICT-WISE COMPONENT WISE PROPOSED FINANCIAL
OUTLAYS
l0.1.2.1.. DISTRICT BILASPUR
i) TOTAL AREA PROPOSED FOR TREATMENT 53524 HECTARES
ii) TOTAL BUDGET (@ RS.l5,000/- PER HECTARE) —RS.80.29 CRORES
(RS.IN CRORES)
S.NO PARTICULARS (BUDGET COMPONENT) NORM TOTAL
A. ADMINISTRATION
i) Administrative cost 10%
8.029
ii) Monitoring 1%
0.803
m) Evaluation 1%
0.803
B. PREPARATORY PHASE
0
i) Entry Point Activities 4%
3.212
ii) Institution and capacity building 5%
4.014
m) Detailed Project Report (DPR) 1%
0.803
C. WATER SHED WORKS PHASE
0
i) Water Shed Development works 50%
40.145
ii) Livelihood activities the for asset less persons 10%
8.029
m) Production system and Micro Enterprise 13%
10.438
D) CONSOLIDATION PHASE 5%
4.014
TOTAL 100 %
80.29
139

10.1.2.2 DISTRICT CHAMBA
i)
ii)
TOTAL AREA PROPOSED FOR TREATMENT 434340 HECTARES
TOTAL BUDGET (@ RS.15,000/- PER HECTARE) —RS.651.51 CRORES
CRORES)
(RS.IN
S.NO
PARTICULARS (BUDGET COMPONENT) NORM
TOTAL
A.
ADMINISTRATION
i)
Administrative cost 10%
65.151
ii)
Monitoring 1%
6.515
m)
Evaluation 1 %
6.515
B.
PREPARATORY PHASE
i)
Entry Point Activities 4%
26.06
ii)
Institution and capacity building 5%
32.576
m)
Detailed Project Report (DPR) 1%
6.515
C.
WATER SHED WORKS PHASE
i)
Water Shed Development Works 50%
325.76
11)
Livelihood activities the for asset less persons 10%
65.151
m)
Production system and Micro Enterprise 13%
84.696
D)
CONSOLIDATION PHASE 5%
32.571
TOTAL 100 %
651.51
140

10.1.2.3 DISTRICT HAMIRPUR
TOTAL AREA PROPOSED FOR TREATMENT 33592 HECTARES
(RS.IN CRORES)
ii) TOTAL BUDGET (@ RS.15,000/- PER HECTARE) —RS.50.38 CRORES
S.NO PARTICULARS
NORM TOTAL
A.
ADMINISTRATION (BUDGET OMPONENT)
i)
Administrative cost
10%
5.038
ii)
Monitoring
1%
0.504
m)
Evaluation
1%
0.504
B.
PREPARATORY PHASE
i)
Entry Point Activities
4%
2.015
ii)
Institution and capacity building
5%
2.519
m)
Detailed Project Report (DPR)
1%
0.504
C.
WATER SHED WORKS PHASE
i)
Water Shed Development works
50%
25.19
ii)
Livelihood activities the for asset less persons
10%
5.038
m)
Production system and Micro Enterprise
13%
6.549
D)
CONSOLIDATION PHASE
5%
2.519
TOTAL
100%
50.38
141

10.1.2.4. DISTRICT KANGRA
ii) TOTAL BUDGET (@ RS.15,000/- PER HECTARE) —RS.426.23 CRORES
i) TOTAL AREA PROPOSED FOR TREATMENT 284157 HECTARES
(RS.IN CRORES)
S.NO PARTICULARS (BUDGET COMPONENT)
NORM TOTAL
A.
ADMINISTRATION
i)
Administrative cost
10%
42.623
ii)
Monitoring
1%
4.262
m)
Evaluation
1%
4.262
B.
PREPARATORY PHASE
i)
Entry Point Activities
4%
17.049
ii)
Institution and capacity building
5%
21.312
m)
Detailed Project Report (DPR)
1%
4.262
C.
WATER SHED WORKS PHASE
i)
Water Shed Development Works
50%
213.115
ii)
Livelihood activities the for asset less persons
10%
42.623
m)
Production system and Micro Enterprise
13%
55.410
D)
CONSOLIDATION PHASE
5%
21.312
TOTAL
100 %
426.23
142

10.1.2.5 DISTRICT KINNAUR
TOTAL AREA PROPOSED FOR TREATMENT 305830 HECTARES
ii) TOTAL BUDGET (@ RS.15,000/- PER HECTARE) —RS.4S8.7S
CRORES
(RS.IN CRORES)
S.NO PARTICULARS (BUDGET
COMPONENT)
NORM TOTAL
A.
ADMINISTRATION
i)
Administrative cost
10%
45.875
ii)
Monitoring
1%
4.587
m)
Evaluation
1%
4.587
B.
PREPARATORY PHASE
i)
Entry Point Activities
4%
18.35
ii)
Institution and capacity building
5%
22.938
m)
Detailed Project Report (DPR)
1%
4.587
C.
WATER SHED WORKS PHASE
i)
Water Shed Development Works
50%
229.375
11)
Livelihood activities the for asset less persons
10%
45.875
m)
Production system and Micro Enterprise
13%
59.638
D)
CONSOLIDATION PHASE
5%
22.938
TOTAL
100 %
458.75
143

10.1.2..6 DISTRICT KULLU
i) TOTAL AREA PROPOSED FOR TREATMENT 378250 HECTARES
ii) TOTAL BUDGET (@ RS. l5,000/- PER HECTARE) —RS.567.38 CRORES
(RS.IN CRORES)
S.NO PARTICULARS
NORM TOTAL
A.
ADMINISTRATION (BUDGET
COMPONENT)
i)
Administrative cost
l()%
56.738
ii)
Monitoring
1%
5.674
m)
Evaluation
l%
5.674
B.
PREPARATORY PHASE
i)
Entry Point Activities
4%
22.695
ii)
Institution and capacity building
5%
28.369
m)
Detailed Project Report (DPR)
1%
5.674
C.
WATER SHED WORKS PHASE
i)
Water Shed Development Works
50%
283.69
ii)
Livelihood activities the for asset less persons
10%
56.738
m)
Production system and Micro Enterprise
13%
73.759
D)
CONSOLIDATION PHASE
5%
28.369
TOTAL
100 %
567.38
144

10.1.2.7 DISTRICT LAHAUL & SPITI
i) TOTAL AREA PROPOSED FOR TREATMENT 761322 HECTARES
ii) TOTAL BUDGET (@ RS.15,000/- PER HECTARE) —RS.1141.98
CRORES
(RS.IN CRORES)
S.NO PARTICULARS (BUDGET
COMPONENT)
NORM TOTAL
A.
ADMINISTRATION
i)
Administrative cost
10%
114.198
ii)
Monitoring
1%
1 1.420
m)
Evaluation
1%
11.420
B.
PREPARATORY PHASE
i)
Entry Point Activities
4%
45.679
ii)
Institution and capacity building
5%
57.099
m)
Detailed Project Report (DPR)
1%
11.420
C.
WATER SHED WORKS PHASE
i)
Water Shed Development Works
50%
570.99
ii)
Livelihood activities the for asset less persons
10%
114.198
m)
Production system and Micro Enterprise
13%
148.457
D)
CONSOLIDATION PHASE
5%
57.099
TOTAL
100 %
1141.98
145

10.1.2.8 DISTRICT MANDI
i)
ii)
TOTAL AREA PROPOSED FOR TREATMENT 266938 HECTARES
TOTAL BUDGET (@ RS.l5,000/- PER HECTARE) RS.400.41 CRORES
RS.IN CRORES)
S.NO
PARTICULARS (BUDGET
COMPONENT)
NORM TOTAL
A.
ADMINISTRATION
i)
Administrative cost 10%
40.041
ii)
Monitoring 1%
4.004
m)
Evaluation 1%
4.004
B.
PREPARATORY PHASE
0
i)
Entry Point Activities 4%
16.016
ii)
Institution and capacity building 5%
20.021
m)
Detailed Project Report (DPR) 1%
4.004
C.
WATER SHED WORKS PHASE
O
i)
Water Shed Development Works 50%
200.205
ii)
Livelihood activities the for asset less persons 10%
40.041
m)
Production system and Micro Enterprise l3%
52.053
D)
CONSOLIDATION PHASE 5%
20.021
TOTAL 100 %
400.41
146

10.1.2.9 DISTRICT SHIMLA
i) TOTAL AREA PROPOSED FOR TREATMENT 293637 HECTARES
ii) TOTAL BUDGET (@ RS.15,000/- PER HECTARE) Rs.440.46 CRORES
CRORES)
(RS.IN
S.NO PARTICULARS (BUDGET
COMPONENT)
NORM TOTAL
A.
ADMINISTRATION
i)
Administrative cost
10%
44.046
ii)
Monitoring
1%
4.405
m)
Evaluation
1%
4.405
B.
PREPARATORY PHASE
i)
Entry Point Activities
4%
17.617
ii)
Institution and capacity building
5%
22.023
m)
Detailed Project Report (DPR)
1%
4.405
C.
WATER SHED WORKS PHASE
i)
Water Shed Development Works
50%
220.230
11)
Livelihood activities the for asset less persons
10%
44.046
m)
Production system and Micro Enterprise
13%
57.260
D)
CONSOLIDATION PHASE
5%
22.023
TOTAL
100 %
440.460
147

10.1.2.10 DISTRICT SIRMOUR
CRORES
i) TOTAL AREA PROPOSED FOR TREATMENT 157195 HECTARES
1i) TOTAL BUDGET (@ RS.15,000/- PER HECTARE) —RS. 235.79
(RS.IN CRORES)
S.NO PARTICULARS (BUDGET
COMPONENT)
NORM TOTAL
A.
ADMINISTRATION
i)
Administrative cost
10%
23.579
ii)
Monitoring
1%
2.358
m)
Evaluation
1%
2.358
B.
PREPARATORY PHASE
i)
Entry Point Activities
4%
9.432
ii)
Institution and capacity building
5%
11.789
m)
Detailed Project Report (DPR)
1%
2.358
C.
WATER SHED WORKS PHASE
i)
Water Shed Development Works
50%
117.895
11)
Livelihood activities the for asset less persons
10%
23.579
m)
Production system and Micro Enterprise
13%
30.653
D)
CONSOLIDATION PHASE
5%
11.789
TOTAL
100 %
235.790
148

10.1.2..11 DISTRICT SOLAN
i)
11)
T OTAL AREA PROPOSED FOR TREATMENT 83199 HECTARES
TOTAL BUDGET (@ RS.15,000/- PER HECTARE) RS.124.80 CRORES
(RS.IN CRORES)
S.NO PARTICULARS (BUDGET COMPONENT)
NORM TOTAL
A.
ADMINISTRATION
i)
Administrative cost
10%
12.480
ii)
Monitoring
1%
1.248
m)
Evaluation
1%
1.248
B.
PREPARATORY PHASE
i)
Entry Point Activities
4%
4.992
ii)
Institution and capacity building
5%
6.240
m)
Detailed Project Report (DPR)
1%
1.248
C.
WATER SHED WORKS PHASE
i)
Water Shed Development Works
50%
62.400
11)
Livelihood activities the for asset less persons
10%
12.480
m)
Production system and Micro Enterprise
13%
16.224
D)
CONSOLIDATION PHASE
5%
6.240
TOTAL
100 %
124.800
149

10.1.2.12 DISTRICT UNA
i
) TOTAL AREA PROPOSED FOR TREATMENT 60488 HECTARES
ii) TOTAL BUDGET (@ RS.l5,000/— PER HECTARE) RS. 90.73 CRORES
(RS.IN CRORES)
S.NO
PARTICULARS (BUDGET COMPONENT)
NORM TOTAL
A.
ADMINISTRATION
i)
Administrative cost
10%
9.073
ii)
Monitoring
1%
0.907
m)
Evaluation
1%
0.907
B.
PREPARATORY PHASE
0
i)
Entry Point Activities
4%
3.629
11)
Institution and capacity building
5%
4.537
m)
Detailed Project Report (DPR)
1%
0.907
C.
WATER SHED WORKS PHASE
0
i)
Water Shed Development works
50%
45.365
ii)
Livelihood activities the for asset less persons
10%
9.073
m)
Production system and Micro Enterprise
13%
11.795
D)
CONSOLIDATION PHASE
5%
4.537
TOTAL
100%
90.730
150

William Moorcroft
Ninth Fasciculus of a Journal from Sept. 16″‘ to Oct. 21“ 1820 in
the Country of Ladakh
British Library, London
India Office Records
MSS/EUR/D244
FILMED DECEMBER 1993
Transcribed by Janet Rizvi, February to May 2016
Published in the Mountains of Central Asia Digital Dataset (MCADD) on
the www.pahar.in website on July 7, 2016
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l
Sept. 17 — The name of our last nights encampment was Room-choo or che for each
termination is used indifferently and is so called from a village of that name the first we have
seen since we quitted Lubrungl on the 3d instt. so that we have travelled in the Mountains of
Tatary for fourteen days without having found a fixed habitation of man. Roomchoo consists
only of a few straggling houses of stone whited of three stories with flat roofs and appears to
have for inhabitants the Priests of the red order who cultivate the Awa J ao or Tatary Wheat in
patches of flat land surrounded by loose stone walls and well watered by trenches led from
convenient levels in the Rivulets at a great distance. The bottom of these cuts are uniformly
covered with large stones and the sides are of earth covered with an elastic thick but short
sward. This rough paving I presume has been found to prevent the water striking against the
earthy bottom with such force as to cut it up as is observed in mountain Streams where there
are few stones. The force of the water is spent upon the sides of the stones and their
interspaces serve as channels to carry it off silently and without injury to the bank or bottom.
Some of the Com was pulled up by the roots and laid in heaps but more was standing and
nearly 3 feet high. Many of the heads were nearly purple but though the Stems were green
and seemed to require Sun for at least 3 weeks none of the Plants appeared to have been
injured by the cold or piercing Wind. This variety of Wheat? Barley? seems very hardy and
ought to be sent to the western Isles and
i Triticum Hinangulare? Hordeum nudum?
[2]
to the northern parts of Britain where it would succeed much better than Barley or Oats. I will
procure some at Leh and forward it to Dr. Wallich and request a sample may be sent to Thos.
Scarisbrick Esq”. for trial on Martin Meerz as provided the Plant meet only with moisture
enough it can resist a great degree of cold hence would well suit those situations in which our
harvests are very late.3 I went into the fields and beckoned to some Priests who were going
from me to stop which they did. I saluted them and repeated the phrase “Om ma nee put me
hoon” which I knew would excite their attention. The oldest of the Priests apparently about
80 plucked a handful of ripe Ears of Corn and offered them to me. I took one Ear and
thinking he might take Snuff made signs to him to send a person on to our Camp and I would
retum some by him. On the road I shot some wild Pigeons with a white belt round the
backbone [?] of the body and with the upper surface of the tail feathers mainly white. This
variety I saw in the Mountains of Gurhwhal. It is at least only two thirds of the size of the
blue Pigeon. For some days past I have observed a variety of Lark in vast flocks, and the
Snow Cock with a brown head and band under the neck beginning to puck[?], an indication
of the approach of hard weather. The road crossing a rivulet of the purest and cold water
reaches two large white sepulchral buildings with a long and thick pile of stones roofed with
others taken from the river and covered with inscriptions. The erections were above
3
25 feet high of better workmanship than I had before observed in this kind of edifice. On a
square basis fonned of three or four heights [appar. sic] receding inwards each by the breadth
of a brick stood a square Pillar of about 14 feet on a side and about 8 feet high, this was
surmounted by several heights of receding steps and upon the uppermost was a large
compressed urn the smallest part downwards and surrounded by a belt of simple but large
2

foliage. The upper part was rounded and a pole of about 6 feet projected upwards through the
middle of the roof. On the northem side was a hole by which a person could ascend through
the top of the um to the pole. The roof seemed to be covered with a grouting or rough cast of
lime. The water in flowing from the Snow had dissolved some of the lime and carrying it
down along the sides of the Um fonned projecting ridges and grooves from top to bottom
with reticulations crossing them. Some of our party pulled off the stalactic drops from the
Eaves and thought they would answer as pencils of Chalk. The Priest of Room choo is said to
be the Carver of the Stones of the Pile which is stated to be the Register of the Village. At
present I cannot safely be very particular in my enquiries but gradually I will procure a clear
explanation of many circumstances connected with these Piles which puzzle me at present.
There are several Walls of Stone about 8 feet hight 2 feet thick and from 50 to
[4]
a hundred feet in length some placed abreast of the road, others along the summits of the
verge of ravines, turreted on the top and calculated to serve as stockades to defend the
frontier, the interstices of the turrets serving as loop holes to fire from. Some of these
presumed defences are judiciously placed to command the road but others may easily be
tumed. The stream which had conducted us to Room Choo was now become red from
containing the earth of the red [illeg. ?pitts] I yesterday observed. In my last joumey I was
informed by the Gold washers that they frequently found Gold in the same kind of red Earth
but I held it imprudent to ask any questions on this subject here. On tuming a comer I
observed the town of Gah before me and at a short distance from the left bank of the Rivulet.
I was about to pass it but was prevented by one of our Carriers who requested that I would
order the Camp to be formed on the right bank of the Rivulet and short of the Town and stay
there three days. As I observed many fields of corn unripe on the left bank and all those on
the right bank cut I saw reason for complying with his wish as far as regarded the locality
leaving the period of stay for farther discussion. The old Priest sent a few handfuls of
Turnips, about the size of Walnuts as a present. I divided them with the Meer’s Party. Two
small bundles of dry Furze cost two J ous or half a rupee and their weight did not exceed
5
ten pounds. However the Country seems wholly destitute of both Timber and Brushwood
save five or six Trees in the Town. Towards evening the person whom I had seen at
Rookchoo came to our Camp and addressed himself first to Meer Izzut Oollah Khan. His
name was Abdool Lateef and he proved to be an Agent of Kuloon Wuzeer of Leh. He arrived
at the moment when the Lahoul carriers declared their intention to leave our Baggage at Gah
and to retum to Lahoul instead of carrying it on to Leh as they had agreed and for which they
had received the full hire. Meer Izzut Oollah appealed to Abdool Lateef as a person
acquainted with the customs of the country from his official situation and showed him the
agreement of Rama Kanungo and of Ram Dhan the Agent of the Lahoul Chief with their
receipt for 1500 Rupees for the conveyance of the baggage to Leh. He enquired if the writing
was theirs and they acknowledged its correctness. He then said that the matter ought to be
brought before the Raj a of Gah Kagha Tunzeen the Son in law of Kuloon the Wuzeer of Leh.
After this Abdool Lateef took the Meer aside and addressed him in the following manner
“You are a Moosalman and a Sueyud [apparently sic, ?Syed] and a friend of Khwaja Shah
3

Neas* and I am his pupil swear to me that you will truly disclose the motions of Europeans in
this country. Meer Izzut Oollah complying with his request stated that the intention of the
* A Peerzada or Moosalman Priest of great respectability who had resided on a Jagheer granted him by
the Dooranees of Kashmir but deprived of it by the Sikhs had taken refuge in Ludagh . Meer Izzut
Oollah had pleaded his case with Runjeet Singh and obtained a promise ofa reversal ofthe
sequestration pronounced. [appar. sic]
[6]
Europeans was to proceed to Bokhara to buy Horses that the legitimate Govt. of Kabool
being overtumed and the country in disorder and having leamed that the roads in Tibet were
safe and the inhabitants well disposed they came here. And having consulted the Raja and the
Wuzeer on the best road to be taken would follow their advice. Having heard this Abdool
Lateef said that it was proper for the Meer to pay his respects to the Raja and Kagha Tunzeen
taking with him a Ser of white Sugarcandy to each. Abdool Luteef then came to me & after
some conversation I gave him a Ser of Sugar Candy a pound of green Tea and a large Roll of
[illeg. ?Pristine] Virginia tobacco with which he was highly satisfied. The distance of our
march ths day was 7673 paces and the direction roughly to the W of North. The‘. 33 Min [7]
77 — N – 50 Night. Lat 33″.30’.9″ Alt. ll6.55.40.
Sept. 18. The Meer visited the Raja and found with him Kagha Tunzeen after mutual
compliments tea was brought and the attendants dismissed. The Raja and Kagha said you
formerly were at Leh, by what road did you come?— By that of Kashmeer. — Where did you
go from Leh? To Yarkund, Kashgar, Khokhun, Sumarkund to Bokhara. — On your return by
what route did you proceed to Hindoostan? By Kabool. What is the native place of your
family? First Bokhara now Dehlee. Are there any persons with you now who first
accompanied you to Leh? No. I-Iow long have you been with the European Gentlemen now
here.
7
A year. By your former journey and residence amongst us you must have known that our
religion prescribes not enmity to those who follow different faiths and that We have a
particular respect for those who profess that of Islam and as a proof Quaja Shah Neas has
resided 13 Months with us. Now relate your intentions and we will forward your report to
Kuloon the Wuzeer. I yesterday under the formality of an Oath fully explained the object of
this joumey yesterday to Abdool Luteef and I have no alteration to make thereon. We ask
more particulars of you that when we meet before the Wuzeer along with Quaja Shah Neas
there may be no difference of facts. The first report that reached us that an Army was on the
march towards us and Kuloon sent me to ascertain the tmth. — You have now seen with your
own eyes the actual state of things. “shoonede qace bowud mancuide deede”. [apparently sic]
– With Runjeet Singh what are your relations? Friendly or inimical? Friendly. D0 the borders
of the English and of the Sikh territory join or are they separated by other countries? The
River Sutlej separates the two territories the right bank belonging to the Sikhs? Does the
country on the left bank appertain to the English? No It belongs to the Sikhs but an English
Military force is permanently encamped upon it. How does it happen that an English Anny is
established upon the Sikh Demesnes? The Peasantry are the subjects of the English but they
pay revenue to the Sikhs. The object of the Anny is to prevent their being oppressed and to
preserve the relations of peace for the intentions of the British Govt. are not to take Countries
4

[3]
unless the Governors of countries act with hostility against them. The Traders of Yarkund,
Bokhara Kashmeer and of other places have commercial intercourse with this country and go
backwards and forwards but heretofore no English or Europeans have ever come and this
being a new occurrence we have much anxiety respecting it. Within a short period this also
will be an old occurrence everything has a commencement. There was a moment when you
had no communication with Yarkund but when this was established and your good faith
known other tribes came into your country and by degrees established commercial
communication. People say that Europeans first visit a country under pretence of establishing
commercial relations and afterwards take it from the Nation’s rulers. This is false as was the
case in respect to the report you had heard of an Army being on the march towards your
country. Exaggerations constitute the character of reports. Well so far we will relate what you
have stated to Kuloon and acquaint you with his answer. How long did you remain at
Kooloo? Ten of fifteen days. How long at Lahore? At the first period ten or fifteen days and
at the second when Runjeet Singh being sick recalled the Sahib who is a Medical Man to his
assistance we stayed eight days. We have heard that the Raj as of Mundee and of Katoch
opposed your coming. The Raj a of Mundee wished to have the concurrence of Runjeet Singh
to our passing through his territory and the latter on this being represented directed all the
Rajas on our course to give us assistance and they have fumished Porters &c. And men
9
from the Rajas of Kotoch and Koolloo now accompany us. Have you any writing from
Runjeet Singh to the authorities of Leh? No and for this reason when I saw Runjeet Singh he
asked me if Leh was tributary to Kashmeer I answered that the Raja of Leh held some land as
J agheer under the Sooba of Kashmeer and as an acknowledgment sent annually some
presents to the Govemor of that country. I was induced by the question of Runjeet Singh to
believe that he was ignorant of what relations of policy or custom existed between Kashmeer
and Leh and therefore thought it unnecessary to ask him for any letters to Leh, but I have
letters from Runj eet Singh to the Soobedar of Kashmeer of which the object is to direct him
to furnish carriers and other facilities to the Sahib should he on his return from Leh wish to
pass through Kashmeer. We are in some degree tributary to or politically [illeg.] connected
with three countries viz Yarkund, Lhassa and Kashmeer and therefore hope that no
disturbance will arise with any of them in respect to the Sahib’s journey. But as you have
sworn so will we write. You need not entertain any apprehension with regard to our
intentions and you have two witnesses or [illeg.] in the letters of the Raja of Koolloo to the
Raja of Ludagh and of the Wuzeer Sobha Ram to the Wuzeer Kuloon. Here Meer Izzut
Oollah read the letters in question the purport of which was—That we by good luck have an
opportunity of doing business for the Sahib and we wish that you should
[10]
do him good offices and as you have friendship towards us that you should bear also towards
him. The Meer then related our embarrassments in respect to the demand of the Carriers and
they stated that the conditions should be performed according to the tenns of the Agreement.
They enquired the name of the principal City of the English Answer London. There resided
the King and the Marquis of Hastings was Govemor General of India. They asked particulars
about the Small Pox. The Meer answered that if they would send two proper persons to
5

Almora they would be instructed in a mode of preventing that disease proving fatal. How
many days journey is Almora from hence. It is about twenty days journey from Gurhdookh.
Did the Sahib ever go to Gurhdookh. Perhaps he did. They then examined the agreement with
the carriers and wrote down the name of the Meer.
Sept. 19. I was desirous to meet the Raja and Kagha Tunzeen and directed the Meer to adjust
this matter with Abdool Luteef who accordingly despatched a messenger to the Raja. An
answer was returned that it was expected I should first go to them. If there was any form of
ceremony to be observed I requested Abdool Luteef to apprise me of it in the first instance
that no misunderstanding might occur afterwards as from Meer Izzut Oollah I understood that
they both according to his conception appeared to him exceedingly punctilious and proud
having neither of them returned his salutations of respect on entering and leaving the room
I 1
by rising or other mark of acknowledgement. Some talk took place about seats on which I
observed that I was disposed to observe the ceremonials practised usually in the country and
not to prescribe new ones. This principle being adopted I proceeded along with Mr Trebeck,
Meer Izzut Oollah, his Son Meer Hajee Nujuf Uleel on horseback to the house of the Raja
which is at the upper end of the town by a stony narrow winding path between low flat roofed
Houses of two or three Stories on the right hand and small walled enclosures for Cattle on the
left open at the top end of irregular forms suited to the unevenness of the ground. The
inhabitants not numerous had resorted to the roofs of their houses to see the strangers and the
women huddled behind each other peeped with diffidence and as it were by stealth. Having
ridden into the small courtyard defended by two low and stout woolly haired dogs with heads
much resembling those of Bears we passed through a short dark and narrow entry up a
narrow short flight of steep stairs making our way more by feeling than sight. At the top was
an Antichamber open above except on one side where it was shaded by a slip of roof serving
as covering for a passage from rooms on one side to others on the opposite side of the house
and indicating by the irregularity of the beams the scarcity of timber in the Country. From the
top of the Door of the Raja’s apartment was suspended a narrow valance of white and red
plaited Cotton Cloth.
[12]
On entering the apartment I found the Raja sitting on one of my two Chairs at the farther side
of the room with his feet on a white felt and on the side facing a small Veranda. Kagha
Tunzeen was seated on a Camp Stool. The other Chair placed on the edge of the felt directly
opposite the Raja was reserved for me and the other stools &[c.] on a line with it. After
saluting these personages who neither spoke nor moved I took my seat and enquired after
their health. Meer Izzut Oollah interpreted in Persian to Abdool Luteef who spoke
Kasmmeeree Persian and he conversed with the Chiefs in the language of Tibet. The Raja
hoped that the roads had not been very bad nor the weather very cold. Our progress to Leh he
said would not be difficult as the road was level. Salted Tea without milk was introduced and
served to the Raj a and Kagha Tunzeen and to us out of a Tea pot which would hold about two
Quarts. The Raja pulled a small yellow China Tea cup out of a packet before his breast and
the Kagha displayed one made of the knot of the Horse Chesnut lined with a Silver and
having a small ornamented knob or projection in the middle of its bottom. We came prepared
with our own Cups. The Tea was not very strong and tasted something like weak broth. The
6

teapot appeared to be of silver. The sides were convex gilt and of a shield like shape but
plain. The top bottom handle and spout were curiously wrought in filligree work.
13
Below the shield was a medallion hanging by chains and the embossed figures on which were
executed in good taste. [sic] The spout rose out of the throat of a Dragon. I had but a cursory
view of this Utensil as I had not become so fully reconciled to the Tea as to take a second cup
full but it appeared to me both in general fonn and in detail to be one of the most splendid
Teapots I ever saw and I much regretted that I had not a drawing of it as I am convinced it
would have had many admirers in Europe. I asked some questions about the Grain, Harvest
&c. which were answered with complacency. I regretted that the shortness of the day
imposed on me the necessity of so soon taking leave but trusted to have the pleasure of
another interview with them at my tent in the course of it. On their expressing their
acquiescence I took my departure and observed that the crowd in the Antichamber had their
countenances brightened with smiles and by gestures expressed their satisfaction at what had
passed. The women too emboldened as it seemed by our interview with their Chief salaamed
freely to us on our retum. The apartment of the Raja was tolerably spacious but low. It
contained little fumiture save a few wooden chests a small wooden Temple in which was a
figure of the Lama with the face exposed the body wrapped in a Tunic of Dove colored silk
and another statue entirely shrouded by a covering of the same material. The side of the
Wall[?]
[14]
near to the Raja was decorated with several colored drawings of Lamas in attitudes of
devotion but I was too far from them to be able to form an opinion of their execution. In
about an hour after we reached our Tents the Raja and Kagha Tunzeen arrived preceded by
Musicians. I received the former on alighting from his Horse and led him by the hand to a
Chair whilst Mr Trebeck went through the same ceremony with Kagha Tunzeen. They both
expressed themselves pleased with the neatness [7] of the Tent. Tea was served accompanied
by sweet Cakes, Sugar and Milk. The principals drank Tea and ate the Cakes but did not
choose Sugar or Milk though these were taken by Abdool Luteef and the Moonshee of the
Kagha. After tea a Glass of Creme de Noyau was offered to each. The Kagha just tasted but
declined drinking making signs that he feared it would affect his head. But on my taking a
little the Raja tasted the Liqueur coughed and made wry faces but took off half the contents
of the Glass and would I believe have finished the whole had he not been deterred by the
example of the Kagha. The Attendants at the door begged to have the liqueur rejected by the
Kagha divided amongst them and drank it from the palms of their hands. They afterwards
requested to be indulged with a little more and expressed their satisfaction with its flavor by
gestures and smacking their lips. After some little conversation the Kagha said that report had
propagated strange things respecting us but that having seen, talked with us and observed our
behaviour he found we had been grossly misrepresented, and that he should immediately
15
forward a true account of all the circumstances he had observed and leamt respecting us to
the Kuloon Wuzeer. I presented the Raja with a dress of superfine Scarlet Cloth [and the
Kagha] with one of a dark blue color but of the same quality. The Kagha said that the present
was as unnecessary as unexpected and that at all events it could only have been merited by a
series of friendly offices which had not yet been performed. That for his part he was
7

distressed at not having it in his power to make any return at this place but he hoped to have
this opportunity at Leh. I replied that we desired no further return than his friendship and that
I trusted all parties would be benefited and pleased by farther intercourse. Both the Raj a and
the Kagha appeared gratified with the treatment they had experienced and departed. The Raj a
sent two men’s loads of Sattoo and a Sheep and a Goat which I ordered to be divided
amongst all the Servants of the party after having rewarded the bringers With money as also
the Musicians who began to serenade after the departure of our Guests. To Abdool Luteef
who as I before remarked acted as interpreter and to the Moonshee of Kagha Tunzeen I gave
each a very handsome Punjabee Loongee purchased at Umritsir. In the evening an
examination was made of the quantity of our merchandize by persons deputed by us and by
the Raja in order that the frontier duties might be levied by him. But a difference arising in
the estimate the Assessors for the Raj a declared that they would be satisfied with what might
prove to be the net weight of the merchandize when taken at Leh and for doing which here
facilities were not at hand. With this just and handsome
[16]
proposition I assented. The Carriers were ordered to proceed to Leh according to the purport
of their agreement. The Raja’s name was Tsimma Punchook. He was a man of low stature
about fifty. Had a short thin clipped [?beard], his complexion was dark and his features were
rather ordinary except by smiling they became particularly expressive of complacency.
Kagha Tunzeen was about the same size and differed not much in character of feature but
was a few years younger and had the unembarrassed air of a man used to society. The Raja
carried a dagger and a knife in his girdle and this day he had in addition a Starheaded Mace
with a silvered top and a sliver filligree worked handle.
The Raj a wore several coverings over each other of which the outermost was of Chintz in
the form of a wrapper or gown fastened by a girdle round his waist. He had on boots of
Russian Leather the toes of which were thrust into narrow pointed slippers of green Morocco
Leather the grains of which were particularly prominent. His Cap was of black Velvet made
in the shape of a long Sack a little rounded at the end. It had a small facing of silver flowered
Brocade tumed up in front and the end fell down on the shoulder. The dress of Kagha
Tunzeen differed little from that of the Raja except that his Coat was of Mooltan Chintz. The
Chintz of the Rajas Coat was of a yellow color and had small flowers of different form and
tints so composed as to compose groups of a pine shaped figure similar to those worked on
the pullu or end of Kashmeer Shawls. These flowers in embossed silk were handsome but
must have cost a large sum in the material and trim.
Such cloths were doubtless the Cheets originally
I7
made in China imported into (Calicut) India there imitated by printing with blocks and
latterly much excelled by our Calico printers. The Meer was called upon to sign a kind of
certificate of our intentions and that we had no hostile designs. Geah is a small town
containing not more than twenty houses and six or eight trees of a variety of Poplar with
broad and pointed leaves and a tree with a white bark and a willow shaped leaf white
underneath having many red berries adhering to the branches. Fuel is very scarce and the
discovery of a mine of Coal in this neighborhood would greatly conduce to the comfort of the
inhabitants.
All of us were much affected by a difficulty of breathing which compelled us to pause for
some seconds before we could speak even after ascending only fifteen or twenty feet.
Requiring an effervescent mixture it boiled over the vessel as soon as the ingredients came in
8

contact with more quickness and more force than I ever before saw from the union of the
same materials.
Sept. 20″‘. Left Geah following the left bank of the Geah River. On a stream which fell
into it on the laft hand was a small stone building which at first view appeared to be a water
mill but which proved to be a religious cylinder carved and painted turned by water in honor
of the Deity. Opposite to Geah on a lofty ridge of rocks shelving down towards the river was
a large pile of houses formerly inhabited by the Raj a and lower down one belonging to the
Lama. The situation of these buildings perched upon the rocks was picturesque and reminded
me of the situation of Kien-loong.
[18]
Close by the road were several monumental Urns of large size and probably belonging to
the deceased members of the Raja’s family and on the registral piles several figures carved in
outline on stone. One represented three two of which appeared to have a masculine and the
third a female expression. There was also a representation of the punishing Deity as figured
on the door of the temples of Lama. Here was likewise a sketch of a temple and the rose like
flower which has been observed on every pile. The rocks on each side of the river were high
peaked, rugged and consisted almost entirely of Plum pudding stone. In general the color was
reddish whilst seen in the entire rocks but when detached the Matrix or uniting medium was
of various colors as red, green, grey, brown and almost white and the rolled Pebbles were of
all kinds of colors and sizes. Some of the masses were very beautiful and would have formed
very valuable slabs for tables. A small patch of cultivated land on the left was called Latoo
and belonged to two or three houses almost concealed by overhanging rocks. The valley of
Meeroo with its large cultivation principally fine barley its poplars and a considerable town
with good sized houses formed a great relief to the scenes of barren desolateness that had
characterized this march but this was in a degree compensated by the goodness of the road.
There were here many black Cattle smaller even than those of the blackest Counties in Wales
[77]. We passed through a doorway under a religious
I9
building the sides of which were omamented with flowers and figures of boys striking
Cymbals and surmounted with a tapering Pillar ornamented with a brass coronet[?]. Near our
encampment was a plantation of Poplar trees surrounded by a stone fence to keep off Cattle a
precaution very necessary in a country where no other Timber is to be found than what is
raised by man near streams of water. The Kagha Tunzeen here infonned us that he had
received a letter from the Wuzeer stating that there was another road to Yarkund besides that
of Leh and we were requested to take it as the Small Pox was in the villages on the road to
the City and it was feared we might by communication with the villagers bring with us that
disease to the City. Abdool Luteef could not devise whence this blow to our hopes originated
as he had orders not to molest [us] but Kagha Tunzeen said he would write in our behalf. I
addressed a letter to the Wuzeer explaining our motives for taking the road of Leh in which a
compliment was passed on the reported good govemment of the Country and the good
disposition of the inhabitants and this was accompanied by a dress of superfine blue broad
Cloth. The Meer wrote also to him and sent a Kaleidoscope inclosing letters recommending
me to the Raja and Wuzeer in the warmest terms from the Raja and Wuzeer of Koolloo. The
Meer likewise desired Quajah Shah Neras to use his interest with the Wuzeer to avert the
mischief with which we were threatened
9

[20]
and Kagha Tunzeen advised our pressing forwards. Abdool Luteef took our letters and
promised to use his utmost exertions in our behalf which he was assured would be rewarded
in case of success. Kagha Tunzeen sent me twenty Apples from his Garden at Nobra. They
were exactly like our first Summer fruit. The distance of our march has been [blank] the
direction roughly [blank].
Sep‘. 21. The road continues along the banks of the same Rivulet sometimes crossing from
one side to the other when the rock was too precipitous to admit of a path but every where
labor and ingenuity were displayed in taking advantage of ledges and slopes and in very few
places was the road dangerous. Six feet seem to be sufficient for a horse with as much load
projecting from each side as ever is proper for the Mountains and as it was customary in the
time of the Rajas for the landholders to make and keep in good order the roads and as the
same usage still prevails at Joshee Muth it would be no difficult matter to re-establish the
custom along such lines as still retain their former populousness. And in others a remission of
part of the annual land rent on the land actually cultivated would be sufficient. This sacrifice
of a little labor for the service of the community would be much less onerous than the corvée
under the former Govt. of France or than our Highway work and in a few years would be
abundantly repaid to the inhabitants by the demand for the produce of the land by travellers
and the road from Almora to Neetee might be rendered safe with scarcely any expense to the
Govt. but the first measure to be taken is to induce the Tatar Chinese
21
Govt. to allow of a free commercial intercourse and to this point I will direct all the influence
I can raise. I remarked that when a Stone of a breastwork of the path was displaced by the
foot of a horse the man who next came forward made a point of replacing it or of supplying
its place with another so that during the time when the road was traversed no repair was
required from the villagers and their labor would only be wanted after the melting of the
Snows of each season. Reflection on this matter will however be most advantageously
employed when the consent of the Tatars shall have been obtained to a less limited
communication than now exists. The first two Kos of the present road was remarkable for the
surface of the plates and veins of white Quartz running into shoots of Rock Chrystal the
points perfectly transparent the base obscure. I saw no Chrystals of considerable size but
every piece of Quartz glittered in the Sun so as to dazzle the eye from the multiplicity of
points of reflection. The Rocks on each side but particularly those on the left hand presented
an aspect of novelty. Long lines of wall with mainly straight & upright but with a peaked and
rugged upper line stretched from the level of the River for several hundred feet up to the top
of the Rock. These were generally parallel and preserved mainly an equal distance from each
other in the whole of their mn Taken together they formed a great number of avenues running
from the base to the summit of the Mountain where they appeared to be met by similar
avenues and ridges from the opposite side.
[22]
The walls were in great measure composed of Plumpudding stone, the pebbles round or
oblong as if rolled and the matrix principally of a red color and excessively hard. In some
parts a hard clay stone interrupted the vein of Plum pudding stone but the latter structure
generally ran upwards as high as the sight could distinguish clearly the composition of the
Rock. The Avenues were floored with fragments from the Walls and a reddish Eanh. It
would seem that the Rocks were composed of perpendicular leaves of Plum pudding Stone
separated by a softer Material. On the annual melting of the Snow, the descent of the water
brought down with it the softened parts of the softer material and this diminution gradually
10

produced the lanes or avenues just mentioned the walls of harder material standing fast or
only falling in blocks or in fragments so that its waste was much less than that of the softer
substance. Yet the Plumpudding stone hard as it is resists not wholly the vicissitudes of the
seasons. The surface of blocks that have been recently detached is irregular & marked with
the convex projection of rolled pebbles in the mass in some parts and with depressions of
cavities from which others have been torn in the separation and have remained adhering to
the living rock. But in blocks which have been long detached and the surface of which is
either sloping from the perpendicular or perpendicular the whole face appears as if it had
been shaved
23
or planed smooth the pebbles as well as the cement having undergone equally the influence
of the moisture of the water which fell on it in snow and of the weather. But when a block has
so fallen that a surface happens to be defended from the weather that is the Snow cannot
lodge upon it the irregular superficies remains whilst the exposed surfaces become smoothed
and as it were glazed.
Following the whole of our route the course of the Rivulet we reached the town of Ookshee
where the Rivulet of Geah and Meeroo falls into a River which comes from the East and runs
to the West. It varies much in breadth but its medium was about 50 yards. Its color was
greenish, it was not fordable but seemed to run at about four miles an hour. It was here called
Yooma and I apprehend is the Gurdhdokh branch of the Indus but I could not learn
particulars of its origin. The distance of our march has been [blank] and the direction roughly
[blank]. Kagha Tunzeern sent word that he wished to purchase a Razor and one from Mr
Trebeck was sent for his acceptance.
Sep‘ 22d. It was much warmer in the night than we had felt it for some time. A little rain fell
on our Tents and new Snow had whitened the tops of the neighboring Mountains. Ookshee
contains about ten or twelve houses tolerably well built and its small walled gardens have in
them Apricot trees of large size, yellow Willows and Poplars. We were all on horseback at an
early hour to advance as near as possible
[24]
to Leh that we may negociate with greater speed than at two days march distance should our
first advices from thence be unfavorable. The direction of the road is W of N along the left
bank of the Yooma on a high plain which flanked by a line of Mountains on each side
descends to the river the left side being by much the broadest. The whole surface covered by
blocks of Stone, principally Plumpudding fragments presents an uninten”upted view of barren
desolateness. The furze and compact moss have long been left behind and nothing of the
vegetable kingdom is observable save a dwarf Artemisia and Chenopodium with a few tufts
of thin and stunted Grass notwithstanding there were many fields of Barley near Ookshee but
there was much water judiciously employed and here all is a dry waste. The road, however, is
good, where there is a flat surface the large blocks are removed to each edge and the angles
of ravines guarded by breastworks. These obligations are due to the commerce carried on
upon it. In a Valley that comes down from the Mountains on the right in a right Angle to the
Yooma at about two Miles from Ookshee is a small town surrounded by cultivated lands and
plantations the name of which I could not learn. The Mountains before us are covered with
Snow and long dark pillars descending from the clouds which hang over them and one while
resting upon one peak and at another stretching to a second or third are rapidly increasing [?]
their covering. After running from between I4 and 15000 paces along this barren
11

25
plain which in breadth seldom exceeds a mile the road descends to the edge of the left bank
of the River at the foot of the cliffs of a ridge of rock composed of compact sandstone in the
lower stratum or that on a level with the path and about a hundred feet in length, then broken
by lines of rolled Pebble stones and afterwards by layers of Pebble and sand stone. The holes
whence large pebbles had fallen formed convenient asylums for the Ravens, Choughs and
Pigeons which frequented these almost desolate tracts. With the greatest attention I examined
the large blocks of Pebble masses that had fallen near the road but saw not the slightest
indication of organic remains. On the opposite bank at a short distance in a retiring Angle
betwixt Mountains is a small cultivated tract and some houses and a Sanga of two parts is
thrown across the river in a place where its stream is divided into two channels by a large
fragment of Rock. The framework of the principal of the two bridges is formed of Trunks of
Poplar Trees laid over each other horizontally and overhanging & of a platform covered with
flat stones. After having skirted the left bank for some distance under high cliffs of loosely
connected Sand & Pebbles the road gradually rises and from an eminence the eye is delighted
by the sight of an enclosure of Poplar trees which at the distance of two miles looks like the
belt of a Park surrounded by a stone Wall. On a nearer approach several of these belts are
seen communicating with villages and com fields interspersed. In some places the Corn is on
the ground but ripe, in others persons
[26]
are busied in cutting it, in others Cattle are treading it out and in others again men and women
are engaged in throwing up the thrashed heaps that the Chaff may be blown off by the wind.
This they do with a willow Staff cut at the end and spread into four diverging fingers whilst
they keep time by singing an Air which to our Ear contained not much of harmony. The
Bullock driver in forcing his Cattle in a line around the post to which they were tied whilst
treading out the Grain chanted the same Air without ceasing as if to encourage them whilst
pursuing the same dull circle. Here I saw four Magpies the cries, plumage and habits of
which were exactly those of this bird in Europe. The road crosses a watercourse which
proceeding from the left falls into the River Yooma on its left bank. From this source trunks
are carried so as to supply an extensive stretch of cultivated land with water. Having crossed
the Rivulet I was met by a Servant of Kagha Tunzeen who by holding his right hand clenched
with the Thumb upright indicated his wish that I should attend him and following [him I] was
led into an enclosure from which the grain had been lately cut. Here I found most of my
party. Meer Izzut Oollah Khan was in low spirits. An Answer had been returned to our letters
and the intimation to assemble and encamp in one spot whilst Kagha Tunzeen had pitched his
Tent close by seemed to him an indication of care that bordering on an appearance of
guarding [?] us in his opinion boded us no good. This appeared to me a matter of indifference
27
and might just as easily be considered as an act of civility as of precaution and if of
precaution to prevent intercourse with villagers who might have the Small Pox. In the
absence of infonnation I was disposed to see a favorable indication for if there had been an
intention to arrest our progress it would consistently with prudence have been manifested at
an earlier period and we should not have been suffered to proceed unmolested to within one
days march of Leh. Shortly afterwards a person came to say that we might turn our Cattle into
the plantation and the Meer was invited to Kagha Tunzeens Tent and to the house of the
Chief of the village where he was regaled with salted Tea. On his retum leaming that he was
a Lama and the spiritual Director of Kuloon the Wuzeer I expressed my wish to pay him a
visit. He however rode past our Tent accompanied by two Servants on horseback. He was a
12

portly, jolly looking Priest about forty wore a crimson cloth dress and had on a hat like that of
a Cardinal with a more flat Crown with cross ribbands with a broad Rim covered with red
cloth. The hat was tied under the Chin had two broad Ribbands flowing behind and two cords
and Tassels of white Silk. His Servants wore white Hats without decorations but little
differing in shape from that of the Lama. I prepared a present consisting of a suit of orange
colored broad Cloth, a fine red woollen cap, some Knives, Scissors, Thread, Thimbles,
Needles and a Crimson Moirée Snuff Box filled with Snuff.
[Z3]
I went accompanied by Mr Trebeck, the Meer, his son Meer Nujuf & Hafiz. Seats were taken
for five and our party was received at the door by a Geloon who taking my hand led me up
Stairs through an open square into a low apartment open on one side in which the Prelate was
sitting having before [him] one of the same kind of small long low painted table or bench
which I had seen preparing at Sreenuggur as it was said for the market of Tibet. He received
us very courteously and ordered Tea which was served round by a Priest from a teapot of the
same kind and dimensions but of inferior design and execution to that of the Raja of Geah.
Our interpreter a Carrier though apparently proficient in the Tibet language did not in some
instances succeed in exactly communicating our sentiments. He succeeded however so far as
to convince us that we had subdued the greater part of the apprehensions first entertained
when a report reached Leh of an European armed force being on its march against that town.
The Lama directed a large Tray of Apples, a double Wallet of fine Rice and a large Sack of
Flour to be set before me. He was he said unprepared for such civility but hoped in some way
or other to be able to retum it. I would have limited his present to the Apples but found it
inpracticable to decline taking the whole. The flour I directed to be divided among all the
Servants and a Goat and a Sheep to be taken for the use of my party and that of the Meer.
29
In the evening Abdool Luteef arrived with a letter from the Wuzeer to me & one to the Meer.
That to me explained the apprehensions of the Raja on the reports spread by traders from
Koolloo and other places and expressed much civility accompanied by a piece of red China
Silk and a white [illeg.] Scarf as a cover to his letter. The letter to the Meer was less formal
but very civil. A Messenger from Qwaj a Shah Neas brought a letter which informed the Meer
that a reference was made to him as to the expedience of our being allowed to visit Leh and
of the nature of his answer. All apprehensions on the score of our reception at Leh were now
removed and twenty Rupees were directed to be given to Abdool Luteef for his good offices
on this occasion.
Sep” 23“. We waited on the Lama to take leave. He stated that he had forwarded his
sentiments respecting us to Kuloon Wuzeer and convinced as he was that I was a Merchant of
great respectability and not a person come to make preparations for taking the Country he had
made such representations as he hoped might have some weight towards gaining for us a
favorable reception. We expressed a wish that he would permit us to visit a Gompha or
Temple not far distant from the road and in which were several Statues of great value from
the materials of which they were reported to be composed but he replied that the sight of
them would not repay the inconvenience of our being so far taken out of the road proposing
as we did to reach Leh that day. Feeling that there existed
[30]
some disinclination on his part after having tried to discover whether our intention was fully
understood we no longer persisted but after some further expressions of good will on both
sides took leave. A Goom—[illeg.] was sent to my Tent and after rewarding the bringer, the
13

Priest who officiated as Tea-bearer and the Gardener [apparently sic] we mounted our
Horses. The Lama the day before had reconnoitred our party through a telescope which I was
desirous to see. It proved to be an old one made by Pyefinch London and numbered No. 27.
Its glasses had become loose by the rotting of the Brass wires which retained them in their
places and the surface of the object Glass had undergone a little of that decomposition which
is the result of the action of the Climate in Hindoostan. Without promising to replace it by a
better I expressed a hope that in future visits this might happen. The Lama said that this
instrument had been given by the Great Lama to one of his predecessors and had descended
to him. It is by no means improbable that this Glass was given by Mr Bogle the Surgeon to
the Grand Lama of Lhassa when he was deputed by Mr Hastings to visit this personage. The
name of the residence of the Lama is Marsilla, its grounds under cultivation are large, the
houses good and extemally neat and clean. But the lands in plantation are still more
extensive. The outer belt consists of the broad leafed and Lombardy Poplars the next of the
yellow or black stemmed Willow on the edge of the watercourse which at a short distance
from
31
the outer wall generally runs parallel with it in its whole outline when practicable. From this
shallow broad ravines descend towards the river and in these are planted Willows and a
variety of prickly Gale5 called Chutha thickly beset on all its branches with a small yellowish
red fruit extremely acid much relished by the carriers but of which I requested our
Hindoostanee Servants to eat cautiously. The whole of the ground that receives any water is
covered with tufts of Luceme of spontaneous growth which has just been cut and packed on
the tops of the houses. Marsilla from the extent of its cultivated lands its plantations and the
apparent neatness of its houses is by far the prettiest place I have seen since I left Hindoostan
and this it principally owes to the abundance of water it enjoys and the ingenuity and
assiduity with which it is distributed. On the right bank of the River and opposite to Marsilla
is the village of Choomri which in the extent and pleasing appearance of its plantations is
little inferior to Marsilla. A watertrench is taken from the Rivulet which divides the grounds
of Marsilla and led by a serpentine course on the right hand side of the road to the grounds
belonging to the villge of Chunga. It is about five feet broad and two deep. As the grounds of
Chunga are greatly lower than the source of the water though two miles distance some
contrivance was necessary to diminish the rapidity of the current and this is advantageously
effected by the interposition of several water corn mills. The edge of the stream is
[32]
belted by a fringe of fine short grass about two feet in breadth on the outer border of which is
placed a line of sand about a foot in breadth and heighth [sic] and a range of heavy stones
extend as a backing to the outer part of the grass. The waterway is perfectly free from weeds
and the roots of the grass bind the edge so much as to keep it firm. The object of the grass and
stones is clear and perhaps that of sand may be to fill up any chinks fonned by the side
straining of the water and to [illeg.] the spreading of the herbage. I never saw so long a line
so regular as this was without cleft or breach.
Between Marsilla and Chunga were two Temples with Geloons houses. That on the right
bank of the River is called Hemice [apparently sic] and the one at the foot of the Mountains
on the left bank but distant from it at least a mile is named Gompha is [sc. if] this be not the
general appellation for a Temple containing the figure of a deity of Which I have some
suspicion. The Crops on the lands of Chunga had been cut and were either piled or on the
thrashing floor. They appeared to consist of Barley and a small but sweet green Pea. After
leaving Chunga and passing over a barren plain we can-re in sight of the village and fort of
14

Takna with its grounds, the village of Gompha and that of Mashoo. The road skirted the
watercourse that surrounded the lands of Tuksee and in the Mountains on the left was the
village of Mashoo distant above a Mile. Opposite to Mashoo and distant from the road about
half a Mile was Tikse which may be divided into upper and lower. Upper Tikse is situated
along the upper
33
ridge of an insulated rock. One of the Houses is high has an extensive front and is said to be
fortified. Adjoining it to the West is a Monument or place of worship and still further West
are some houses of respectable appearance. These edifices appear to be about two hundred
feet above the land of the plain and the road to them is circuitous. Lower Tiksee on the plain
at the foot of the Mountain contains many more houses and several whited sepulchres.
Many neat cattle of a small kind a few Jubboos some Horses and Asses were grazing in the
newly reaped fields. The River divides the lands of Tiksee on its left bank from that of
Gompha on the right.
The Buildings in the town or village of Gompha seem to ascend in stages to a considerable
height and near the base is a long plain structure like a high wall without door or Window
discoverable on the front towards the road. Gompha is said to be the residence of great
numbers of the religious order and of the relations of the Raja. At the eastem end of Tiksee
begins the extensive valley of Jubboo covered with villages and fann houses the roofs of
which covered with a thick bed of fire wood and of dry luceme whited without and fumished
with balconies have a comfortable appearance.
We were met on the road by a Messenger from Qwaja Shah Neas who resided at the town of
Sheh situated at the foot of the Hills on the right bank of the River and who desired to see us.
We crossed two branches of the Stream by fording on an Island
[34]
between the second and third branches were received by the Qwajah who had provided a
small low tent for us to prevent the necessity of our crossing the third branch. This was done
that we might not communicate with the inhabitants of Sheh amongst whom it Was suspected
there were some affected with the Small Pox. Qwaj ah Shah Neas is about sixty years of age
of rather low stature and somewhat corpulent. He has an expressive and prepossessing
countenance and appears healthy and active. He was dressed in a large Gown of new and fine
snuff colored broad cloth lined with Woollen Chintz. He had prepared for us a repast of sweet
and salted Tea with wheaten Cakes Yarkund Biscuits apples fresh Apricots and green Grapes
from Kashmeer. The salted Tea was by far the best we had met with, the cakes were good the
Yarkund Biscuits were almost as hard as pebbles and were intended to be soaked in Tea, the
Apricots were tolerably good but small Grapes sour. Our Repast was spread on a Carpet and
partaken with a relish that was heightened by the frank manners and attentive hospitality of
our Host with whose manners I was highly pleased. He said that he had been for seven
Months as it were a prisoner at Sheh having not once been at Leh during that period on
account of the small pox having been common in the former town. He had been accused by
the Kashmeerees of having invited us to come to Ludagh. On a reference being made to him
by Kuloon Wuzeer stating that a new occurrence had taken place on
35
which he wished for his advice viz. That Feringhees a people only known to him by report
had entered the country of Ludagh and he desired to have his opinion on the propriety of
allowing them to come to Leh the Qwajah answered that if he had not wished them to come it
was his duty as Governor of the country to have signified his dissent and disapprobation
15

before they had crossed the frontier. But that as they were now within a short distance from
Leh he thought the best plan would be to not only to allow them to come but to treat them
with civility. If they came as friends he would get a bad name by stopping them and if as
enemies he doubted whether they would suffer themselves to be stopped by him. We
departed soon after our repast and left the Meer to converse with his friend. Our road lay
along the plain of Jubboo overspread with houses and enclosures of dry stones or of stones
with mud cement. The Crops were all cut and the grain in the Straw was piled in low cones.
The women without caps with under garments of woollen and wearing a Sheepskin on their
backs with the wool inwards seemed to do almost the whole of the outdoor agricultural
business whilst most of the men seemed to have no other occupation than attending the
thrashing floor lounging or smoking — at least this is the impression made on me from what I
have hitherto seen. Having crossed the River by a bridge to its right bank we encamped. The
distance of this days march has been
[36]
[blank] paces and the direction roughly [blank]
Set)” 24″‘ Much sleet fell during the night & continued till one oclock when Mr Trebeck and I
began our march from [blank] in a northerly direction towards Leh the Meer and Abdool
Luteef having preceded us by a few hours to prepare a house for our reception. The road led
over a sandy ascent on a surface wholly destitute of vegetation between two ranges of low
and barren rocks by which Leh was so concealed that a stranger would not have been led to
suspect the existence of a town in that direction. It then turned a narrow defile by the side of a
long low pile of inscribed Stones to the westward towards two of the largest sepulchral
Towers connected by the longest range of pile [?] we had seen which was upwards of a
thousand paces. From this we reached a second line of stones still longer connecting two
smaller towers on the square sides of which was represented in relief a monstrous
Quadropede with large goggle eyes open mouth the tongue hanging out and one large tooth in
each jaw twisted like a Parrots beak. The fore legs of which the feet were armed with
monstrous claws seemed in the attitude of striking and the hind [legs] supported the body.
Some locks of hair divided surrounded the face and breast of he animal which distantly
resembled a Lion. Some of the Monuments we have seen have been surmounted by an Urn
somewhat resembling a large
37
earthen oil jar others by a conical pillar of well burnt brick. The former had generally a pole
projecting from the summit the latter were crowned by a kind of double Coronet of Copper
joined in the middle and cut in filligree and gilt. The upper one was always the smallest and
its largest circumference upwards whilst the reverse was the case with that below. In the bowl
of the upper one was a crescent of brass or copper-gilt in the concave part of this was lodged
a circular form flatted on the sides and exactly resembling in form and size a cheese and on
the top of the whole was a still smaller figure like a short pear with the stem upwards. All
these ornaments or emblems were gilt. The cheese part of one at Marsilla had a circular knot
of Rock chrystal inserted in its centre like an eye and a small wire projected from each horn
of the Crescent and from the tail of the Pear[?]. The vicinity of every town was decorated
with these monuments of mortality but the urn like buildings were most common and at Sheh
I mistook them at a distance for a Camp. We experienced a driving Sleet with a very cold
wind in our joumey to Leh which was [blank] paces distant from our last nights encampment
direction [blank]
The streets and walls of Leh were lined and covered with Crowds of Men Women and
Children to witness the entry of the F eringees into the City.°
16

[38]
[blank] had kindly ordered a house of his own to be made ready for us. This was two stories
high and was sufficiently capacious to contain our whole party with the merchandize and a
yard extending along two sides of the building commodiously held our Horses. The walls
consisted of large unbumt bricks the outside whitened the inside of the original color of the
earth. The Roof was fonned of rafters or small Trunks of Poplar Trees over which a layer of
Willow-shoots, this was covered by a coating of Straw and this by a bed of earth. The rafters
were only half the breadth of the Apartments and rested upon a square beam of Poplar which
reposed on the cross walls and was supported by two square Pillars of the same wood of
which the capital was composed of two horizontal crutch heads, the lower about 3‘/1 feet and
the upper about five feet both stretching under the beam. The Pillars stood upon a cross wall.
The Doors were of Poplar plank united by a cross bar let into their substance crosswise and
secured by wooden pins. The light was admitted by an open Balcony containing a Window
frame about ten feet in length in four compartments but without curtain or cover and by a
small slit at one end guarded by a thin frame of Poplar. This principal room was 24 feet by 18
and 7 feet high. The floor was of earth beaten. My bed was about 7 feet broad and 10 long.
The Stairs were formed of rough Stones and the Mansion altogether though not elegant was
spacious and though in style not equal to a common English
39
Farmhouse was to us a most comfortable asylum when contrasted with our long residence in
Tents so injured by the weather as to give entrance to every blast as well as to every smart
shower of rain. We rested comfoflably without hearing the rush of torrents or the crash of
avalanches which indeed for the last five or six days have not been either great or frequent.
Sep” 25’“. Abdool Luteef attended with the Custom Master here called Chooghzuth and some
subordinate Officers to weigh our Merchandize in order that the duties might be levied upon
them. This business was performed with civility and apparent fairness. During the whole of
the day a Crowd has surrounded the door and the roof of a house opposite has been covered
by Kashmeerees unmistakable for their Jew like countenances, their dirty woollen clothes and
large muslin Turbands.
Sept. 26. This day was appointed for the Kuloon’s audience of the Meer. As it is customary
for a Stranger to take a present when he pays a Visit in this Country to a man of rank I
furnished the Meer with a Sportsman’s Knife, a Penknife, and a large pair of
Scissors which were received and admired. Instead of giving the general result of the
conversation between the Kuloon and Meer Izzut Oollah Khan I think it preferable to recite
the particulars as taken from the Meer. After mutual compliments of civility and salted Tea
the Kuloon entered upon business by the following enquiry. This is a small country of little
produce. What inducements can a resident of a large and greatly productive country have to
visit it?
[40]
Meer — Our intention is to go to Bokhara to purchase Horses. By the overthrow of the
sovereignty in Kabool [travel] through that country is made dangerous to Merchants. The
country of Tibet is represented as safe and you have the reputation of being a just man. The
coin of every country differs in value and is of limited currency. That of Hindoostan little
known in Bokhara would not preserve its original value there and thus loss would ensue but
from the reports of Merchants the manufactures of England and of India would ensure profit
in that City and we have therefore brought it meaning to employ its proceeds in the purchase
of Horses. It is customary [to bring] into countries which produce little merchandize such
17

articles as are desirable in them from those countries which possess them in superfluity.
Kuloon — I understood from reports during your march that you had a great body of men and
that all the Natives on your route fled at your approach. – This is not tnie. All the Rajas
through whose country we have passed have furnished Porters and sent presents as
indications of friendship. Kuloon — The people here have imputed to you different intentions.
Meer — If you will examine our numbers you will have an opportunity of forming a judgment
for yourself of the probability of our entertaining intentions of conquering countries with
such a force. Besides it has never been the practice or intention of the Sirkar (the British
Indian Government) to take
41
Countries without just cause. This Govt. has had no intention to take countries but has given
countries which produce millions of revenue to several native Princes for instance to the
Nawab of Oude, to Raja Doulut Rai Sindeea to the Geekwar &c. And they have never
attempted to deprive their rich Neighbors of any territory as the Nizam Eelee Khan or Raja
Runjeet Singh. If they were desirous of acquiring territory they would have closed with the
offer of Shooja ool Moolk or more lately with that of Muhammud Azeem Khan when he
tendered Kashmeer to their acceptance. If they had consented to take Kashmeer the whole of
Tibet must have fallen within their power as a matter of course. As they have no lust of
conquest so have they no desire to attack others unprovoked. When the Goorkhas invaded the
domains of Raja Sansar Chand he requested the British Government would assist him to repel
the invaders but they replied that as the Goorkhas had not acted as enemies towards them
they could not wage war against the Gooorkha Govt. But when the Goorkhas did act hostilely
towards the British Govt. the latter punished them in a manner that must have come to your
knowledge. Kuloon Are the Ooroos (the Russians) and the English on terms of friendship?
Meer They are. Some years back Buonaparte
[42]
the Sovereign of the French invaded the Empire of Russia and took Moscow. He was
afterward compelled to retire by the rigorous cold of the climate and by the resistance of the
Russians. Afterwards the English in conjunction with the Russians invaded France and after
many sanguinary battles in which many Lakhs of Troops were engaged Buonaparte was
defeated and he is now held in confinement by the English. Kuloon Are the English in
friendly relations with Kutha (China)? Yes and Metcalfe Sahib (Mr Metcalfe) resides on the
part of the English in some city in China the name of which I have forgotten. Kuloon We are
tributaries of China. What is the name of the Country to which these Firingees belong and
what that of their principal City? Meer Inglistan (England) and London. Kaloon. What fruits
are produced in their Country? Meer — The English raise the fruits of hot Countries in houses
constructed on purpose, roofed with Glass and filled with heated Air. Kuloon I have heard
that contrivances of the same sort are also applied to the same use in Russia. Kuloon. These
English people are said to possess a knowledge of all sorts of workmanship and arts and
make Telescopes, Watches and Magic Lanthoms. The construction of Magic Lanthoms is not
very difficult but the English excel in making Telescopes and Watches and the other
43
valuable works of art. Kuloon. What trade does this Sahib follow? Meer. He is an Hakim or
medical man and possesses great skill in his profession. Here the Meer touched upon the
subject of the Small Pox, the discovery of a new medicine which prevented it ever proving
fatal to those to whom it was properly administered and the benefit its introduction might
produce in this Country. The Kuloon listened with much attention but made no reply to the
18

Meers observations. Kuloon. I have heard that the Sovereign of England is a Woman. Meer.
That is as it may happen. I understand that the first born to the reigning King whether male or
female succeeds to the Throne. Kuloon Do the English follow the religion of Eesuee (Christ)
Meer Yes. And I understand that your religion resembles that of the Christians. Kuloon.
Perhaps; by seeing the books of the Christians this point may be determined. Meer. I know
that in one circumstance there is a similarity. You say Kunchogh Sum and the Christians say
there are three persons in one God viz Khoda, Raool [?] Kuddus and Huzrut Eesa. How is it
that you make out the Kunchogh Sum? Kuloon we call one God, another the Book or Word,
and the third the Heart or Understanding, as the Meer conceived for the Interpreter was not
clear and he was at a loss to determine whether the obscureness arose from the later not
understanding the Kuloon or from the
[44]
the Kuloon not understanding the subject. Kuloon – How many Goorkhas are with you? Meer
— Fourteen. Kuloon — Are they Servants? Meer — Yes. They are the servants of the
Govemment by whom many have been entertained since the commencement of the war with
that power. Kuloon — You were here before. How long is that ago? Meer Eight years. Kuloon
— You did not then come to see me. Meer — No. I had not at that time any business that
required it. Kuloon — when did you fonn an acquaintance with Qwajah Shah Neas? Meer At
that time. Kuloon — You are a Moosulman and a Sueyeed [sic]. On your oath as such tell me
what are the intentions of the Sahib? Meer — I have before explained to Abdool Luteef, to
Kagha Tunzeen and just now to you under the same sacred obligation the intentions of the
Sahib and you may moreover at this moment record in writing as from me that from this visit
of this Gentleman no mischief and much good will result to you. The Meer then took leave of
the Kuloon but in the evening forwarded for his inspection a letter from Mohummud Azeem
Khan the then Ruler of Kashmeer to Meer Izzut Oollah in which he stated that the Kazee
Mohummud Hassan would explain fully his sentiments and that whatever should be agreed
upon by them should be binding upon him. The object of the Kazees mission was to tender
Kashmeer to the British Gov” through the Meer to the Resident in Dehlee and though the
contents of the letter went not into particulars
45
yet as its originality was recognized by the seal and it was given for its reference to the
business of the cession mentioned by Meer Izzut Oollah and tended much to tranquillize the
mind of the Kuloon.[this sentence sic].
Sep“ 27m. The Carriers of Lahoul having delivered my property at Leh were desirous to
depart and I rewarded Faqeer Singh the Commissioner from Koolloo, Rama the Kanoongo
and Ram Dhan the conductor of the Cattle from Lahoul with a sum of money that would
considerably exceed their expenses on returning. I had fumished to them and their attendants
Provisions during their whole journey so that with the profits they would derive from the hire
of their Cattle and the customary compliments from the owners of the other Cattle this trip
would prove more lucrative than any in which they had been heretofore engaged.
The Kafila Bashee however found a deficiency in the flour to the amount of near forty
Rupees and of about twenty Bags delivered to the carriers. He had insisted upon them making
good the value of the flour as they had been paid for its conveyance & as it could not have
been lost by any accident in the joumey but must have been taken by the persons to whose
charge it had been given. However considering that to render every person concerned in the
transport of our baggage satisfied with our conduct and so be the more willing to lend their
aid at any future time was of more importance than the value of the money I ordered the sum
refunded
19

[46]
to be restored after a reproof. Thus they all went away perfectly contented. I had purchased as
much wheat flour and P—[illeg.] &c. as I conceived would meet the consumption of our Party
for two months. The original cost was reasonable enough but with the expense of the
transport to Leh the Provision cost me Rs 6.4.5 per Maund. At Leh owing to an increased
importation from various parts and a plentiful home harvest the market price was reduced
unusually and all kinds of Grain were to be had at ten Sers for a Rupee. Considering that the
cost price if charged to the Sipohees would bear hard upon them and the Servants I ordered
the charge to the whole to be at the bazar price that is 4/- per Maund instead of Rs 6.4.5 by
which up to this time the loss is Rs 273.4.
Sep“ 28‘ and 29m occurred without any incident.
Sep” 30’“. Meer Izzut Oollah went to visit Qwajah Shah Neas having previously in reference
to the Small Pox notified his intention to the Kuloon and obtained his concurrence. Kagha
Tunzeen sent for some Chintz and I returned a piece for his acceptance which I had thought
to be handsome. He wished it changed for one with a white ground which could be worn by
him for Chintz with a colored ground was only proper for women and he had lost two wives
and Was now Without one. He expressed his surprize that I had not yet paid a visit to the
Kuloon. That if Merchants from a distance arrived at Leh at night the following day they
waited on the Kuloon and afterwards
47
departed if they were in progress to any other place. Hafiz Fazil in reply observed that we
were strangers and unacquainted with the customs of the Country, that we conceived we
should be informed when it would be agreeable for the Kuloon to receive us and should be
ready the moment we should be apprised thereof. He said that he would signify this to the
Kuloon but being told that it would be proper to wait the return of the Meer he enquired the
motive of his visit to which it was replied that the Qwajah stood in the same relation to the
Meer as the principal Lama did to him. With this answer he appeared to be satisfied.
A letter from the Meer desired me not to hurry [?] the visit [to] the Kuloon and in the evening
he arrived. The Qwajah had informed him that the Kashmeerees pressed the Kuloon to hasten
our departure and endeavored to persuade him that we were capable of purchasing all the
Shawl Wool of Tibet and desirous of so doing by which both Ludagh and Kashmeer would
be ruined. He advised that we should not make any proposition but endeavor so to act as to
induce the Kuloon to make a proposition of intercourse to which object he would most
willingly lend his aid as soon as he should have a suitable opportunity. He had prepared to go
to Leh but leaming the state of things had postponed his visit until he should be sent for by
the Kuloon which he thought would soon happen as he knew that he was laboring
[48]
under extreme anxiety on our account. If he were to go to Leh without this invitation and
communicate with us it would be said that we acted in concert and his influence would be
diminished if not wholly lost, but if sent for by the Kuloon expressly for his advice he could
forward our interest more effectually. The Raja he said had lately received a letter from
Russia written in Nogaeel Toorkee which was not thoroughly understood but this
circumstance added to our arrival had raised so much anxiety in his mind as to have caused
his bulk to have diminished most notably according to common report.
Oct. lst. This moming I sent a few yards of Chintz with white ground to Kagha Tunzeen; he
wished to pay for it but was requested to retain both pieces as trifles which indicated
friendship but not worthy the fom-1 of a money transaction. After making some difficulties he
20

said that the District under his management was on our road to Yarkund and he hoped there
to shew that he was not ungrateful for the civilities he had received from us.
About twelve a Courtier on horseback announced that the Kuloon would be glad to receive us
and deputed him to conduct us to his house. Mr Trebeck, Meer Izzut Oollah and myself on
horseback followed this Master of Ceremonies and were respectfully saluted by spectators of
all ages and of both sexes who lined the streets and filled the windows of the houses by which
we passed. The Kashmeerees who were very numerous made an obeisance of the head
49
saying Salam Aleikum which we acknowledging [sic] by returning the bow and repeating Wa
Aleikum as Salam. The Ludaghees touching their forehead with their right hand called out
Joo which signifies Salutation. We went through several narrow winding passages up to a
door where our conductor dismounted but made signs to me to proceed until I reached
another door close to which was a shed into which my Groom was directed to take my Mule.
On entering the door Music struck up and continued playing till after we had ascended two
flights of Stairs we had reached an Antichamber full of Attendants. Here Kagha Tunzeen
apparently in waiting took my right hand led me into another room and followed by our Party
presented me to the Kuloon who was seated. When I was stepping back to a Chair placed in
front of the Kuloon on a line of felts he desired to shake me by the hand and placing it
between his slightly bowed his head.
The Kuloon with a person whom I understood to be the second Wuzeer and the *Son in law
of the former was seated close to the Wall as I presume on a Bench but which was concealed
by a long table with a wooden front reaching from nearly as high as the Ministers breast to
the floor. I seated myself and enquired after his health after returning an answer he said that
he feared our health might have suffered from the long and fatiguing journey he understood
we had had.
*Kagha Tunzeen is Brother in law to the Kuloon & not son in law as I had understood.
[50]
I replied that our health had not suffered and that our fatigues were repaid by the pleasure of
having an interview and of forming a friendly intercourse with him. Salted Tea was then
presented to us and the Kuloon his Coadjutors and a line of Courtiers seated cross legged on
Felts on the right hand side of the door also partook of the libation which even we now began
to relish. A row of Servants stood between the seated Courtiers and the Wall and betwixt us
and the door was a large body of Attendants but Tea was given to all by one Servant from a
huge ornamented Teapot of the same material but less handsome than that of the Raja of
Geah. The Kuloon asked the names and ages of Mr Trebeck and myself the names of our
Country and King and the distance and direction of the former. Whether I had ever visited
Roum, (Constantinople). On a pause taking place I observed that I regretted to hear the Small
Pox had lately visited his country and destroyed many lives. That I hoped, if it were his wish,
to be able to put him in a way of employing a Medicine which if properly managed would
prevent the Small pox ever destroying life and I conceived that the introduction of it into this
Country would ensure to the Ruler who should first patronize it a reputation more extensive
and more durable than ever appertained to any other individual that had filled that station. He
answered me with great fluency and without the smallest hesitation for a considerable time,
speaking
21

51
with animation as if interested. But our interpreter Mohsin Baba who spoke the Tibet
language freely but the Persian indifferently and in the Kashmeeree dialect obviously
compressed the Kuloons speech rendering only the substance and that as it seemed to us
imperfectly. Customs he remarked differed much amongst different Nations. The Customs of
Ludagh were of long standing, founded on those of Kutha (China) and Lhassa. He could not
on his own authority adopt new ones, nor could he receive any of novel cast [?], however
apparently advantageous unless they were previously sanctioned by them. I mentioned the
national rewards received [7] by Dr Jenner, the general propagation of the medicine which
had now received universal suffrage, the diffusion of it in Hindoostan and the philanthropic
principle on which it was founded. But finding that conviction was not likely to result or to
lead to the measure of two persons being sent to Almora where they might learn the practice
of vaccination and by Mr Traill’s hospitable and attentive conduct leam also to uproot the
prejudices of the Chinese Tatars I dropped the subject. And indeed during the latter part of
the discussion I was not without apprehension lest the will against the introduction of
novelties might be applied against us as well as against our doctrines and practices.
Meer Izzut asked for an explanation of the picture of a female Whose
[52]
complexion was green and who had red eyes but whose features though somewhat stiff were
handsome, regular and mild. Her upper garments were green also but her Trowsers or
stockings for they were apparently continued from the waist to the ancle were light colored
and the part below the knee was secured to the leg so as to be made to sit tight by filletting.#
She was represented as sitting cross legged in the cup of a flower and one side of her head
was decorated by flowers and leaves. It was said that she was a Fairy but as the interpreter
was a Moosulman who probably possessed neither the curiosity nor the liberality of the Meer
the accuracy of his translation upon a subject that generally calls forth the indignation or the
contempt of the Moslems is open to question. The Kuloon asked if we did not follow the
religion of Eesa (translated with the addition of Huzrut). Being answered in the affirmative I
remarked that circumstances which had fallen under my observation led me to conclude that
there was some affinity between the religions professed in Tibet and Christianity, to which he
said that it was enjoined by his religion to act justly to all men in order that its followers
# Some of our Carriers tied their leggings of woollen with red filleting or garter crossed lozengewise.
Had our English Ancestors the same custom before knit Hose were common and is this what is meant
by cross garters continued after the use of Stockings rendered it unnecessaiy & still practised by the
Highlanders? [This sentence sic]
53
may be happy in the world to come. I stated that to do good to all men was or ought to be one
of the fundamental rules of all religions. That in my possession was a book which professed
to treat in part of the religion of Tibet and contained also some of its forms of prayer as well
as of those prescribed to some classes of Christians. That if he thought the sight of it would
afford him any gratification I would sent it. He expressed considerable desire to see it but
immediately asked if we had any Wine and on being told that we had and that some should be
forwarded to him forthwith he observed that though he did not drink wine he was rather
curious to see that we drank. He enquired if we had also Atar. I said that we had Atar of
Roses and also European Atars of which specimens should be submitted. I then offered to
take leave on which he remarked that business of an urgent nature required his attendance
elsewhere or he should have been happy much more considerably [sic] to have prolonged the
interview but that he was in hopes we should soon meet again.
22

Before leaving the room I shook hands with the Kuloon and his two friends and was led out
of the apartment and to the head of the Stairs by Kagha Tunzeen.
Our present to the Kuloon consisted of superfine scarlet BroadCloth, of green Merino Cloth—-
English white long cloth—-Chintzes of three patterns~a very handsome single
[54]
barreled Gun with apparatus complete in a case An elegant enamelled small Telescope—-a
Kaleidoscope8—-a Razor with ornamented blade. Needles and fine thread in balls. An oil
painted Snuff Box Filled and a large bottle of Hoffmans colored Comfits#. He looked slightly
at the different articles whilst we remained but one of our servants having stayed after our
departure reported that he then examined them separately and expressed his surprize and
satisfaction to his Coufiiers at their beauty. The Kuloon whose name is Tsiva Tundoo appears
to be about sixty years of age. He is thin and of middle size. His countenance is marked by an
expression of shrewdness and his manners as far as may be detennined by the first interview
which is ordinarily more formal than subsequent ones are such as arise from much
intercourse with mankind and were less stiff than those of the Raja of Geah. His outer dress
was a large loose brown colored woollen Coat with an under Garment of Brocade and his
black velvet Cap was Without ornament. During the interview he smoked from a small but
handsome Hooqqa much ornamented but drank tea from a wooden Cup lined with Silver and
differing in nothing from the cups of his courtiers. The second Wuzeer called Noona Kuloon
somewhat younger than the first differs not much in countenance. His outer Coat was of
Brocade, and his Cap
#During the time the Customs Officers were examining our Merchandize a subordinate thinking he was
not observed made a sly snatch at the side of one of the Comfit Bottles and looked exceedingly silly at
finding the Glass of the nature ofwhich he was ignorant offered [not] the completion[‘?] of his wish.
55
was bedecked with a profusion of flowers amongst which the African Marigold was most
conspicuous. The youngest man about 25 years of age wore a Chinese Chintz Gown
decorated with embossed groups of flowers on silk. The Kuloon’s apartment of audience was
of a good size but rather low and had only one large window to the South without glass or
Talc* but over this was drawn lightly a curtain of Pink brocade with small silver flowers. Its
roof was ceiled with compartments composed of triangular pieces of wood disposed in
lozenges and separated by projecting bars painted with green and vermillion. A Row of
wooden pillars supporting the roof ran along the greatest length of the room. Their shafts
were painted with vermillion and the capitals ornamented with flowers, fruit and foliage
carved in low relief in green or gold appropriately and the whole surface varnished. A deep
cornice of foliage intennixed with strange figures ran round the room and one of these
grotesque forms held a handful of flowers over the seat of the Kuloon. Below this and
surrounding the apartment was hung a series of Tatar Bows Arrows and Shields intermixed
with Matchlocks. Immediately above the head of the Kuloon a small canopy consisting of a
mixture of fine woollen cloth and silk on which the Chinese Dragon was represented was
suspended from the roof and
*Mohsin Baba a Kashmeeree had the Windows of his house made of small squares of [illeg.] each
containing a lozenge or square of Talc. Other Kashmeerees had the same frame Work but no Talc.
[56]
surrounded by a hanging flounce of about a foot in depth of variously colored cloth. On the
wall above and behind him was a large square of patchwork apparently of broad cloth in
23

squares resembling a checquer board. A very beautiful Persian Carpet of silk spread on the
floor extended for nearly the whole length of the Room in front of the ministerial bench but
was only about two yards broad. On this sate Kagha Tunzeen and between it and the range [?]
of Felts on which were our seats the plaster floor of a chocolate color appeared as if lately
polished. This kind of floor I before observed in the Apartments of the principal Lama of the
Monastery of Daba. A few painted Chinese Chests with brass Clasps fonned a line on the left
side of the room and round the shafts of the pillars letters [appar. sic] were tied by cords.
Small long red perfumed tapers little thicker than rushes laid along the Ministers bench and
resting against the feet of the pillars were kept burning whilst we were in the room. I dare not
scrutinize too deeply the origin of this custom but am not without suspicion that the perfume
is intended to counteract other odours which in a numerous assembly of persons not delicate
in their food sometimes derange the olfactory Nerves and discompose the features of the
party. At the same time I must observe that the same kind of taper was burnt in some of the
temples I formerly visited.9 A remarkable difference exists between the observances of
decomm of
57
Moosulmans and Tatars in regard to Carpets. A well bred Moosulman takes off his Slippers
when he is about to seat himself upon it; a Tatar keeps his on and considers it improper to
follow the example of the former. The persons in attendance behaved with similar decorum.
On my retum I forwarded a very beautiful cut glass Decanter filled with Noyau“) and
accompanied with a large Goblet of the same pattern with a bottle of Cherry and Raspberry
Ratafia“, Rum Shrub and Gin. Having before noticed the fondness of the Tatars for
spirituous liquors I brought a small quantity of each expressly for presents. To the above were
added two bottles of French Essences, a bottle of Eau de Cologne and an elegant enamelled
French Essence bottle with gold top filled with Atar of Rose of Ghazipoor. The Kuloon as I
leamed from the Servant who took these articles was highly gratified with this present and
poured a little of the Noyau into the palms of the hands of his Courtiers who manifested their
satisfaction with its flavor.
Oct. 2nd. The Kuloon sent a messenger to express his satisfaction with our visit and to infonn
us that he was about to leave Leh for three days. And Kagha Tunzeen borrowed two horses to
accompany him as his Attendants exceeded the number of his horses at this place. We this
day received information privately that an express arrived yesterday from Gurdokh with
advice from the
[53]
Garhpun that a F iringee had entered the District under his jurisdiction from Busehur. That a
body of his Zumeendars armed had opposed his progress although he was accompanied by
seven hundred Attendants. On being questioned as to his motives for entering their territory
he replied that he had brought merchandize for sale, to which they observed that they did not
want and should not purchase any from him, but that if he wished to fight they were ready to
meet him. After this he returned. There is in this report almost as much extolment of personal
valour and exaggeration of numbers as in that of Sir John Falstaff. Mr Gerard had infonned
me when I was as it were a prisoner at Hoshiarpoor that in the beginning of June he purposed
to set out on a geographical tour meaning to trace the Sutroodra [sic] to its source, then to
proceed from the source of the Gurhdokh River to that station and thence to Leh where he
hoped to meet me. At Kooloo a discharged Servant of his said that Mr Gerard did actually
commence his joumey in June, that he had nine personal servants and that forty porters were
employed in the transport of his baggage making in all fifty individuals whom the Ooneas
had converted into seven hundred. In the evening we heard from the same informant that an
24

Express had come from Undeleh [sic—-?Hanle] to the Kuloon stating that a Firingee Sahib
had arrived at that place and stated his intention to go to Leh, but that he was stopped by
59
the authorities of Undeleh until they should learn whether it was the will of the Kuloon that
he should proceed to Leh or otherwise. An informant said that the messenger had returned
with an answer but that he knew not its purport. Undeleh is said to be 4 days joumey to the
[blank] of Geah. It would seem that Mr Gerard has skirted the northem foot of the Mountains
without repassing the Ghats.
Oct. 5. The Kuloon returned last night and invited Meer Izzut Oollah to partake of an
entertainment in a garden consisting of Poplars and Willows about a Kos distant from the
town. He was in high spirits and good humor played at some game on horseback with a stick
more resembling trap [sic]12 than exercising with the J—-[illeg.]. He had he said a title from
China which he called Ginak and one from Dehli which latter he promised to shew the Meer
along with the letter he received from Russia as he now stated about a year ago. The Meer
took occasion to mention that he presumed the title had been conferred on the Kuloon by
Orangzeb at the time his troops cleared Tibet from the Kalmaks and the Raj a became a
Moosulman. The Kuloon said the Kashmeerees endeavored to poison his mind against us by
telling him that I should ruin both him and them in a short time by giving a double price for
all the Shawl Wool raised in Tibet. Meer Izzut Oollah again assured him that in proportion as
he shewed friendship towards me his interest instead of being injured would be benefited
[60]
by the connection. He rode with the Meer to our door and the impression made on the Meer’s
mind is that his apprehensions are greatly diminished. Amongst other conversation he
enquired whether the Armies of the Emperor of China or those of the English power were
more numerous to which the Meer replied that numerically those of China greatly exceeded
those of the British Government but that in military effect he might estimate a thousand
British Troops as equal to a lakh of Chinese Soldiers. The Meer pointed out the borders of the
British Indian Empire the extent of which excited his astonishment. We have just heard that a
Son of Qwaja Shah Neas 25 years of age has died after twenty four hours illness of the
Cholera in Kashmeer. This bears hardly as the Kuloon had just told the Meer that he should
speak to the Raj a to request the Qwaja would visit Leh. This occurrence would certainly
delay his visit and the adjustment of our business for some days. I have been in daily and
anxious [anticipation?] of hearing from Mr Gerard for the last three days as he might without
difficulty despatch one of his Busehur Servants to Leh without inciting any suspicion and an
explanation from him would enable me to apply to the Kuloon in his behalf if he wishes to
visit to Leh but pending his silence I cannot take any step.
Oct” 6‘h to the l0‘h. Nothing particular has occurred but the Kuloon has sent a present of
flour, wheat salt and 3 Sheep and a Goat. The Meer went to condole with the Qwaja
61
and found him in great mental distress. The Kuloon has sent for him and he will come in a
day to Leh. In pursuance of some forms of religion he cannot partake of the accommodation
of a house which had been provided for him and our tents will be lent to him. It appears that
the Raja had expressed some surprise at our stay and apprehension for its consequenes to
which the Kuloon observed that he must be aware that it was not in his power to furnish
Cattle for the transport of our merchandize to Yarkund in a short time and that our conduct
shewed us to be Merchants of too much importance to be sent away without having received
all the assistance possible. The Qwaja says that the Kashmeerees are waiting for the Yarkund
25

Kafilah to arrive to fumish them with money and that he fears none can be raised by Bills. He
was sent for about 18 months ago by his disciples at Yarkund and money was offered to
defray his expenses but that it did not suit him then to go. I had hoped by reaching Leh in
May to have had sufficient time to send for the remaining merchandize from Furokhabad and
either to have raised money there by Bills on Calcutta or at Leh by the sale of some of our
goods but the delay experienced by the manoeuvres of the Singhs has broken my measures
and placed me in an awkward dilemma. A messenger could not reach Furokhabad in less than
50 days and the Ghaths of Neetee and Kooloo will be
[62]
closed by snow in December, that of Busehur is practicable the whole year but no can”iage
cattle for hire are procurable upon it and by this road as well as by that of Neetee a portion of
the country tributary to China must be passed. The road from Shooj anpoor [?] to Chamba is
impassable for Cattle and its Ghaths are also closed in winter. The lower roads to Kashmeer
are infested by robbers supported by the Moosulman Chieftains in its neighborhood since
Kashmeer has been captured by the Singh or else this would have been the easiest route. But
again delay might again take place in Kashmeer through the operations of the Sikhs. And We
have no accounts of the state of the roads in Kabool that can be depended upon though I am
in daily expectation of receiving letters from Mohummud Azeem Khan and the sons of Meer
Quleeck Ulee Khan. Till these come to hand I can do nothing in reference to the goods at
Furokhabad although they are particularly desirable. I hope to be able to raise money here for
our journey to Yarkund by disposing of some of my merchandize but a much larger sum is
required than I [illeg.] for the hire of a Horse being 50 Rs for the journey. Formerly and for
many years past several Kafilahs from Yarkund reached Leh every year but not one has
arrived during the last seven months which has produced great constemation amongst the
Kashmeeree traders whose wares have
63
accumulated at Leh and they are now preparing to can”y them to Yarkund themselves.
Various reasons have been assigned for the extraordinary interruption to the normal
commerce but the most plausible is the following. Omar Khan the King of F erghana or
Khokan sent an Ambassador annually to Yarkund. The Chinese Custom House Officers
finding that for many years back there was a great diminution of the duties on articles
imported from Khokhan without an apparent scarcity or diminution of the articles themselves
in the market entertained a suspicion of the Ambassador being in the habit of bringing great
numbers of Merchants with their wares as Servants it not being usual to search the baggage of
Ambassadors. On a more minute enquiry they saw such reason for believing their conjectures
founded on fact as to represent the matter to the Govemor who requested the King of
Khokhan to omit the ceremony of sending an Ambassador annually. Omar Khan offended at
the message directed all his subjects to withdraw from Yarkund and the Chinese territory
generally or to abide by such consequences as might befall them. The principal traders from
Yarkund to Leh are persons called Indujanees from the District of that name subject to the
King of Khokhan and it is presumed that they have obeyed the summons of their Sovereign
though no hostilities have been
[64]
heard of. I have had another interview with the Kuloon who treated our party with salted Tea,
a good Broth thickened with Rice, apples, sweet Cakes and sugar figures of men on
horseback, Elephants &c. from Kashmeer, with white and black Grapes the produce of the
vallies [sic] of Ludagh. He was extremely attentive and even kind. My present for it is not
26

customary to approach the Minister empty handed consisted of a Tiara of white Bugles [sic]
for a female headdress, a roll of Virginia Pigtail tobacco, two strings of Rock Pink Pearl
beads, and a Ceylon Amethyst for a Ring, with about half a dozen Knives. He desired to have
the history of the author of the Book I had lent him and I gave it him representing that he and
others had interfered more with the religion of the country than the [illeg.] Government
approved and were ordered to leave it which they did and on their retum to their own Country
made the book he then had. He said that the contents of the work printed in the Tibe[tan]
character were most exact and evinced great labor and ability on the part of the Author. As it
had been strongly reported amongst the Natives that Alexander the Great had visited Leh I
enquired if there were any testimonies of the fact in their books. He answered that he had
seen a book at Lhassa which stated that Alexander had conquered China
65
but he could not refer to any records or monuments that bore evidence of the truth of that
report. He observed that on comparing the Gun I had given him with the Arms that had been
brought to Leh by Kashmeerees and others he found it far superior and a very valuable
present and he wished me to look at some Matchlocks in his possession. These were from
various countries but one rifled with an embossed barrel from Sind was the best. He admired
the Knives especially the Clasp ones and also some well finished fine Scissors. I requested
that he would oblige me with a drawing or a pattern of a Knife and of a Steel for striking fire
that would be approved in this Country and I would cause some hundreds to be made by my
countrymen who were particularly expert in works of this kind and would bring or send them
to Ludagh. This he promised. He had heard he said of my having the portraits of Runjeet
Singh and of Alexander the Great and that I had a convenient apparatus for writing, these he
could wish to see if convenient. Having sent for and shewn them to him I observed that it was
esteemed by us a mark of friendship in the Chiefs of countries we visited to give us their
portraits and I should think the possession of his portrait as a proof of this nature. He said that
it should be prepared on which
[66]
taking off a ring of no great value I begged he would wear it as remembrance of me at the
same time telling him that the stones were only imitations of diamonds. I shewed him the
patterns of merchandize I had brought as samples. He said that Scarlet, Grass Green,
Popinjay and Blue if fine were suited for this market with Orange for the dresses of the
Lamas, Brown Yellows and Greens for Yarkund but he rejected all demi tints and gave a
preference to fine cloths. Chintzes and light [illeg.] of silk and cotton would answer for
Yarkund. He wrote my name in the Tibet character and admired a black hard Pencil and some
French embossed and ornamented green writing Paper which I gave him. I had purchased
some beautiful artificial flowers for the market but have the mortification to find that they
have been left out of the Bale in which they were invoiced. I mentioned them to him as both
his Cap and that of the other Wuzeer were omamented with Marigold &c. He enquired the
nature of the material and seemed to approve of the article. He was however most pleased
with pattems of French silks and brocades and said that one of the former would make a
beautiful curtain. The women of this country have very fine hair which they disperse in
67
small tresses and mix at the end with false hair and wool till it reach the ground. What he said
Would be the effect on the growth of the hair if it were dressed with the contents of the bottle
before him Creme de Noyau. I said that I did not expect any benefit from such an application.
He then enquired if I had any thing used to increase the growth of the hair and recollecting
27

some French Pomatum I told him that at our next meeting I would bring something used for
this purpose.
I have observed that the Custom-House Officers had examined and weighed our merchandize
and had brought an account of the amount of the duties nothing being charged but [what] Was
represented by us as articles for sale but on being asked for a receipt for the money had gone
away saying it was not customary.
l lth. This moming Abdool Luteef came for the amount of the duties which was given to him
the account being made out in the following manner. The weight of a hundred and twenty
Muhmood Shahee Rupees makes one Munwuttee and for seventy Munwuttees amounting to
2 maunds and 25 Sers a duty of thirteen Rupees was levied. My merchandize when weighed
amounted to eleven hundred and three Munwuttees for which I paid Two Hundred and Five
Rupees. The payment of this duty has caused us to be acknowledged by the Authorities of
Leh as Merchants and I consider all farther
[63]
doubt upon this point removed by this transaction. Yesterday Chubbes, as they here call
Traders from Lhassa brought many Yaks laden with Tea and this morning Mohsin Baba the
Kashmeeree requested pennission to see any Corals and Pearls we might have. As ready
exchange into cash I had brought red Coral for the Ludagh market and crooked Pearls and
light or Almond colored Coral for Yarkund. It appeared that he had been sent by the Kuloon
and I apprehend that he wished to purchase and resell to the Chubbes rather than to allow
them to apply to us which it is probable when they shall hear of us they will do. I remarked
that the larger the Coral the more it attracted his attention and that he preferred the middle
sized Pearls either to large or small ones. On enquiring the price he was told that I Wished to
do business in the large way and in such a manner as to render it advantageous to Traders to
deal with me in future. That I knew that more than these prices were asked and obtained for
these articles that is three times more than they had cost in Calcutta. That I would shew him
the Invoice price and be satisfied with two & a half that is Fifty per cent as a compensation
for interest, difference in the value of Rupees, servants wages, carriage & loss on other
articles and Cent per Cent as profit. He admitted that the principle was fair but preferred on
the
69
whole to choose and agree upon a price for though he entertained not the slightest doubt as to
the truth of my accounts as we had not had any dealings he knew not at what hand or rate my
purchases were made. The Meer wished me to put these prices at once upon the articles that
there might be room for diminution as he conceived these people would be more gratified by
effecting this by bargaining than if the diminution proposed were to be made in the first
instance and not departed from. I wished to establish a principle to be acted upon in future
and would have reduced the returns to 1 and ‘A profit at which a valuation of the Coral had
been made by Uhmud Joo. Mohsin promised to call again.
O0‘. 26*. In the hope of having to insert the accomplishment of some commercial
arrangement with the authorities of this country I have thus long neglected my joumal
however the incidents within the period of omission have been neither numerous nor
particularly interesting. The Kwajah Shah Neas had been invited by the Kuloon to come into
the immediate neighbourhood but the former aware of the fears of the latter lest the Small
Pox should be introduced by him from Sheh preferred remaining in a Tent until all
reasonable ground for apprehension of infection existing should have passed. I sent him mine
which however are almost rotten from being exposed to the whole of the last rainy season.
28

[70]
As a trifling acknowledgement of the very valuable service he has rendered to me in my
attempt to introduce British Commerce I offered to the Shah some specimens of British
manufactures as Broad Cloth for a dress purchased by me expressly for gifts, green Cotton
Velvet particularly valuable from its being the produce of a vegetable and its color, a piece of
green Chintz, Snuff Box filled with the Prince Regents mixture, Spectacles, Penknife, Boots
and two Behar[?] Turbands. The use of Silk Velvet (as being the excrement of a wonn) is
interdicted to Moosulmans during the time of prayer but that of CottonVelvet is not
objectionable. This is the first specimen that been seen and from what I leam I think it likely
to be in great demand in Moosulman Countries. The Qwajah spoke of his loss with feeling
but with resignation. As he had other Sons in Kashmeer he had requested that some medicine
the efficacy of which had been greatly extolled by Meer Izzut Oollah might be given to him
for transmission and this had been indulged as largely as my much diminished stock would
admit. I found the Qwajah possessed of strong understanding cultivated more highly than I
expected in a Peerzada and of a friendly, benevolent and apparently liberal disposition.
A Kafilah of about 25 Horses has arrived from Yarkund and has brought Shawl Wool, Felts,
Tea and China
71
Silk-goods but no Yamboos or Ingots of Silver which latter circumstance has much
disappointed the expectations of the Traders of Leh. The Kafila Bashee reports that other
Kafilahs were preparing to come when he left Yarkund. No hostilities had taken place
between Omar Khan the King of Khokhan and the Chinese nor was there any stop to
commercial communications. The interruption to the Kafilahs coming from Yarkund arose
from the market of Yarkund not having had a quick demand for the Brocades and white
Cloths &c. purchased by the last Kafilahs at Leh and from the Traders having taken them to
Bokhara to which the report of Tea being dear at the latter place was an additional
inducement to carry that article to that Capital rather than to Leh where it was said to be
cheap. All the Horses were Geldings except two and there did not seem to be any difference
in their condition. They were all very low and the points of their Shoulders and upper parts of
the ribs were galled from the bad constructions of the pack saddle the inconvenient pressure
of which produced galling on prominent parts when the fat of the animals is absorbed.
The Horses are of two breeds differing more in size and strength than in form as they are both
ugly and of coarse proportions but remarkable for the great depth and length of the Chest and
the great strength of their fore legs. The smaller kind are of the Kirghiz and the larger of the
Kosak breeds. Both are
[72]
more fit for burthens of merchandize than for the saddle. Mares are not used because when
mixed with Geldings or Horses they are troublesome. Eewees[?] Mahummud a Merchant of
Tooran but who has bought in the Punjab a large investment of Cloth has purchased the
whole lot of the Kafilah Horses at 50 Rs a head, two have died but the rest though poor will
recover. He feeds them with Luceme Hay, Wheat Straw & whole Barley. They will require
six weeks to be recruited but he thinks that he shall by means of these Animals be sufficiently
early in the market to repay him for his speculation. The Qwajah has sent me some small lead
Canisters of fine Tea, two pair of felt Boots, four large felt Blankets and two Melons which
he has received from his friends at Yarkund. The Melons are large green and yellow, slightly
corded. One contains green pulp and is of the kind called Sucrée in France, the other
approaches to the Musk variety. Both are well flavored and have been well preserved
considering they have been carried on horseback during a joun-iey of six weeks. The Melons
29

pulled in Autumn are said to keep good through the whole winter. Although inferior to a
good Apple yet as it is said they grow freely in the open Air at Yarkund I will send the seeds
to Britain as they may grow in the Garden of the Cottager and afford him a variety that has
not yet reached his table. The quantity of Tea now ac-
73
cumulated in Leh is large as that brought by the Chubbe amounted to five hundred Maunds.
All Tea from Lhassa to Leh is carried by the peasantry belonging to the fonner up to the
frontier of the latter from one station to another. The peasantry of Leh then bring it forwards
without expense to the Merchant.
It also enters the Country of Ludakh free of duty. The Chubbe has not been able to sell his
Tea as no Yamboos have arrived from Yarkund and he does not receive Rupees in payment.
The Kashmeeree Merchants apprehensive that I am desirous of purchasing Shawl wool have
set forth the ill consequences that may on this account befall the income of the Kuloon in the
strongest colors. And by representing that we can take it off by the road of Neetee diirect
from the Country of Gurdokh without its passing through his hands have considerably excited
his fears. To the Raja they have stated that our designs are not commercial but that they are of
this complection [sic] merely for the purpose of seeing the Country and subsequently of
taking it. Their most active advocate is an Officer called Lompa whose business I have not
learnt .It was recommended that all articles of food should be with-held from us and for one
day nothing could be procured in the Bazar but the following day the order was retracted and
no further difficulty ensued. I have most carefully avoided giving ground for their harbouring
suspicion in regard
[74]
to purchase of Shawl Wool neither having made any enquiry respecting this article nor
countenanced it in others. The Kuloon much alarmed vacillates in his opinions he has not yet
dared to visit Qwajah Shah Neas for fear of the Small-Pox which he has not had and amongst
all adults that contract this disease in the natural way die. But he has sent Kagha Tunzeen and
the second or Noona Wuzeer at different times to the Qwaj ah to learn his sentiments and to
receive re-assurance of confidence from him when his belief in our motives and objects has
been shaken. Kagha Tunzeen sent for Meer Izzut Oollah Khan and informed him that reports
were propagated in opposition to our having mercantile operations in view. Much discussion
and the Kagha appeared convinced of our objects being commercial only.
On the 21 st the Kuloon, the Noona Kuloon, the Kuloon’s Son in law Kagha and another
Officer who was not known to us proceeded with Mohsin Baba and Abdool Luteef to the
Tents of Qwajah Shah Neas and requested his attendance at a house in the Neighborhood
where a dinner was prepared in honor of him. After the repast the Kuloon represented that he
had received cautionary letters from Gurdokh respecting the Europeans now at Leh that a
Kuloon from Lhassa had come to Gurdokh to enquire into the cause of the visits of
Europeans
75
to that country having been so frequent of late years. That the Malik of Kashmeer had
cautioned him against the designs of the Europeans and reminded him of the offence he
might give to Raja Runjeet Singh by countenancing their projects and promised soon to come
to his assistance, and that Ahmud Shah the Malik of Balti had written to him for information
regarding the designs of the Europeans. By advice from Gurdokh as well as from Peetee he
had learnt that an European with forty attendants had reached the latter place by the Busehur
road but that the Authorities of Peetee having refused to permit [him] to advance into the
30

interior he had returned. And information was sent to him from Undeleh that thirty Strangers
had lately come there, that on being questioned as to who they were and their business they
replied that they were Sikhs and they were come to purchase Wool but that on being told they
might begin to purchase, they could only muster the sum of Forty Rupees and went away.
That under all these circumstances he wished for the counsel of his old friend.
The Qwajah replied that the Kuloon’s conduct was wholly within his own power being as he
was an independent Chief. That he the Qwajah saw not what ground Runjeet Singh or the
Malik of Kashmeer had to interfere in his concems unless he meant to acknowledge himself a
Tributary to the Sikh Chief and if so he
[76]
thought advice superfluous. That he considered the interference of the authorities of Gurdokh
just as uncalled for and as impertinent as that of Runjeeet Singh or his Servant. On the
appearance of the Sikhs he could form no conclusion but he thought a refusal to the English
Gentleman was as unfriendly as it was ill judged, however he would confine his sentiments to
the matter in which he had accidentally, though at the request of the Kuloon become a kind of
party. When the Kuloon had before by letter applied to him for his advice on the subject of
permitting the Europeans to visit Leh he had recommended him to receive them and to treat
them as friends. He had received them it was true but as yet he had not learnt that he had
given them any proofs of friendship and he had so far neglected to follow that advice he had
shewn himself anxious to obtain.
It had been imputed to him the Qwajah that he had sent for the Europeans that they might
take his Country. The imputation was as untrue as absurd. The Kuloon must recollect that
when Moohummud Azeem Khan had actually completed his preparations for the invasion of
Ludakh he the Qwajah had gone to him and through his personal influence had prevailed
upon him to abandon his design.
It was not likely that he should act with such inconsistency
77
as to avert an invasion of Ludakh at one time and to invite it at another. But the absurdity of
the reports was obvious. He was a person of no political importance. He had no connections
with the British Govt. nor could any reasoning of his be supposed of consequence enough to
influence their Councils. They acted from their own views of things which from their results
seemed to be founded in wisdom and prudence. He knew not nor was known to any
Englishman save the two individuals at Leh and this as the Kulooon Was aware in a very
cursory manner. He had heard that the British Govemment was a mighty Power that had
overspread almost the whole of the fomier Mogool Empire in India and that the vigor of their
rule was only equalled by its justice. That they had lately punished the Goorkhas by taking
away part of their conquests and that by this acquisition they had actually become Leh’s
Neighbors through occupying Busehur where he understood a portion of their Army was also
stationed. This circumstance he conceived ought to have considerable weight in influencing
the Kuloons decisions and in bestowing upon them a conciliating and friendly character
That in his the Qwajahs view of probable events other changes might take place which might
bring the British even still nearer than they now were. However availing [?] these
considerations he conceived that the benefits Ludakh would secure from an increased
commercial communication
[73]
with the subjects of so great a Government ought in common prudence to induce the Kuloon
to encourage the intercourse by acts of friendship. The Kuloon recognised him as an old
31

friend; he was now about to leave his country but he wished not to depart without giving him
a solid testimonial of his friendship through recommending to him a line of conduct which
might prove as creditable to his judgment as beneficial to his interests.
Meer Izzut Oollah was then called in and desired by the Kuloon to state the nature and extent
of my wishes or expectations in regard to him; to which he answered that they were as
follows, viz
First Free liberty to trade with Ludakh and through it to other countries
Secondly. That in consideration of the great distance whence British property was brought
there should be some remission of duties upon it.
Thirdly. That a House should be hired in Leh to be occupied as a British Factory.
Fourthly. That the good offices of the Kuloon were required to be exerted with the
Authorities of Gurdokh to open the Neetee Ghat to British Commerce.
The three first points were specially discussed and agreed to. On the subject of Gurdokh the
Kuloon observed that he had no power there and he much doubted whether the local
authorities had the power to decide upon a point of so much importance as that
79
intended to be agitated. It was remarked that his friendly aid alone was desired, which would
be suitably acknowledged whatever might be the result of the discussion. He promised to
write but this was declined as insufficient, he then proposed to direct Ahmud Khan his Agent
to employ his interest. This was also objected [to] and it was proposed that some person in his
confidence as Kagha Tunzeen or Mohsin Baba should accompany me to Gurdokh. Kagha
Tunzeen remarked that though the British might not act with hostility towards Gurdokh so
many Europeans might enter the Province as by their influence might annihilate the power of
the present Government and gain possession without force. It was observed in reply that if
this objection were made by the Gurdokh Authorities it might be met by limitation of
numbers. It being also agreed that a suitable person on the part of the Kuloon should go along
with me to Gurdokh the Meer desired to know whether he was to consider himself authorised
to report to me the points discussed as agreed upon to which the Kuloon replied that he would
lay the whole matter before the Raja the next day and inform the Meer of his decision. It
being thoroughly known that the whole business of the Govemment is in the hand of the
Kuloon and that the Raja is a mere Cypher Izzut Oollah remarked that under [the]
circumstances [it seemed] to him that no progress had been really made if he were not
permitted by the Kuloon to inform me that the points
[80]
discussed had been finally settled. A pause occurring here Qwajah Shah Neas desired the
Meer to withdraw. He then told the Kuloon that he was sorry to see an indecision in his
sentiments which he had not expected but that in the same spirit of friendship towards him by
which he had hitherto been actuated he would set before him in few words the danger to
which an undecided conduct would expose his interests. If you do not said the Qwajah avail
yourself in a friendly and decided manner of the opportunity now offered to you of receiving
the benefits of British Commerce it is the intention of the Sahib to proceed to Balti. Ahmud
Khan the Chief of that Country will receive him with open Arms. You know full well that
Balti was the ancient line by which Commerce was carried on from the eastern part of the
Country with Yarkund and Budukshan and you may readily foresee the consequences of its
revival. You will have the mortification to see Kafilahs pass through your Country to enrich
your Neighbor and Rival without being able to prevent them except by an appeal to arms of
which the event is uncertain. By degrees you will see your present prosperous trade decline
32

and slide into another Channel. The Kuloon did not permit the Kwaj ah to proceed further but
seizing the skirt of his Robe desired the Meer might be called in again.
He then requested the Qwajah to come to
81
Leh that he might have the benefit of his farther advice in finally settling the business. This
was agreed to and the meeting broke up.
We have been called upon to pay rent for the House we occupy which has been settled at
fifteen Rupees per Month. I had heard from Ahmud Khan at Gurdokh that the Country of
Ludakh had once been rescued from the power of an invading Horde of Tatars by the
interference of the Mogool Sovereign of Hindoostan and the following are the particulars.
During the reign of Arungzeb the Kalmaks invaded the principality of Ludakh and
dispossessed the Raja of his country who flying to Kashmeer implored the assistance of its
Soobadar Ibrahim Khan the son of the public spirited Alee Murdan Khan. The Rajas
application was forwarded to the Emperor who directed that aid should be afforded provided
the Raja would become a Moosulman which he immediately did taking the name of Akbut
Mahmood and doing homage to Arungzeb for his dominions. Under the command of Ibrahim
and Fidaee Khan the imperial forces entered Ludakh and gave battle to the Kalmaks.
The engagement lasted several hours and night parted the combatants without any decided
advantage having been gained on either side The hostile forces encamped in sight of each
other with a determination to renew the fight on the following day, but accident ordered it
otherwise. In the night it was customary to illuminate
[82]
a large space round the tents of the principal imperial Officers with a species of fire work,
which by the kind of light it diffused was called Mahtabee or Moonshine. The object of this
light was to prevent thieves or assassins entering the tents unperceived. When the Kalmaks
beheld the unusual object of the sky illuminated in a very dark night over the enemy’s camp
struck with astonishment and terror they abandoned their own and fled precipitately,
exclaiming that it was impossible for them to contend against an Antagonist who by the force
of his enchantments could change night into day. The Mogools replaced the Raja on his seat
and the Emperor to confirm the Chief in his new faith and attachment ordered a tract of land
in Lahore worth seven thousand Rupees a year to be granted to him in Jagheer. The converted
Raja built and endowed a Mosque at Leh and soon after died. His Son and Successor fell off
from the faith of Islam and returned to that of his ancestors, Which being reported to the
Emperor he deputed an Officer to proceed to Leh and enquire into the fact. Infonnation of his
approach being carried to the apostate Raja he attempted to avert the threatened danger by an
apparent conformity to the worship prescribed by the Koran. But as the interval to the period
of the expected arrival of the Moslem Inquisitor was too short to admit of his becoming
thoroughly acquainted with all the ordinances prescribed to the
83
disciples of Moohummud his instructor recommended him generally to follow the example of
the Imam and imitate all he should see him do appearing also to repeat prayers. During the
first part of the service the Scrutineer observed no difference between the conduct of the Raja
and the demeanor of the most attentive and devout Moosulman, but when after certain
prayers the Minister stood up to say the Kootbah, and the congregation remained in the
attitude of prayer the Raja imitating the movements of the Imam placed himself in an erect
position and thus betrayed his ignorance of Mohummedan forms. The discovery of the
deception was immediately made known to Arungzeb who learning that the Mosque was kept
33

in good order, that Moosulmans were settled in Ludakh and were allowed to practise all the
ceremonies of their religion unmolested directed that the Raj a should be punished for his
apostasy by the loss of the Jagheer granted to his father but that he should be allowed
peaceably to pursue his own religion and be considered as under the protection of the
imperial power. The Mosque and its appointments have ever since been maintained by an
appropriation of a certain proportion of the tax imposed on every load of merchandise
imported into Leh and the Raj a is nominally a dependant upon the Throne of Dehli. From the
time of Arungzeb to the present time annual gifts have been sent to the possessor
[34]
of Kashmeer as representative of the Sovereign of Dehli.
Memorandum respecting Rhubarb I 3
“All the Rhubarb of Commerce is brought from the Chinese town Sini or Selim“ by the
Bucharians. It grows on the neighbouring chain of lofty Mountains which stretches to the
Lake Koko Nor, near the source of the River Chorico between 35° and 40° North Lat.” Dun:
Ed: Disp: An 1816. Page 232 &3 Art: Rh cum:
This information is given on the Authority of Professor Pallas, but with whatever deference
the testimony of this great Man may in general be regarded it would appear from the evidence
of Merchants who have lived at Yarkund and of those who have resided at “Sini” that in these
particulars he has been misinformed. That the Rhubarb plant is of most extensive growth is
obvious from the accounts of Marco Polo, Du Halde, De Guignes and the Authors of les
Lettres Edifiantes, and I may venture to observe, that it was met with by me on the Garhwhal
Mountains near Joshee Muth, and in various parts of the road from that place to Gurtope or
Gurhdokh in the Country of Chanthan called by me by the Hindoostanee appellation of Oon
des or the Country of Wool in the year 1812. In 1820 specimens of the roots of Rhubarb with
fresh leaves attached dug up two days before at the sourthern foot of the northernmost
Mountains of Kangra were brought for my inspection by the orders of Raj a Sunsar Chund, at
Shoojanpur Teera his present residence. On the Pass of Rutanku [Rohtang], at Tandee the
Capital of Lahoul, at Lubrung and on several other Mountains
85
I also found Rhubarb and traced it into the country of Ludakh. The roots of this plant in this
joumey were smaller than those I formerly saw on the Mountains of Neetee and in Chanthan.
But all the roots seen in both j oumeys that were of a considerable size were rotten in the core
or centre, the sides alone being sound and fit for medical purposes. And if the purgative
quality of the sound parts was not impaired by its contact with the diseased core, the drug
itself, if suitably dried and prepared, would have appeared very inferior to that imported into
Britain from Russia and Turkey. But from course trials made on both I think a larger dose of
the Himachal Rhubarb is required to produce a complete evacuation of the intestines than that
of Russia. I have examined much Rhubarb in the Shops of Druggists in many of the principal
Cities in India but have never found any pieces as good as those which are usually brought
into Britain from Russia and Turkey. And from their shape and their being covered with the
skin as cut up without being rasped as well as from their color I am led to believe that the
China rhubarb does not come into Hindoostan in any considerable quantity by land and that
the whole of the Rhubarb I have seen in the Druggists shops has been the produce of the
Himaleh, Tibet and Mountains of Afghanistan. I have met with it growing in such abundance
that two men have dug up in two hours more roots than three men could can’y but none of the
large ones were wholly free from rottenness.
34

Perhaps the existence of the same disease in the Rhubarb that grows in the Russian
Mountains may have induced the Empress Catherine 2d
[36]
to depute Mr Sievers, Apothecary to that part of the Russian frontier adjoining the border of
China from which Rhubarb is brought, for the purpose of procuring that variety of the plant,
which yields the Drug most fit for medical use or as it was entitled “the true Rhubarb
plant[”]. But this Gentleman, though he “travelled for several years in the countries
contiguous to that whence Rhu[barb] is brought” was not successful in his efforts to obtain
the plant itself or even to determine its botanical characters. He “is of opinion that the
botanical characters of the plant which fumishes it, are still unknown, excepting that it is said
not to grow to a great size and to have round leaves, which are toothed on the edges with
almost spinous points.” Dun:Ed: Disp.
Considering that the trade in Rhubarb is open to all the Chinese, who may wish to engage in
it, and referring to the venal character of this race and the great quantity of the article, it is
somewhat extraordinary that success should not have followed an offer of reward to any
Trader who should have brought to the Commissioner, a Rhubarb Roor with the Root-stalk,
Leaves and parts of fructification attached, and this expedient was so very obvious that one
can scarcely suppose it to have been overlooked, or neglected. Mr Sievers thought that the
Rhubarb of Commerce is produced by a variety of this plant not known to Europeans but the
grounds of this opinion are perhaps not wholly conclusive. In the course of my joumeys I
have seen Rhubarb plants of which the leaves were deeply indented with sharpish points;
others less
87
but still considerably indented with points less sharp; some with edges slightly scolloped and
the extremities of the ribs blunt or rounded; and others again, nearly circular, allowance being
made for the plaiting produced by the ribs. The varieties of Rhubarb acknowledged by
Botanists are the palmated, undulated and compact. Those seen by me might perhaps be
called digitated, palmated, undulated and compact. But though at first sight the differences
might appear to constitute distinct varieties, I doubt whether they be permanent, or accidental,
and on the latter supposition, arising from difference in elevation, aspect, soil, quality and
quantity of moisture, as I have seen these varieties differing greatly amongst themselves as to
size, color and luxuriance in different localities. I entertain this doubt with less difficulty from
having observed the powerful influence of these circumstances in modifying the appearance
of other plants with which I was better acquainted and of which the difference in a valley and
on a mountain, about a thousand feet higher with an horizontal distance of only two miles,
was so striking as much to surprise me and would probably have excited surprise in any other
observer than a botanist experienced in the effects of highly contrasted localities on the same
species of vegetable. If the varieties seen by me were really permanent it may be matter of
doubt whether the fitness of the root for medical purposes, depend upon a specific variety of
plant or upon locality and climate
[83]
for as before remarked, I have never yet met with any large root of any of the varieties
mentioned that has not been affected with rottenness at its centre.
Rhubarb said to be fit for commerce is reported by a very intelligent Merchant of Yarkund to
be produced largely on the northem face of the Chain of Mountains, which separates the
Chinese Country of Khotan* from the Lhassan Province of Changthan, and not more than
fourteen days journey from Leh, the place at which I now write. But as direct communication
35

between these Countries is forbidden by the Chinese, the Rhubarb of Khotan cannot reach
this City except by the circuitous route of Yarkund and in fact this Drug is brought here in a
very small quantity for medical use by its inhabitants alone, as no Merchant trades in it for
farther transport.
Prof. Pallas is supponed in his statement of Rhubarb being found at Sini or in the snowy
Mountains (Suechan) by Du Halde who says “qui s’etendent depuis Leang-telion jusqu’a
San-telion, et a Sining-telion.” The “Bucharians”, Prof. Pallas asserts “belong to the town of
Selin (the Sinin of the Jesuits Map) which is situated to the south-west of Koko-nor or the
blue lake towards Tibet &c. The River upon which the
* [Here Moorcroft leaves a blank space for a footnote that he has omitted to write]
89
town stands and from whence it derives its name is the rapid Selingol, formed by the junction
of two mountain streams and which discharges itself into the Khalthungol or as it is called by
the Chinese the Khoange or Khongo”. Reise. Note 397. Marsden’s Marco Polo. The Selin of
Pallas, Sining-tcheon of Du Halde, Sinin of the Jesuits Map and Sining of Marco Polo is the
modem Siling. My informant Kunn Joo, who acts as a Broker to Mohsin Ulee, the British
Factor at Leh”, resided three years at Siling and during this time never saw any Rhubarb
exposed for sale in the Bazar of that town to the best of his recollection nor any pass through
it in its way to any other Country. There are fifteen mercantile Houses of Kashmeerees in
Siling* which trade with Lhassa but no Bokharans reside there nor do any visit this town as
Merchants. Chubbas or Lhassan Merchants now at Leh corroborate Kurm Joos repon by
asseiting that fine Rhubarb constitutes no part of the merchandise sent from Siling to Lhassa
and also that no Bokharans live in Siling or carry on commerce with it. The assertions of
Prof. Pallas on these points are questioned not out of a spirit of criticism but to shew that no
Rhubarb of the right kind finds its way from China by Siling and Lhassa as might have been
presumed had they remained without examination. If M. Pallas had stated
*Note. In a point likely to concern Kurm Joos interest however remotely I would not rely on his
evidence nor presume to place it in opposition to such respectable authority as that ofM. Pallas, but as
it is in no degree affected, as he has resided at Siling and as his testimony is strengthened both in this
and other points by other individuals equally uninterested in the question but acquainted with the
Commerce of Siling I cannot but consider it as worthy ofbeing credited.
[90]
generally that the best Rhubarb came to Russia from the interior of China, the position would
not have been open to doubt; Mullah Paitab a Native of Khojund, who from his youth to the
age of sixty has been engaged in Commerce betwixt Russia, Oosbeck and Chinese Toorkistan
Ludakh, and the Punjab, reports that the Rhubarb of Commerce is raised in the Chinese
Districts of Langanjoo or Lanshoo and Soochoo. The latter is not greatly distant from the
Country in which Siling is situated Whence it is probable that this District as well as many
others may contribute to the large quantity annually exported. Nor is it improbable that by
suitable arrangements, in the course of time, Rhubarb of quality fitted for medical use might
through the intervention of the Kashmeerees residing at Siling, be brought by the route of
Lhassa to Hindoostan.
The Caravan, which annually leaves the Districts before mentioned is said to amount to
betwixt three and four thousand Camels loaded principally with Tea Rhubarb and silken
stuffs, figured and flowered with Damask work, the ground and omaments being of the same
color, but the pieces of various colors as scarlet, crimson, rose, light blue, dark blue and
purple the latter of which is said to be preferred in the Russian markets. These Silks are called
Tauar [appar sic] and Linzee. Yamboos or lngots of Silver constitute a part of the charge of
36

this Caravan. Although I may have disturbed the statement of M. Pallas as to the town
whence the Rhubarb is dispatched I am yet unable to say precisely at what other point
91
the Traders assemble, but the Caravan sets out generally about the end of August, the Camels
being then in good condition from having browsed without working during the whole of the
Summer. Before this time the journey could not be undertaken with convenience on account
of the swollen state of the Rivers from the melted Snows of the Mountains and of great
numbers of a kind of fly which during the hot season attacks Camels and annoys them
dreadfully when loaded*. The Caravan on first setting out, or soon afterwards, divides into
two parts of which one taking a noithem direction, goes to Taeetee, presumed to be Kiachta,
a Russian frontier Mart on the left bank of the River Silinginsk, Tula? Marco Polo. [appar.
sic]. The other by Kambool,°° Toorfan, Kara-shuhr, (Black City) Ooroomchee, Baee, Syrum
and Aksoo, proceeds to Yarkund, which city it reaches in December, or January, the averaged
time for performing the journey being about four months.
At Aksoo the Caravan is met by Tooranee Merchants called Tashkundee, Namanga,
Kokhunee and Mulgulanee from the towns at which they usually reside. These purchase
much of the merchandise take it to Eela and if they do not dispose of it there convey it
intact[?] to the interior of Russia.
D” Kamul, Terfon, Harashan, Aksu, Yarkand ofM Polo
* Whilst my party was crossing the I-Iimachul in the hot and rainy season that variety ofBot fly called
Oestrus Dorsales, deposited its Eggs in the skin of the back of several of our Horses to their great
annoyance.
Perhaps it availed itselfof this Nidus from the scarcity ofNeat Cattle in these Mountains as this variety
is found always to prefer them in Europe for this purpose and though I have seen the Pupae of other
flies in the backs of Horses I have never before met with this variety thus situated.“
[92]
From Yarkund the Caravan goes by Kashgar and Indejan in Khokan to Bokhara but other
Tooranee Merchants in various parts of this journey buy many Camel loads of the
Merchandise and carry it also to Russia by different routes. The Chinese Traders who
conducted it from the interior of their country accompany it no farther than Yarkund and
Kashgar being forbidden to pass beyond the frontier of the Chinese Empire, by the orders of
their Government. At Bokhara Nogaee” Merchants and also Merchants from Meshed,
Isfahan and Shiraz are competitors for the Merchandise of the Caravan, but as the former
possess very large Capitals and give liberal prices they procure the pre-emption, and the latter
seldom obtain any other articles, than those rejected by the Nogaees through their over-
abundance, or inferiority. With a Caravan of which the Cattle are furnished by Kosaks the
Nogaees cross the Desert that intervenes between Bokhara and the Russian frontier on which
latter border Merchants from Orenburg usually await their arrival and barter against the Tea,
Rhubarb and Silks of China such articles of Russian manufacture as suit the markets of
Oosbuk and Chinese Toorkistan, the purchase bieng seldom made with Coin. If the Persian
Merchants have reason to think that the market of Astrakhan will be profitable they traverse
the country of Oorgunj and the Caspian to that City otherwise crossing Persia to Baghdad
they convey their Wares to such Marts in the Turkish Empire as are likely to afford them the
more profitable vend.
37

End notes by the transcriber (see also transcriber ’s notes on the text in separate document).
1 H.H. Wilson, editor of Moorcroft’s published Travels, remarks in a fn. that according to info received by
2 Martin Mere, six miles from Ortmskirk where Moorcroft was brought up, is today a protected wetland and
nature centre. For its history see Hale, W.G. and Audrey Coney: Martin Mere: Laneashire ’s Lost Lake
https://booksgoogle.co.in/books’?id=LPNTHGngfW8C&pg=PA94&lpg=PA94&dq=martin+Meer&source=bl&
ots=F 2sp7glcE-&sig=TXX-JrklMp9N_tiD1snMEoqlHTY&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjZ-
ZiK05rNAhUBoZQKl-1X9rAwoQ6AE1HzAB#v=onepage&q&f=false. Accessed 09.06.2016. From this preview
it emerges that Scarisbrick was the name of the local manorial proprietors.
3 Wilson elides all the discussion of grains into a single phrase: Siberian barley. (1bid., 226, see also p. 204). ./au
(Moorcroft’s jou) is the Hindustani word for barley.
4 Najaf Ali doesn’t, as far as my recollection goes, feature by name in the published Travels, though at this point
Wilson does enumerate Mir lzzat Ullah’s son among the party visiting the Raja of Gia. But see SIMON
DIGBY:TRAVELS IN LADAKH 1820-21; THE ACCOUNT OF MOORCROFT‘S PERSIAN MUNSHI, HAJJI
SAYYID ‘ALI, OF HIS TRAVELS. London, Asian Aflalrs, vol 29, 299-301. A partial translation ofNajaf A1i’s
Persian text is among the late Simon Digby’s papers, which are at the time ofwriting being sorted and
catalogued in SOAS. From Digby’s account he may not actually have been Mir Izzat Ullah’s son, but his
nephew or younger brother~-certainly a close associate of the Mir.
5 Gale is defined in the 1959 edn. of Chambers’s Twentieth Century Dictionary (second meaning) as bog myrtle,
which is a low plant with fragrant leaves found in the Scottish Highlands. Moorcroft seems to use the term
generically to mean a low shrub. The plant he is describing is surely seabuckthorn (Hippophae) (which is not at
all like bog—myrtle).
6 The much-quoted description of the crowds in Wilson‘s edition of the Travels may be taken from another
source, e.g. a letter from Moorcroft to one of his many correspondents, but doesn’t appear in the Joumal. It runs
as follows:
…in the groups were mingled the good-humoured faces of the Ladakhi, and the sullen and designing
countenances of the Kashmiris, the high bonnets of Yarkand, and the bare heads of the Lamas, with the
long lappets and astonished looks ofthe women. (Ibid., 246)
This has tended to be used to disparage the Kashmiris; or altematively to show Moorcroft as prejudiced against
them, and talking in stereotypes.
7 See note 17 below.
8 If Wikipedia is to be believed, the kaleidoscope was invented and patented only in 1817, so it’s interesting to
find Moorcroft distributing these objects only three years later, in 1820, in remotest trans-Himalaya.
9 Wilson omits some of Moorcroft’s descriptive details, and adds others, no doubt from a letter. (lbz’d., 249—5l)
‘0 Noyau is defined by Wiktionary as ‘A French liqueur made at Poissy in north central France from brandy and
flavoured with almonds and the pits ofapricots since the early nineteenth century.’ An appropriate offering for
Ladakhis.
H ‘Ratafia is a term used for two types of sweet alcoholic beverage, either a fortified wine or a f1’uit—baseCl
beverage.’ More details at https://en.wikipcdia.org/’wiki Ratafia
12 Chambers’s Twentieth Century Dictionary (1959 edn.) tells me that trap-ball is ‘an old game played with a
trap, bat and ball‘. Perhaps this is what Moorcroft is referring to.
15 Why rhubarb? 1’ve often wondered on coming across frequent mention of the plant in Moorcroft’s writings.
From the present ‘Memorandum’ I infer that its root was used for medicinal purposes, as a purgative; and that it
was an important article of trade. Wikipedia informs me that
Rhubarb root has been used for medical purposes by the Chinese for thousands of years, and appears in The
I)ivine Farmer’s lIerb—RooI C/u.\”.\’i(‘ which is thought to have been compiled about 2,700 years ago…..
During Islamic times, it was imported along the Silk Road, reaching Europe in the 14th century through the
ports of Aleppo and Smyrna, where it became known as “Turkish rhubarb”. Later, when the usual route lay
through Russia, “Russian rhubarb” became the familiar term.
For centuries, the plant has grown wild along the banks of the River Volga, The cost of transportation
across Asia made rhubarb expensive in medieval Europe. It was several times the price of other valuable
herbs and spices such as cinnamon, opium, and saffron. The merchant explorer Marco Polo therefore
searched for the place where the plant was grown and harvested, discovering that it was cultivated in the
mountains ofliangut province. The value of rhubarb can be seen in Ruy Gonzales de Clavijo’s report of his
embassy in l403—05 to Timur in Samarkand: “The best of all merchandise coming to Samarkand was from
China: especially silks, satins, musk, rubies, diamonds, pearls, and rhubarb…”
htlps://www.wikiwand.com/en/Rhubarb. Accessed 29.05.2016.
38

‘4 l’m not 100 per cent cenain about the transcription of some of the unfamiliar geographical names in this
section. I’m also not familiar with Moorcroft’s method of abbreviating his references, so they too might require
double-checking from the original.
15 ‘British Factor at Leh’?? This is news to me, Did the British in fact employ a ‘native’ Factor to look after their
interests at Leh before Moorcroft’s visit? What interests? I’m really puzzled by this phrase casually thrown out
15 ‘The Oestridae are a family offlies variously known as bot flies, warble flies,heel flies, gadflies, and
similar names. Their larvae are internal parasites of mammals, some species growing in the host’s flesh and
others within the gut.‘ More on Wikipedia at https://enwikipedia.org/wiki/Botfly
17 According to Wikipedia, the Nogais were a nomadic ethnic group living in Turkey, the Caucasus and around
the Black Sea. There is no hint in the two relevant Wikipedia entries of their also being a prosperous trading
community, as Moorcroft’s account, based no doubt on inputs from traders coming from Yarkand, implies. See
https://cn.wikipcdia.org/wiki/Nogais and https://cn.wikipcdia.org/wiki/Nogai_llordc
39

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 The Context
Watershed protection and development have gained tremendous importance
and relevance in India over the past few years. This has been due to the increasing
realization of the alarming state of India’s natural resources — land, water and forest,
which have witnessed rapid degradation as a result of the immense pressures that
have been put on them by the country’s growing human and livestock population.
Dry lands, for instance, which account for almost two-thirds of India’s total
cultivated land, are among the most environmentally fragile lands. These supports a
large number of India’s poor and contribute a significant proportion of the country’s
agricultural output (Ninan and Lakshmikanthamma, i994). Owing to the
intensification of agriculture, extension of cultivation to marginal lands, perverse
incentives that encourage the over-exploitation of natural resources, rapid
degradation of forest resources, overgrazing and diminishing common lands, much
of these lands are in various stages of degradation. According to an estimate made by
the National Commission on Agriculture, 175 million hectares of land in India is
under some form of degradation or the other (Planning Commission, 2002). This is
easily visible in the fonn of increased soil erosion, declining groundwater tables,
decrease in drinking water viability, desertification, etc. in different parts across the
country (Ninan & Lakshmikanthamma, 1994).
Furthermore, frequent occurrences of either floods or droughts are evidence
of improper land use in the catchments, and of the inadequate conservation of forests
(MoA, 2002). Since more than two-third’s of India’s one billion-strong population
depends heavily on the primary sector — agriculture and forestry — to meet their daily
survival needs, this degradation of the natural resource base has thus seriously
impacted the well being and development of the majority of the country’s
population, especially the poor, who depend on these resources the most. The
degradation of land and forest resources in the upper watershed catchments have also
negatively affected other urban downstream stakeholders such as hydropower
1

companies, municipal water supply corporations, fisheries, downstream states, etc.
through increased siltation in reservoirs, dams, and natural water bodies, reduction of
water flows, increased occurrences of floods and landslides, etc. However, the
primary focus of watershed protection and development in India, till date, has mainly
been on reversing the negative impact of land degradation on the rural poor at the
local level rather than at a wider macro scale. As Kerr & Chung (2001) point out, in
much of semi-arid India off-site concerns are typically limited to the local intra or
inter-village level itself.
Historically, ever since the breakdown of traditional resource management
systems took place in colonial times (Guha, 1991, Gadgil & Guha, 1992), regulation
has been the main approach followed for natural resource management in India, with
ownership, management and control of natural resources vested almost entirely in
the hands of government. Similarly, in the case of watershed protection and
development activities, it was only the line departments and government staff of the
Ministries of Agriculture, Rural Development, and Environment and Forests that
carried out watershed treatment work in a centralized top-down manner under a
regulatory framework. There was very little community participation, with the role
of communities in most cases, limited only to that of providing cheap labour.
Further, watershed development was undertaken in a completely sectoral and
piecemeal manner by each of the concerned departments and ministries, with each
implementing programmes and guidelines separately, without any coordination
among themselves. Financing of these programmes too was supported mainly by the
govemment – either central or state – on the basis of annual budgets and allocations,
with no contribution from the communities themselves, which resulted in a total lack
of ownership of these programmes among the local people. The watershed treatment
interventions were highly mechanistic, focusing primarily on technical engineering
works such as construction of check dams, contour trenching, gully plugging,
plantation works, etc. without paying much attention to community mobilization and
social organization.
Given this highly regulatory, centralized and target-driven approach, and the
emphasis on the quantity rather than the quality of interventions, programmes in
2

watershed development were unable to halt the rapid degradation of the country’s
natural resources. Acknowledging this failure, the Hanumantha Rao Committee,
which was set up in 1994-95 to review watershed development programmes in the
country, noted that these programmes had made very little impact on the ground
despite having been in operation for over two decades (Planning Commission, 2002).
Realizing the limitations of the regulatory approach in reversing the
degradation of natural resources, and learning from successful experiments of
community-based watershed and forest protection in Sukhomajri, Ralegaon Siddhi,
Arabari, etc. in the 1970s (Agarwal & Narain, l999), the government made serious
efforts to secure community participation in the management of the country’s land,
water and forest resources through the programmes of Joint Forest Management
(IFM), Participatory Watershed Development, and Participatory Irrigation
Management in the 19905.
Watershed development in India has, since then, made three important
transitions. Firstly, there has been a shift from a top-down, command-and-control
regulatory approach to a more people-centred, bottom-up and participatory approach,
which recognizes that watershed protection and development is impossible to
undertake and sustain successfully without the active participation of local
communities. Secondly, and related to the first, it has been realized that technical
solutions that normally characterize watershed protection activities in India such as
building of engineering structures, policing of forests from local people, etc. are by
themselves insufficient, and that social solutions involving collective action by the
communities, and offering them suitable incentives to participate in watershed
development and natural resource management, are far more sustainable in the long
run. Thirdly, it has been accepted that watershed development is far more effective
when done in an integrated and planned manner, following a logical ridge-to-valley
approach, rather than in isolation by each govemment line department separately.
3

1.2 Overview of Himachal Pradesh
Hibachi Pradesh is a mountainous Himalayan State, which constitutes major
natural watershed for the entire North India region. All of HP forms the watersheds
of four major tributaries of the river Indus (the Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej) and of
the river Yamuna that feeds into the Ganges. These rivers provide water supply not
only to the Indian capital city of Delhi but also to a number of key agricultural states
located in the north Indian plains. Hence, the downstream impacts of land use in the
upper watersheds of HP are potentially very significant.
State Income is the single most common and comprehensive economic
indicator used to measure the economic health of a State economy. In Himachal
Pradesh, first estimates of State Income were released in the year 1963 covering the
period 1950-51 to 1960-61. Since Himachal Pradesh underwent many territorial
changes after independence and emerged as a full-fledged State in the year 1971, a
new series of State Domestic Product was developed for the year 1966-67 to 1969-
70 with the base year 1960-61. The third series of State domestic product prepared in
the Pradesh was based on 1970-71 prices, which consisted of the estimates up to
1986-87. After the release of the new series of National Accounts Statistics by
Central Statistical Organization in February 1989, Himachal Pradesh also brought
out a new series of estimates based on 1980-81 prices.
A new series of quick estimates were brought out during 1999-2000 based on
the 1993-94 prices. The National Accounts Statistics have mostly been revised
decennially changing the base to a year synchronizing with the year of decennial
population census.
The quick estimates of State Income for the year 1999-2000 to 2006-07 at
current and constant (1999-2000) prices and per capita income along with percentage
changes over the previous year at 1999-2000 prices are given in the following table:
4

Table 1.1-Movement of Net State Domestic Product and Per Capita
Income
Year State Income Per Capita Income %age Change Over the
Previous Years At 1999-
2000 Prices
At
At Current
At
Constant Prices (Rs.in Constant
Prices crore) Prices (In
(Rs. In Rs.)
crore)
At
Current
Prices
(In Rs.)
Net State Per
Domestic Capita
Product Income
1999-2000
12467
12467
20806
20806
2000-01
13262
13852
21824
22795
6.04 4.9
2001-02
13938
15215
22543
24608
5.1 3.3
2002-03
14617
16751
23234
26627
4.9 3.1
2003-04
15596
18127
24377
28333
6.7 4.9
2004-05
(P)
16953
20262
26053
31139
8.7 6.9
2005-06
(Q)
17990
22390
27163
33806
6.1 4.3
2006-07
(A)
19157
24798
28415
36783
6.5 4.6
According to these estimates, the State income of the Pradesh during 1999-
2000 to 2005-06 period increased from Rs. 12467 crore to Rs. 17990 crore at
constant prices and to Rs. 22390 crore at current prices. The compound annual
growth rate of the State domestic product during this period is 5.37%. The per capita
income at constant prices increased from Rs. 20806 in 1999-2000 to Rs. 27163 in
2005-06 and 28415 in 2006-07 while at current prices, it rose to Rs. 33806 and Rs.
36783, respectively, during the same period.
The growth rate of State Economy recorded during the Five Year Plan
periods beginning from the 1&1 Five Year plan, 1951-56 onwards alongwith
comparison with the National Economy is given in the following : –
5

Table 1.2 Comparative Growth Rate of H.P. and National Economy Recorded
During Five Year Plan Periods
Plan Period Average Annual Growth Rate of Economy At
Constant Prices
Himachal Pradesh
All India
First Plan (1951-56)
(+) 1.6
(+) 3.6
Second Plan (1956-61)
(+) 4.4
(+) 4.1
Third Plan (1961-66)
(+) 3.0
(+) 2.4
Annual Plans (1966-67) to (1968-69)
(+) 3.0
(+) 4.1
Fourth Plan (1969-74)
(+) 3.0
(+) 3.4
Fifth Plan (1974-78)
(+) 4.6
(+) 5.2
Annual Plans (1978-79) to (1979-80)
(-) 3.6
(+) 0.2
Sixth Plan (1980-85)
(+) 3.0
(+) 5.3
Seventh Plan (1985-90)
(+) 8.8
(+) 6.0
Annual Plan (1990-91)
(+) 3.9
(+) 5.4
Annual Plan (1991-92)
(+) 0.4
(+) 0.8
Eighth Plan (1992-97)
(+) 6.3
(+) 6.2
Ninth Plan (1997-02)
(+) 6.4
(+) 5.6
Annual Plan (1997-98)
(+) 6.4
(+) 5.0
Annual Plan (1998-99)
(+) 7.2
(+) 6.6
Annual Plan (1999-2000)
(+) 6.6
(+) 6.6
Annual Plan (2000-01)
(+) 6.3
(+) 4.4
Annual Plan (2001-02)
(+) 5.2
(+) 5.8
Annual Plan (2002-03)
(+) 5.1
(+) 3.8
Annual Plan (2003-04)
(+) 8.1
(+) 8.5
Annual Plan (2004-05) (P)
(+) 7.6
(+) 7.4
Annual Plan (2005-06) (Q)
(+) 8.5
(+) 9.0
Annual Plan 2006-07 (Advance)
(+)9.3
(+)9.2
The growth analysis presented in the above table reveals that Hirnachal
Pradesh achieved an annual average growth rate of 1.6% in the First Five Year Plan
6

period 1951-56. After Second Five-Year Plan, 1956-61 onwards and upto Fifth Five-
Year Plan period 1974-78, the State achieved a growth rate of about 3 to 4.6 percent.
During the two Annual Plans of 1978-79 and 1979-80 the economy revealed a
negative growth rate of (-) 3.6 percent but again showed a recovery during the Sixth
Plan period 1980-85. During Seventh Plan period 1985-90, State achieved all time
high growth rate of 8.8%.
It will be of relevance to look into the structural changes that the
economy of Himachal Pradesh has undergone over the years. The morphological and
climatic conditions prevalent in Himachal Pradesh have natural advantage in taking
up agriculture based livelihoods as primary means of earning bread. A wide degree
of variation in the climatic conditions within the State also allows diversifying the
agriculture based livelihoods. 1n the late 1940s when Himachal Pradesh came into
existence as part ‘C’ State, the agricultural production was largely confined to the
traditional Rabi and Kharif crops and stray cultivation of apple and some stone fruits
in the name of horticultural produce. A large scale diversification, both in agriculture
and horticulture, has occurred since then.
People of Himachal Pradesh have diversified into production of cash
crops like ginger, potato, off-season vegetables, kiwi, cherries, hops and have
ventured into fields like apiculture and mushroom production. It is observed that
even today about two third of the total population of Himachal Pradesh still depends
on agriculture in the pursuit of their livelihoods. Although the contribution of
primary sector to the Gross State Domestic Product has declined over the years, yet
the proportion of total population engaged in agriculture based activities has
remained more or less unchanged. There is an imminent need to explore on a
separate front if this inference can be attributed to inaccurate recording of the facts.
Table exhibits how the contribution of three sectors of the economy of Himachal
Pradesh to the Gross State Domestic Product has changed over the years.
7

Table 1.3 Sectoral contribution to Gross State Domestic Product
(%age of GSDP)
Year Primary Secondary Tertiary
1950- 71.01 9.50 19.49
1960- 63.14 9.71 27.15
1970- 58.56 16.73 24.71
1980- 50.35 18.69 30.96
1990- 37.82 25.03 37.15
1992- 38.65 24.81 36.54
1996- 32.65 24.81 36.54
1996- 32.65 30.17 37.21
1997- 31.92 30.40 37.68
1998- 27.58 32.34 40.08
1999- 26.41 33.01 40.58
2000- 25.87 34.62 39.51
2001- 27.00 33.31 39.69
2002- 25.42 33.44 41.14
Source: DES, Himachal Pradesh
The decade of 1950s witnessed very large contribution from the primary
sector to the Gross State Domestic Product. It contributed 71.01 per cent of the total
GSDP. The services sector (the terms ‘services sector’ and ‘tertiary sector’ have
been used interchangeably in the present context) contributed next to the primary
sector and the presence of secondary sector in the economy of Himachal Pradesh
was small during the decade of fifties. Since then the share of primary sector in the
GSDP has declined gradually and came down to 25.42 per cent in the year 2002-03.
This is an indication to the fact that the State’s economy has diversified from the
traditional agrarian society to an economy which has also started getting
considerable contribution from the services and manufacturing sectors in its GSDP.
The services sector has grown at a faster rate than the secondary sector. This fact
needs to be assimilated into analytical framework with great care. The share of
services sector has grown rapidly as compared to other aggregates on account of the
fact that government spending on revenue account has been growing at a very fast
rate due to increase in the number of government employees on the one hand, and
increases in the salary outgo per capita, on the other. Not only has the economy itself
diversified into non-farm sector activities but livelihood strategies in the primary
sector have also diversified into more lucrative production activities which have
ready market available with handsome retums. A recent phenomenon observed
during the decade of 1990s is that a very large number of farmers have realized the
potential of growing and marketing off-season vegetables, especially when they find
8

place in the ma.rkets of neighbouring States at a time when the stock of locally grown
vegetables is extinguished. However, production of off-season vegetables is only
confined to the areas where irrigation facilities are available in good measure as
production of these vegetables requires large quantity of water for irrigation.
The analysis of shift in structure of economy is of little relevance if the
changes in occupational pattern of working population are not taken into account and
analysed simultaneously. Table 2.2 tries to capture the shift in occupational pattern
of working population of Himachal Pradesh over the years. As stated earlier,
limitations in terms of incomparable figures available for different census years, only
a few categories have been selected for comparison. Moreover, the purpose is to see
if the shift of structure of economy frorn being a traditional agrarian economy to a
diversified economy with more weightage to service and manufacturing sector has
also resulted in a corresponding movement of working population from the
agricultural sector to secondary and tertiary sectors.
Table 1.4. Changes in occupational structure
(%age of total population)
Category 1971 I981 1991 2001
Total workers out of which 36.80 42.38 42.82 49.24
i) Cultivators and agricultural labour 75.82 57.46 53.48 68.65
ii) A11 other occupations 24.18 42.54 46.52 31.35
Non workers 63.20 57.62 57.18 50.76
Source: Census Data
It can be seen from the above table that the proportion of working population
engaged in cultivation and as agriculture labour has declined from 1971 to 1991.
This indicates that the workers released from the agriculture sector have been able to
find jobs in the secondary and tertiary sectors. However, an increase in the
proportion of workers in the agriculture sector has been observed during the decade
of 1990s.
The fact that more and more people are reverting to agriculture for earning
their livelihoods despite a considerable decline in the contribution of primary sector
to the GSDP stresses upon the need to take necessary steps to raise productivity of
workers engaged in farm sector. Depending upon the strategy involving
9

intensification or extensification of farm operations, necessary steps are required to
be taken so that appropriate productivity raising inputs are provided where
intensification of farm operations is required and to bring more land under
cultivation where extensification of farm operations is feasibility. Immediate
interventions as stated above are imperative lest growth of farm sector should get
arrested due to low productivity per worker in farm sector.
1.3 About the Perspective Plan
Based on the experiences in Watershed Management in Himachal Pradesh and
elsewhere in and outside the country, the Perspective Plan aims at the following:
i) Improving the management of land and water, and their
interaction and externalities;
ii) Increasing the intensity and productivity of resource use with
the objective of reducing poverty and improving livelihoods;
m) Improving environmental services and reducing negative
extemalities for downstream areas; and
iv) Addressing technical, institutional, and policy issues needed to
ensure equitable sharing of benefits among stakeholders and
sustainable watershed management.
For achieving this, the plan treats watershed as the basic building block for land and
water planning. Definition of watershed adopted in the perspective plan is, “a
watershed is an area that supplies water by surface or subsurface flow to a given
raining system or body of water, be it a stream, river, wetland, lake, or ocean (World
Bank , 2001)”. The plan adopts management approach that combines:
i) The need for integrated land, People and water management. Land use,
vegetative cover, soils, water and people interact throughout the watershed.
Therefore, the perspective watershed management programs adopt integrated
resource management approaches;
ii) The multiplicity of stakeholders. Watersheds provide many important
services to an extensive range of stakeholders, and changes in land and water
management and in watershed hydrology will directly or indirectly affect
10

m)
many or all of them. Many people use upper and lower reaches for multiple
purposes, and a plethora of public and private agencies are typically
involved: organizations dealing with agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry,
water, irrigation, rural development, physical planning, land tenure; local
governments; community institutions, NGOs, and so forth. This institutional
density creates a management challenge and requires watershed management
plan to create broad and inclusive institutional platforms; and
The issue of resource depletion and poverty nexus is also given due
importance. Mountain areas being typically more fragile with less
productive environments where natural resource management and rural
poverty are commonly linked. With frequently extensive land use practices
and a more fragile resource base, mountains are vulnerable to over
exploitation and deletion of natural resources (water/vegetation, forests, and
soils). With land degradation, agricultural productivity declines, often
aggravating the poverty problems. As a result, improving the management of
natural resources in upland areas and influencing downstream impacts
requires attention to the problems of the population of the poor upland areas,
particularly poverty reduction and local institutional development. Thus, the
Perspective Plan focuses on the farming systems of the poor in upland areas
in order to achieve poverty reduction and conservation objectives
simultaneously.
The DPRs developed for each watershed area would try to address the
following:
i) At the overall watershed level, to have a plan that identifies key
problems, intervention areas, and objectives and the mechanisms to
achieve them. Ideally the DPR would be developed through a
participatory process.
ii) At the micro-watershed level, to engage in dialogue with stakeholders
to identify different or conflicting interests, to evaluate possible
synergies and the minimum tradeoffs required, and to identify a set of
options to achieve both broader public interest objectives and local
11

objectives. while doing so the convergence areas identified in chapter
6 (f) would also be kept in view;
m) As also discussed in detail in chapter 8, water usage being an
important component in the watershed management under the
perspective plan, appropriate mechanisms of recovery of user charges
would be brought in place to ensure sustainability. While doing so,
possibilities of payment for watershed services would also be
explored;
iv) Participatory approaches to developing and adopting new
technologies;
v) A sound social analysis, such as a stakeholder analysis aimed at
assessing losses to be incurred by different community groups
because of conservation practices;
vi) A focus on generating positive income streams for farmers and other
groups (such as herders) through intensification, diversification,
downstream processing and marketing, and the creation of new
income-generating activities;
vii) Giving stakeholders a secure stake in common pool resources, such as
forests and pastures, and ensuring that all users and especially the
poor have viable income alternatives when closure is involved;
vm) Promoting interventions that reduced risk, such a improving water
sources; and
ix) Identifying conservation techniques that were profitable for farmers
and offering a menu of interventions combining income and
conservation objectives.
The perspective plan aims at achieving the balance between the top down and the
bottom up decision-making processes.
Unlike earlier approaches where the revenue or administrative boundary was
adopted as the unit for development purposes, under the participatory watershed
development programmes today, the entire watershed is chosen as the appropriate
unit area for development. This new approach seeks to improve and develop all types
of lands – government, forest, community and private lands – that fall within a
12

particular watershed, and is thus a holistic approach to improve and develop the
economic and natural resource base of dry and semi arid regions (Ninan &
Lakshmikanthamma, 2001).
Further, it is widely accepted that watershed development has to be
conceived as a broad strategy for protecting livelihoods of the people inhabiting
fragile ecosystems, especially the poor, rather than just the physical resources alone
(Rao, 2000). Thus the overall objective and rationale of watershed development in
India is no longer limited to scientifically determined methods of soil and water
conservation, but has gone far beyond that, evolving instead into a form of
‘Watershed Plus’, which seeks to ensure not only the availability of drinking water,
fuel wood and fodder for the poor, but also raise their income and employment
opportunities through improvements in agricultural productivity, better access to
markets, extension services, etc (Shah, 2000). Hence, integrated natural resource
management and watershed development has become a larger paradigm for
achieving sustainable development in the country.
13

Chapter 2
AGRO-CLIMATIC CONDITIONS IN HIMACHAL PRADESH
The state is bordered by Uttaranchal in south, Punjab in southwest and Kashmir and
Tibet in north and northeast. Generally speaking, the elevation gradually increases
from the southwest towards northeast, the elevation ranging from 450 to 6500
meters. In all, the state presents remarkable heterogeneity and agro climatic
diversity across and within its 12 districts.
Physiographically, Himachal Pradesh can be divided into four agro-
ecological zones: the Shivaliks’ low, mid and high-hills; and the cold and dry or the
alpine zone.
Z0ne- I comprises of the area adjoining Punjab and Haryana states and lies below
650 m above the mean sea level. It accounts for 16.24% of the total geographic area
of the State, 38% of the total cropped area and 39% of the irrigated area. The major
sources of irrigation are Wells and tube-Wells. It covers the district of Una, Bilaspur
and parts of Sirmour, Kangra, Solan and Chamba districts. In this Zone, the size of
holding of small and large farmers was 0.864 ha and 3.561 ha respectively (Sharma,
2001). The net sown area constituted 80.79% and 78.74% of the total holding for
small and large farms, respectively. The area under pastures and farm forestry varied
from 16.32% on small farms to 20.30% on large farms. The important trees of farm
forestry in the region are khair (Acacia catechu), kikar (Acacia arabica), bamboo
(Dendrocalamus strictus), biul (Grewia opriva), tuni (Tuna ciliara), shisham
(Delbargia sissoo), khirak (Celtis australis) and simble (Bombax ceiba). Khair trees
are mostly in pasture land and are sold for katha processing. Rain fed farming is
most common accounting for more than 87% of the total operational holdings. Fruits
occupy only a small percentage of area. The field crops, mainly food grains, covered
more than 90% of the cultivated area. The commercial production of subtropical
fruits like citrus, mango, guava, litchi and other subtropical fruits was almost
negligible.
14

Zone-II includes the area ranging from 650m. to 1800m. above mean sea level and
accounts for 21.25% of the geographical area, 41.04% of the total cropped area and
45% of the irrigated area of the State. Major sources of irrigation are Kuhls and tube-
wells. The zone covers major parts of Mandi and Solan districts and parts of
Hamirpur, Kangra (Palampur and Kangra tehsils), Shimla (Rampur tehsil), Kullu,
Chamba and Sirmour districts. This zone is very important from farming point of
view as about 41.04% of the total cropped area of the State falls in it. In this zone,
the size of holdings of small and large farmers was 1.062 ha and 3.067 ha,
respectively. The net sown area constituted 72.98% and 70% of the total holdings for
small and large farms, respectively. The area under pastures and farm forestry varied
from 24.67% on small farms to 28.86% on large farms. The major components of
farm forestry in this zone were beul (Grewia optiva), kharak (Celtis australis), paja
(Prunus paddus), mulberry (Mnrus alba), tuni (Tuna ciliata), robina, poplar
(Populus), safeda (Eucalyptus), darek (Azaderachta), shisham (Dalbergia sissoo), fig
(Ficus palmata), treamble (Ficus rnxborghi), simble (Bombax ceibia) and a variety
of other trees. Fodder trees were an important component of farm forestry. It has
been observed that beul (Grewia optiva) constituted the most important source of
tree green fodder to milch animals throughout the year. The area under field crops
including cereals, pulses, oilseeds, fodder crops and sugarcane account for 90.36%
and 86.58% on small and large farms, respectively and yielded 31.79% and 32.21%
of gross farm income. About 11% of the total cropped area is under mixed cropping
of pulses and oilseeds with cereals as main crops. Vegetables shared 9.64% and
13.42% of total cropped area and accounted for 23.10% and 23.30% of gross farm
income on small and large farms respectively. The major rotations followed by dry
land farming in the zone are: paddy-wheat, maize-peas and maize-toria-wheat. Under
irrigated conditions paddy-wheat and paddy-berseem are the two main cropping
systems followed by tomato-wheat. The other intensive vegetable cropping systems
comprising 3 crops followed in this zone are: cauliflower-French bean-cauliflower,
tomato-radish-peas, tomato-tomato-cauliflower, tomato-tomato-peas and brinjal-
cabbage-cauliflower. Thus, tomato, cauliflower and peas formed important crops of
the vegetable cropping systems.
15

Zone-III comprises of high hill areas of the State. The zone includes major parts of
Shimla except Rampur tehsil) and Kullu districts and parts of Solan, Mandi.
Chamba, Kangra and Sirmour districts with an altitude above l800m above mean sea
level. The zone accounts for l8.39% of the total cultivated area of the State. Only
7.80% of the total cropped area is irrigated. The Kuhls and storage tanks are the only
sources of irrigation in the zone. The area experiences severe winter with heavy
snow fall. The zone has tremendous potential for apple cultivation, seed potato, off-
season vegetable and dairy industry and the commercial agriculture sector is on the
rise here. This zone leads in production of seed potato which is an important cash
crop. The other potential enterprises are raising sheep and goats, maintaining
colonies of honeybees in orchards and production of mushrooms. This zone also has
potential for dairy industry with its fodder availability from temperate and alpine
pastures and forests. Size of holdings of small and large farmers was 1.241 ha. and
3.652 ha. respectively. The area under pastures and fann forestry constitute 27% and
28.34% of total holding on small and large farms respectively. The important trees of
fanri forestry are fodder trees namely kharak (Celtis australis), beul (Grewia (Iptiva),
paja (Prunus paddus), ban (Quercus) and other tress like kainth (Pyrus), kakarh
(Pistacia integrima) and karyala (Bauhunia variegata). Net sown area formed
70.42% and 69.06% of the total holdings on the two farm sizes. The farming is
mostly under rain fed conditions; irrigated area constitutes only 5.15% and 6.90% of
the operational area on small and large farms, respectively. Cultivation of paddy is in
irrigated areas on the river banks. The remaining irrigation was generally found in
instances of cultivation of vegetable crops. The area under field crops including
cereals, pulses, oilseeds and fodder crops accounted for 74.88% and 59.09% on
small and large farms, respectively.
Zone-IV is the most mountainous part and covers the tribal areas of the State. The
zone covers the districts of Kinnaur and Lahaul-Spiti and parts of Chamba district
with altitude exceeding 2200m above mean sea level. The zone is covered under
snow for about six months of the year and 39.34% of the total geographical area of
the State lies in this zone. Most of the area is under snow-clad and rocky cold desert
mountains and cropped area accounts only for 2.6% of the total cropped area of the
16

State. Cultivation is possible only in some valley areas and only with irrigation
facilities. The Kuhls are the single source of irrigation and crops can be grown only
if irrigation is available due to scanty rainfall and dry climate in this zone.
The higher hills are suited for growing apples and other temperate fruits. The
midhills have vast potential for growing vegetables and stone fruits. The low hill
areas are good for growing food, citrus fruits, vegetables and other field crops. Even
the dry high hill zone that comprises mainly of tribal areas of the state has vast scope
for raising dry fruits, quality seed potato and other crops along with sheep and goat
rearing. All agro climatic zones are endowed with vast meadows, pastures and
forests and thus, offer a good scope for developing livestock and dairy industry.
Similarly, this zone can make significant advances in the production of off-season
vegetables.
2.1 Rainfall
The average annual rainfall that Himachal Pradesh receives is 984.8mm but may
vary greatly temporally and spatially (see Table and Map above). Most of the rainfall
is received in monsoon, from June to September (causing flash floods and cloud
bursts). The rivers of Himachal are mainly snow-fed. During the monsoons, they
become raging torrents, carrying enormous quantity of water and in winter, when the
water gets frozen at the higher altitudes, the streams greatly shrink in volume. The
climatic conditions vary from hot and sub-humid tropical in the northem and the
eastern high mountains. Lahaul and Spiti experience drier conditions as they are
almost cut off by the higher mountain ranges. The alpine zone of the State remains
under snow for 5 to 6 months in a year. During winters, snowfall is certain even at an
altitude of 200 meters. At the elevation of 1500 meters, snow falls once in a cycle of
five years. Above 4500 meters, there is almost perpetual snow. This range of agro-
climatic conditions due to variations in altitude, climate and rainfall, is key in
understanding both the current cropping pattern and the potential to produce grains
and crops (see Table 1.4.1).
17

Table:
Headquarters in Himachal Pradesh
2.1 Average Rainfall and altitudes recorded at District
Districts
Altitude (in meters) Average Rainfall (in mm)
Lahaul-Spiti
Kullu
Kinnaur
Solan
Bilaspur
Mandi
Kan gra
Shimla
Hamirpur
Sirmaur
Chamba
Una
State
3 165
1219
2769
1463
610
1273
750
2206
786
833
1006
350
382.8
733.4
742.2
908.9
1049.9
1083.5
1 101.5
1 103.2
1104.6
1187.9
1269.7
1345.2
984.8
Source: Government of Himachal Pradesh, Statistical Outline of I-limachal Pradesh, 2002, Directorate
of Economics and Statistics.
2.2 Demography and Land Distribution-an overview.
Himachal Pradesh accounts for 0.59% of India’s population and 1.69% of its
geographical area. The state may appear to be in a better position in man to land
ratio; however, in fact, the mountainous terrains and difficult agro-climatic
conditions at several places do not present a hospitable environment for human
settlement. More than 90% of the state’s population lives in rural areas. The
distribution of population among the districts is uneven and the population in the
state has grown from less than 20 lakhs in 1901 to just more than 60 lakhs in 2001,
an increase of three times over the period of 100 years (Gol, 2001, 2004). In the mid
1950s (1955-56), only three States and Union Territories in the country, Bihar,
Orissa and Manipur had a per capita income lower than that of Himachal Pradesh
18

(Bose 1962). Those areas that came to join Himachal Pradesh during state-
reorganization in 1966 did not improve the state’s standing in agriculture and other
development indices, because the new provinces were the poorest constituents of old
Punjab in terms of per capita income. However, there has been a sea change in the
economy of Himachal Pradesh since. This change can be appreciated by comparing
per capita income with other States of India. On the basis of per capita income
indices, Himachal moved to eighth rank with per capita index of 0.244 (Rana 2002).
Celebrated states like Kerala (0.237) and Andhra Pradesh (0.234) come after
Himachal Pradesh in terms of per capita income indices. Also, on development
indices, HP ranks eighth (0.492). Again,
Box 1. Demography figures
The pattern of population growth indicates that the State is now passing through
the third stage of demographic transition with falling death rate and the rapidly
falling birth rate; these successes can be attributed to the rising female literacy and
expansion of health facilities in the State. The age distribution is typically of high-
fertility populations that have recently experienced some fertility decline, with
relatively high proportions in the younger age groups and a slightly smaller
proportion age 0-5 than age 5-9. Thirty two percent of the population is below age
15 and 7% is age 65 and above. The sex ratio is 1024 females for every 1000
males in rural areas and 912 females for every 1000 males in urban areas,
suggesting that rural to urban migration in H.P. has been dominated by males. The
overall sex ratio for the State is 968 females per thousand males (Gol 2001).
Himachal’s education attainment index (0.577) is second only to Kerala (0.728). In
the 1990s, the state’s annual growth rate of 5.7% remained at par with national level
(GoHP 2002). In 1950-51, food crops accounted for about 97% of the cropped area
and 99.2% of total agricultural production (Sharma 1987). This was understandable
in view of the near absence of modern means of transport and communications in the
region coupled with low productivity in the sector, as noted above. The agrarian
19

economy of the region had a highly subsistence character. In the absence of markets,
agriculture production was solely for home consumption and commercial agriculture
was not visible anywhere. The National Council of Applied Economic Research
characterized Himachal Pradesh to be “one of the poorest and backward territories in
the Indian Union” in early 1960s (NCAER 1961). It is noteworthy that in 1950-51,
the share of agriculture in the state‘s domestic product was nearly 70% and more
than 90% of labour force was engaged in this sector. Currently, the agricultural
sector contributes about 37% of the state income and agriculture and allied activities
continue to account for a very large proportion of the working population. According
to the 1991 Census, agrarian workforce accounted for 70.8% as against less than 2%
employed in industry, processing and repairs, while other occupations accounted for
a further 27.4% of the working population (i.e. main workers).
2.3 Land Reform Achievements
Himachal Pradesh has been one of the few pioneer states in the Country to have
initiated land reforms and redistribution measures. The distribution was effective and
land reform legislations were improvised upon to allow most people in the state get
to possess some landholding. Since the enactment of Himachal Pradesh’s Abolition
of Big Landed Estates and Land Reform Act, I953, 286 big landed estates came
under the purview of this provision and out of these 281 estates were abolished and
as many as 56,724 new tenants acquired proprietary rights. Also, after the
reorganization of Punjab State in 1966, certain areas of erstwhile Punjab were
merged in Himachal Pradesh. Immediately, after merger of such areas, the disparity
in land laws of the old and merged areas became evident. There were complaints of
arbitrary eviction of tenants from the merged areas. Therefore, the first step to
ameliorate the lot of tenants in these areas was passing of the H.P. (Transferred
Territory) Tenants (Protection of Rights) Act, 1968 by the assembly, thereby
providing security against eviction of tenants in the aforesaid merged areas. Later the
Tenancy and Land Reforms Act, 1972 (where all intermediaries on land were
abolished), Ceiling on Land Holding Act 1972 and Village Common Land Vesting
and Utilization Act I974 (distribution of commons to landless and other needy
persons) further consolidated the property rights position of poorer section in the
20

state. Furthermore, a pan-state survey in I981 found 20,455 landless and 70,029
people with less than 5 highas of land. Out of these two identified groups, 20.363
landless persons and 67,392 others were declared as persons eligible to receive land.
In I983, of 1,836 newly surveyed landless persons, 204 got land of 5 bighas each.
Also, Protective laws have also helped tribal of Himachal Pradesh emerge from the
cesspool of illiteracy and backwardness. The Himachal Pradesh Transfer of Land
Act prevents alienation from land protection to 1.33 lakh of the tribal population
(Singh 1996). Under this Act, the tribals can not sell, mortgage or lease out their land
to non-tribals without prior permission of the Deputy Commissioner. As a result,
practically no Himachali is landless, albeit the average size of land holding in the
state is small.
2.4 Increases in Operational Land Holdings and Multiple Incomes of
Households
Over the years, important structural changes have occurred in the agrarian economy
of Himachal Pradesh. Most prominent of them is the significant increase in human
population without corresponding increase in the area operated. This has resulted in
proliferation of marginal and small farmers in the state. Other possible reasons for
this situation are put as (i) breaking-up of joint families resulting in fragmentation,
(ii) marginal, less than 5 bigha land acquired under land to landless programme
(including bogus entries). and m) putting new areas under cultivation due to
availability of irrigation facilities. District-wise distribution of operational holdings
shows that while the number of holdings has increased sharply in all the districts, the
area operated has expanded only marginally. In case of marginal farmers, both the
number and area of operational holdings have increased significantly. On the other
hand, for medium and large farmers, the number and operational area have decreased
sharply (see Appendix V for figures on cultivated land-man ratio in Himachal
Pradesh over several decades).
21

2.5 Operational Landholding in Himachal Pradesh under Different
Categories
More than 8 lakh farmers of Himachal Pradesh cultivate about ten lakh hectares of
land with an average operational landholding of 1.2 hectares as depicted in table
below. About 84% of the farmers have less than two hectares of land while 16% own
between 2 and 10 hectares. Due to sub-division and fragmentation, land holdings are
becoming uneconomic. Besides, due to the lack of land consolidation, the holdings
are scattered and a.re often unmanageable and are limiting factor for crop production.
Land lease and tenancy regulations do not allow farming on large areas.
Table 2.2 : Distribution of Operational Land Holdings (1990-91)
Category N0 of Per cent Area Per cent Operati
Farmers (in onal
Lakhs) (Lakh ha) I
Holdin
gs (ha)
Marginal (1 ha)
Small (1-2 ha.)
Medium (2-4 ha.)
Large (4-10 ha)
Extra Large
5.32
1.66
0.94
0.36
0.06
63.8
19.9
11.3
4.3
0.7
2.25
2.35
2.58
2.05
0.97
21.3
23.3
25.5
20.3
9.6
0.40
1.42
2.74
5.69
16.17
(>10 ha.)
Total 8.34 100.00 10.10 100.00 1.21
Source: Annual Administration Report, Department of Agriculture, H.P., 2001-OZ.
Partly, as a result of this development (of most people coming under the count of
marginal farmers), Himachalies have moved to other livelihoods. Also, agricultural
practices are influenced by growth of other sectors in the state. For example, the
‘absolute size’ of State Domestic Product (SDP) from agriculture (at 1980-81 prices)
in 1995-96 was Rs. 1594 crore as against Rs. 794.04 crore in 1981. However, the
‘relative size’ of agriculture declined during this period. This suggests that Himachal
22

Pradesh’s economy is undergoing a structural transformation by reducing its ‘relative
dependence’ on agriculture for its income as well as employment generation. The
decline in agriculture’s ‘relative share‘ in the income as well as a workforce is much
more in Himachal Pradesh as compared to that in India (See Table below). This
clearly shows the incidence of multiple livelihoods and hence multiple incomes in
the households in Himachal Pradesh. Indeed, the sectoral distribution of state income
is observed to be shifting in favour of non-agricultural sector (see Table below). It is
evident that the share of primary sector i.e. agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry
and fishing that was 58.74% in 1970-71, which came down to 27.37% during 2000-
01. On the other hand the share of secondary sector increased from 16.59% to 32.5%
during the same period While tertiary sector’s share in state’s economy moved up
from 24.66% to 40.13%.7 (The agriculture sectors‘ contribution to Net State
Domestic Product (NSDP), has fallen from 43.72% in 1980-81 to 22.50% in 2000-
01).
Table 2.3: Share of Agriculture Sector in State Incomel National Income at
Current Prices and Total Workforce in Himachal Pradesh and
India.
Year Percentage Share of Agriculture Percentage Share of Agriculture in
in NSDP/NNPfigure Total Workforce
Himachal
Pradesh
All-
India
Himachal
Pradesh
All-
India
1970-71
49.25
44.01
74.81
69.70
1980-81
43.72
36.90
70.81
60.51
1990-91
33.58
29.90
66.55
64.81
1995-96
28.90
30.06
NA
65.20
Note: NA = Not available
Sources:
1. Government of Himachal Pradesh, Reports on Agricultural Census, 1980-8],
1990-91, Directorate of Agricultural Census, Department of Revenue.
2. Government of India, Indian Agriculture in Brief 25th edition, Directorate of
Economics and Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture.
23

3. Government of Himachal Pradesh, Statistical Outline of Himachal Pradesh
for relevant years, Directorate of Economics and Statistics.
Table 2.4 Sectoral Composition of Net State Domestic Product (GSDP) in
Himachal Pradesh
\ Years \ 1970-71 i 1980-81 \ 1990-91 2000-01
\ Primary Sector \ 58.74 l 47.35 , 37.66 7.37
N)
\ Secondary Sector \ 16.59 \ 19.59 \ 24.59 2.50
LA)
‘ Tertiary Sector ‘ 24.66 33.00 37.82 40.13
Source: Economic Review of Himachal Pradesh (relevant Issues)
An important implication of this shift is that the households have diversified from
(mainly, subsistence) agriculture to practicing multiple livelihoods and deriving
incomes from secondary and tertiary sector. It is notable that this emigration to other
livelihoods has not been adequately noted in census; the agriculture households who
now derive considerable income from nonagricultural sources are not noted.
2.6. Trend in Agriculture and food productivity in Himachal Pradesh.
Himachal Pradesh produced 268 kg food grains per person during 1990-92 in
contrast to 203 kg at all India level (Karol 2000, 7). However, the increase in
agricultural income per rural person in the State was lower than the national average;
it went up from Rs. 373 during early seventies to Rs. 998 during late eighties against
national increase from Rs. 384 to Rs. 1,302 (Gol I994). According to the Planning
Commission‘s estimates of 1994, about 30% of total population was below poverty
line as against the all India average of 35.04%. An alarming figure that emerged
from this study was that Himachal Pradesh had witnessed an increase in the persons
below poverty line at the rate of 5.66% per annum during (I983-84 to 1993-94) as
compared to a reduction by 2.1% at all India level (Chelliah and Sudarshan 1999, 8).
In any event, the poor progress of Himachal Pradesh agriculture could be attributed
to low yield of crops, chiefly because food crops grown in the state have little growth
potential. Table 2.7 shows that though per hectare yield of key crops of the State
have shown an increase during period II (1992-93 to 1994-95) yields of rice, wheat,
24

total cereals, pulses and potato are far below the national average. Maize is the only
crop where the state has a limited comparative advantage.
Some of the key factors responsible for lower yield in the state are: lower
farm size as compared with India, low availability of modern inputs, less area under
irrigation, number of pump sets and tractors, quantum of fertilizer use, per capita
consumption of electricity and the share of agricultural sector in total electricity
consumption is considerably lower than the national average (Indian Agriculture in
Brief, 1996). Suggestions to diversify agriculture through high value cash crops,
mainly fruits and vegetables have been made consistently by several researchers
(Singh, 1990), and have been emphasized in 7th and 8‘h Five-Year Plans.
Within the state. there is a great variation in food grain production and
productivity in different districts of the State (see Table below).
Table 2.5 District-wise foodgrain area, production and productivity
S.N. District 2004-05 2005-06
Area Production Productivity
(1000 ha) (1000 mt) (Kg./ha)
Area
(1000ha)
Production
(1000 mt)
Productivity
(Kg./ha)
1 Bilaspur
55.939
120.753
2159
53.456
54.160
1013
2 Chamba
59.944
113.920
1900
55.809
58.302
1 045
3 Hamirpur
69.243
137.629
1988
67.924
82.811
1219
4 Kangra
195.807
314.566
1 607
194.955
238.195
1222
5 Kinnaur
5.673
5.022
885
4.164
3.656
878
6 Kullu
51.375
94.294
1835
54.349
92.225
1697
7 Lahaul&
Spiti
0.917
1.210
1320
0.795
1.031
1297
8 Mandi
142.026
287.251
2023
139.988
216.615
1547
9 Shimla
47.108
70.503
1497
43.525
65.215
1498
10 Sirmour
60.843
109.029
1792
59.198
91.153
1540
1 1 Solan
56.888
101.265
1780
53.856
84.043
1561
12 Una
65.274
132.203
2025
64.667
81.273
1257
Total
811.037
1487.645
1834
792.686
1068.679
1348
Source: Department of Agriculture HP,2004»05 & 2005-06.
During 2004-05, food grain productivity was the highest in Bilaspur district;
followed by the districts of Una and Mandi. It was least in Kinnaur . The district
25

wise crop intensity is is given Nevertheless, the variation of productivity and
cropping intensity between different districts is given in Table2.6.
Table 2.6 District-wise crop intensity.
S.N. District
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003~04
1 Bilaspur
191.9
190.30
191.50
191.70
2 Chamba
146.50
160.60
157.00
158.00
3 Hamirpur
191.70
198.00
200.00
198.50
4 Kan gra
184.00
190.50
185.10
188.30
5 Kinnaur
123.00
119.90
118.20
116.80
6 Kullu
179.70
165.60
165.00
179.10
7 Lahaul&
Spiti
103.10
102.50
102.60
104.30
8 Mandi
183.90
179.20
185.00
187.20
9 Shimla
129.60
140.60
138.90
141.50
10 Sirmaur
182.30
184.70
183.40
183.20
1 1 Solan
163.30
167.40
157.10
164.20
12 Una
172.30
170.10
183.90
191.90
Source: Department of Agriculture Hibachi Pradesh
Nevertheless, the variation of productivity and cropping intensity between
different districts is wide (see box-2)
Box-2 Agriculture still ruling the roost :
It should be noted that, the declining share of Agriculture Sector, however,
has not affected the importance of this sector in the state economy. The
growth of economy still is being determined by the trend in agricultural
production as it has a significant share in the total domestic product and has
overall impact on other sectors via input linkages, employment and trade etc.
However, due to lack of irrigation facilities, the agricultural production to a
large extent still depends on timely rainfall and weather conditions. Also,
cropping intensity has increased to a point at which fertility becomes the
primary limited factor as depicted in table 2.6. Cropping intensity is the
highest (198.50) in Hamirpur, followed by Una 191.90, Bilaspur (191.70)
and Kangra (188.30). Lahaul Spiti has the lowest cropping intensity i.e.
(104.30) for want of irrigation( GOHP 2002, 357)
26

Table 2.7: A Comparative Statement of Average Yield of Major Cr0p’s of
Himachal Pradesh and India during Triennia 1972-73 t0 1974-75
and 1992-93 to 1994-95 (in Kg—ha)
Crop and
Crop Group
Period I: 1972-73 to 1974-
75
Period
II: 1992-93 to 1994-95
Himachal
Pradesh
India
Himachal
Pradesh
India
Rice
1058
1089
1314
1851
Wheat
1056
1260
1275
2420
Maize
1732
1002
2066
1590
Total cereals
1260
910
1568
1706
Total pulses
492
543
275
593
Total food
grains
1230
821
1490
1501
Potato
5084
8751 10854
15648
Note: Period I refer to triennium I972-73 to I974-75 and period II refers to
triennium 1992-93 to 1994-95.
Source:
1. Government of India, Indian Agriculture in Brie)‘, various issues.
2. Government of Himachal Pradesh, Annual Season and Crop Report of
Himachal Pradesh, various issues.
It should be noted that, the declining share of agriculture sector, however, has not
affected the importance of this sector in the State economy. The growth of economy
still is being determined by the trend in agricultural production as it has a significant
share in the total domestic product and has overall impact on other sectors via input
linkages. employment and trade etc. However, due to lack of in”igation facilities the
agricultural production to a large extent still depends on timely rainfall and Weather
conditions. Also, cropping intensity has increased to a point at which fertility
becomes the primary limiting factor. Cropping intensity is the highest (196.7) in
Hamirpur, followed by Bilaspur (192.9), Kangra (186.9) and Una (186.8). Lahaul
and Spiti have the lowest cropping intensity i.e. 102.5 for want of irrigation (GoHP
2002357).
27

Chapter 3
LIVELIHOOD CONCERNS IN HIMACHAL PRADESH
Climatic conditions prevailing in Himachal Pradesh are conducive for
growing fruits ranging from apples and stone fruits in the Northern High Hills and
Low Hills to citrus fruits which are grown in warm temperate and sub-tropical
climatic conditions. As was pointed out in the preceding paragraphs, a large
proportion of operational holdings is being used for growing fruits in the Northern
High Hills. The proportion of total operational holdings being used for growing
fruits is relatively low in Low Hills. The climatic conditions in these two regions of
the State are perfectly suited for growing apple and stone fruits like plum, peach,
apricot, pear and cherries. The apple produced in the relatively colder climate of
High Hills is known for its crispness and relatively long shelf life. Fruit production
received attention in the planning process only in the post-independence era.
The Approach Paper to the Eleventh Five Year Plan of Himachal
Pradesh recognizes the vitality of increasing productivity of the farm sector in the
State. It envisages increasing incomes and employment in the farm sector. Increasing
farm sector productivity through technological interventions and diversification into
the high value crops have been stated as the objectives for the farm sector
development in the State. It mentions of putting in place a framework for opening up
of the farm sector for contract farming and also for the organic farming. The
Approach Paper also recognizes the existence of gap between the irrigation potential
created and its utilization and accords high priority to bridge this gap through
farmers‘ associations and extension work by the agriculture and horticulture
departments.
It has generally been observed throughout the State that the Women
contribute in majority of the activities in farm sector livelihoods. Barring ploughing
and disposing off the marketable surplus, women contribute more than the men do in
all other farm related activities, Right from sowing, irrigation, using fertilizers,
reaping and post harvest management of the produce has large contribution from
women in all the three regions of the State. Same pattern has been observed in fruit
production and livelihoods based on the livestock. The women would manage all the
activities related to the livestock except for grazing and disposing off the marketable
28

surplus. Women would manage not only the fodder and other feeding requirements
of the livestock but also all other issues related to the health of the livestock. If
viewed from the participation angle, the picture seems to be pretty good in terms of
women empowerment, however, sad part of the story is that none of the women from
the sample households which have both men and women engaged in farm activities
has reported to have known the quantum of monetary returns the household has
received after selling off the marketable surplus. Same pattern regarding
participation of women has been observed across all the three regions. However,
over the years some of the Women Self Help Groups (WSHGs) formed through the
intervention of the Government and also through NABARD have done pretty well
not only by undertaking economic activities related to farm sector but also those of
non-farm sector. The Government ensures credit to such groups and helps them to
becorne financially sustainable after providing initial financial assistance on loan
basis. Quite a few WSHGs, especially in the districts of Kangra, Sirmaur and Solan
have been reported to have become self dependent after repayment of the loans. All
the members of the WSHGs have to compulsorily save some fixed amount in the
bank out of their income on monthly basis. This intervention has also inculcated the
habit of saving besides engaging the female members in economic activities. The
Plan will promote such women centric enterprises in the following activities.
3.1 Concerns in the Farm Sector
Land being the primary assets for adopting livelihood strategy in farm sector,
people have to look for other livelihood strategies to supplement their incomes.
Number of supplementing livelihood strategies being adopted largely depends on the
monetary outcome of not only the primary strategy but also of the supplementary
strategies. Mechanization of farm activities for most of the households in the Low
Hills and in Plains and Valleys is also not economically viable because of small size
of land holdings owned by a majority of households. As has been mentioned in the
earlier section, that a low percentage of irrigated land out of the total cultivated land
is in Low Hills and Valleys and Plains also results in a great difficulty in sustaining
the livelihood strategy involving cultivation. These households in all the three
regions have no other option but to diversify their livelihoods not only in farm sector
but also in non farm sector.
29

Scope of extensification of cultivation is very limited in the Northern
High Hills as a very large proportion of land in this region is already either under
cultivation or has orchards or forests on it. The land classified as forest land can not
be brought under cultivation because of extremely steep slopes and environmental
considerations in regard to non-diversion of land use from forests to any other. Only
option left in Northem High Hills to make cultivation a more successful strategy is
its intensification by using technological inputs suitable for small land holdings.
Extensification of cultivation in the Low Hills and the Valleys and the
Plains is the possible livelihood intervention to bring more land under cultivation.
Extensification of cultivation in these regions can help in making cultivation
economically more viable by bringing more area under cultivation and also by
bringing in an appropriate mix of crop diversification towards making cultivation
based livelihoods more sustainable in these areas. But such an option also suffers
from the constraint of overall availability of the land stock which can be brought
under farm operations. Among the major options are discussed as under.
( a) Vegetable and Fruits:
Production of the off—season vegetables and quality vegetable seeds besides the
seasonal vegetables is one of the fields into which the diversification has been
reported during the past decade in all the three regions of the State in farm sector. In
those belts of the Low Hills and also of Valleys and Plains where irrigation facilities
are available, growing off-season vegetable is picking up. The produce has found
place in the markets of Delhi and the neighbouring States of Punjab and Haryana
also. Good quality road network and availability of reasonable modes of transport
further work as an incentive to take up this activity. Needless to say, the vegetables
fetch attractive prices when they appear in markets during a time of non-availability
of locally produced vegetables. The maximum area under vegetables, apart from
potato and ginger, accounts for peas and tomatoes. Productivity of tomatoes is quite
high i.e. 34,645 kg per hectare as against 24,000 kg in Punjab and 15,000 kg for all
India average. Productivity of cauliflower is about the same as the all-India average
while Punjab has higher productivity in case of cauliflower. Fresh peas grown in the
State are of premium quality and fetch a higher price particularly in the plains where
it is an off-season luxury. Vegetable seed production is a dominant feature of
vegetable cultivation in the State as the climate of the Low Hills and Valleys and
Plains is very conducive to seed production. Cultivation of exotic vegetables like
30

broccoli, asparagus, leek, parsley, Brussels sprout, and others is catching up fast as
these vegetables are demanded in hotels and by foreign tourists. The advantage of
topography and availability of adequate irrigation water enables cultivators of Low
Hills and Valleys and Plains to grow out-of-season vegetables. Cultivators in the
Northern High Hills have also diversified into the production of off-season
vegetables, however, the region has not caught up with this phenomenon to an extent
as the other regions have largely because of scanty irrigation facilities in this region
and also because of high transportation costs involved in taking the produce to
market due to long distances to the market from the place of production.
(b) Fruit growing
Climatic conditions prevailing in Himachal Pradesh are conducive for
growing fruits ranging from apples and stone fruits in the Northern High Hills and
Low Hills to citrus fruits which are grown in warm temperate and sub-tropical
climatic conditions. As was pointed out in the preceding paragraphs, a large
proportion of operational holdings is being used for growing fruits in the Northern
High Hills. The proportion of total operational holdings being used for growing
fruits is relatively low in Low Hills. The climatic conditions in these two regions of
the State are perfectly suited for growing apple and stone fruits like plum, peach,
apricot, pear and cherries. The apple produced in the relatively colder climate of
High Hills is known for its crispness and relatively long shelf life. Fruit production
received attention in the planning process only in the post-independence era. Prior to
independence exotic varieties of apple were introduced in Himachal Pradesh by
American and European missionaries early in the twentieth century.
Temperate fruits cover about 60 percent of the total area under fruit
cultivation in the State out of which about 70 per cent is under apple cultivation
(area under apple cultivation comprises of 46 percent of the total area under fruit
cultivation). The area under fruits has more than doubled in the last two decades. The
productivity of apples also doubled to about more than 5000 kg per hectare during
this period, but the productivity of nuts and dry fruits, citrus and other sub-tropical
fruits decreased even though the area under these crops increased. Shimla and Kullu
districts of the Northern High Hills and tribal district of Kinnaur predominantly
produce apple and peach is the main crop of Sirmaur district in the Low Hills. Stone
fruits like plum and peach and pears are mainly grown in Kullu and Shimla districts.
Citrus, mango and litchi are grown in the Valleys and Plains of Kangra and Una
31

districts. The area under mango is about 39 percent of the total area under sub-
tropical fruits in the Low Hills and the Valleys and the Plains regions and about 6
percent of the total area under all fruits in the State as compared to 19 percent under
citrus fruits.
About one seventh of the fresh fruit bearing trees are non-bearing while
this proportion is about one eighth in case of dry fruits which covers about l6 per
cent of the total area under fruits. Shimla and Kinnaur districts have the largest
number of non-bearing trees of fresh as Well as dry fruits. The average productivity
of apple (kilogram per hectare) has been 5830, other temperate fruits 990, nuts and
dry fruits 450, citrus 510 and other subtropical fruits 1370. The comparative figures
for citrus fruits in Punjab are 10 to 15 tonnes per hectare and in Israel these figures
vary from 43 to 65 tonnes per hectare. Fruits like strawberry, pomegranate, olive,
kiwi, hazelnut etc. which have been identified as the potential crops of future. Some
high bearing clones of these fruits have been imported and are being tested for
commercial cultivation. Planting material being imported includes cultivars for
apples, cherry and plum.
The Government in its annual plans makes adequate provisions for
providing quality seeds, storage and testing and certification programmes.
Government envisages providing Soil Health Cards to all the farmers in the State by
the end of the Tenth Five Year Plan so as to enable the farmers to choose right
choice. ‘Rashtriya Krishi Bima Yoj ana’ was introduced in the State in the year 1999-
2000 to give a sense of security to the farmers. Crops covered are Wheat, paddy,
maize, barley and potato. Insurance is mandatory for all loanee farmers and optional
for non-loanee farmers. The scheme provides comprehensive risk cover against
drought, hailstorm, floods and pest diseases etc. Government also takes care of the
design and fabrication of agricultural/horticulture tools suitable for varied climatic
conditions through departments involved in extension services. In brief, the
Govemment is making all possible efforts to make cultivation based livelihoods of
the rural people of Himachal Pradesh secure and sustain in the long run.
(c) Floriculture
History of commercial floriculture in Himachal Pradesh is not very old.
It started in the decades of 80s with the Government intervention through the
Department of Horticulture of Himachal Pradesh. It was declared as a thrust area for
economic development of the State. The District Rural Development Agencies
(DRDAs) in the districts of Kangra, Mandi, Shimla and Solan are engaged in
32

promoting floriculture among the cultivators of these districts. The Govemment has
set up several nurseries throughout the State for propagation of floriculture and
distribution of planting material to the cultivators. Gladiolus, carnation,
chrysanthemum, tulips and daffodils are the main varieties being cultivated in the
State. Some of the traditional varieties like marigold are also being cultivated in
certain areas like Rajgarh in Sirmaur district. Area under flower cultivation has
increased from five hectares in 1991 to 467 hectares in 2006. Some of the Self Help
Groups and the NGOs especially, in the districts of Chamba, Sirmaur and Bilaspur
have really come up in the field of commercial cultivation of exotic and traditional
varieties of flowers. The flowers being produced in Himachal Pradesh are exported
to the places like Chandigarh, Amritsar, Delhi, Haridwar, Hrishikesh and other
places. The floriculture in the State is still in its infancy and requires appropriate
interventions to make it remunerative enterprise in order to exploit the vast potential
in this field.
Handling the produce during transportation and finding immediate and
appropriate market are the most crucial components in the field of floriculture.
Highly delicate and fragile nature due to extremely short life of the floricultural
produce makes it of critical importance that the produce reaches and is disposed off
in the market immediately at a place which fetches the best price for the produce.
Absence of availability of market information at the right time and lack of technical
know how in post harvesting handling of the produce among cultivators are the main
factors responsible for keeping the cultivators away from taking up this enterprise.
An intervention under Watershed Management for imparting necessary training to
cultivators and use of IT to establish a comprehensive market information system
(MIS) could help in exploiting the vast potential of this produce in international
markets.
(d) Mushroom Cultivation
Under the Technological Cooperation Programme of the FAO,
mushroom cultivation technology was first introduced in Himachal Pradesh on trial
basis in 1961. Commercial propagation of this technology was later undertaken
under the FAO and UNDP assisted project at Chamba Ghat in Solan district during
1977-82. Another project with the joint assistance of the Government of India and
the Dutch Government aiming at commercial mushroom production was launched at
Palampur in Kangra district. These initiatives helped in encouraging cultivation of
‘button mushrooms‘ (Agaricus bisporus) in the State and its productivity increased
from six kilograms per square meter in 1992 to 10 to 15 kilograms currently. 4318
33

metric tonnes of mushroom were produced during 2005-06 and the bulk of this
output was produced in the districts of Solan and Kullu of the Low Hills. During
2005-06, 421 metric tonnes of pasteurized compost for mushroom production was
prepared in the two development projects located at Chamba Ghat in Solan and
Palampur in Kangra and was distributed to the mushroom growers.
These units supply pasteurized compost to about 400 new production
units mainly concentrated in Kangra, Kullu, Mandi, Solan and Bilaspur districts of
Low Hills. Around twenty small units are operating in the private sector in Solan
district which produce pasteurized compost. There are nine spawn production
laboratories in the State of which six are in the private sector and three are with the
research institutions. An export oriented unit has been set up at Paonta Sahib in
Sirmaur district with a capacity of exporting 150 metric tonnes of mushrooms and
processed products in various forms.
Mushroom production is an activity that is associated with high returns on
investment if a harvest is reaped in full. However, there is a great risk of getting the
whole lot spoiled if it catches infection due to inappropriate temperature and
moisture combinations. Great care is required to be taken in providing appropriate
climatic conditions to the mushrooms while being produced. The DPR will identity
for areas with potential land and provide training to the cultivators interested in
taking up mushroom production commercially.
(e) Bee-Keeping
A great diversity in agro-climatic conditions in flora in Himachal Pradesh
provides enormous potential for production of honey. The British first introduced the
bee-keeping in Kullu valley in 1934 and in Kangra valley in 1936. Bee flora from the
Northern High Hills was brought down to lower altitudes during winter months of
1952 when migratory system of bee-keeping was introduced for the first time in the
State. Himachal Pradesh took a lead in the introduction of exotic honey bee, Apis
melzfera (Italian honey bee) for the first time in 1962-63. Prior to this, the honey was
produced form Apis acerana and production was ten metric tonnes per annum from
2500 bee colonies maintained by 150 bee-keepers. Now there are about 26,000 bee
colonies maintained by 939 bee keepers producing over 650 metric tonnes of honey
of diverse flora every year. The target of production of 1000 metric tonnes of honey
during 2006-O7 is likely to be met. The honey produced from the flora growing at the
high altitudes of the Northern High Hills is said to have some unique medicinal
properties and hence fetch more price in the market.
34

Private entrepreneurs have established breeding and multiplication
centers with the assistance under various State and centrally sponsored schemes.
These schemes have become very popular among the upcoming bee-keepers. Bee
keeping is also resorted to by the fruit growers of all the three regions of the State on
rental basis during the flowering season as it helps in pollination/cross pollination of
fruit trees resulting in better fruit yields besides producing honey. The targets set by
the Government in terms of distribution have always been met and some times the
actual distribution well exceeds the targets. One honey processing unit with the
installed capacity of I20 metric tonnes of honey processing every year has been
established in the public sector at Kandrori in Kangra district and is managed by the
Ago Industries Corporation Limited. The plant procures honey from the local
producers as the first priority and imports it from outside the State if adequate honey
is not available locally to ensure working at full capacity. The State Government has
provided financial assistance during 2006-07 for improving financial health of the
plant. Some of the private companies like Dabur India Ltd. also procures honey from
the local producers and processes it Presence of private players in the field will bring
in competition and help the public sector players to compete in the self sustaining
mode.
(f) Animal Husbandry
A reasonably large proportion of people follow animal husbandry based
or supported livelihood strategy. Main commodities being produced through this
strategy are milk, wool. meat and hides. Most of the households owning milch
animals sell milk though in small quantities within the village. Out of the total
annual milk production of 784.082 thousand tonnes, MILKFED, the only large scale
and functional milk cooperative in the State procures just 1.5 per cent of it. This
indicates to the existence of a large unorganized and obviously highly decentralized
market for milk in the State. A sizeable part of the demand for milk in the urban
areas is met by the imports from Punjab and Haryana which clearly indicates the
scope for expansion of this particular pursuit of livelihood strategy either in
conjunction with others or as a stand alone strategy.
A large proportion of the milch animals in Northern High Hills and Low
Hills are indigenous varieties with very low levels of yield when compared to those
of improved and exotic varieties. The proportion of indigenous milch animals to the
total milch animals is about 54 percent in the Northern High Hills and about 67
percent in Low Hills. Livestock of exotic and improved has, per force, to be reared in
an entirely different manner than the indigenous stock. Indigenous stock is habitual
35

of open meadow/grassland/open forest area grazing whereas the exotic breeds need
to be only stall fed. The milk yields drastically fall if these animals are sent out for
open grazing. In this context, cultivation of high protein/nutrient fodders has to
accompany the rearing of exotic/improved breeds. Fodder cultivation also offers
opportunities for further refurbishing the farm based livelihoods. The plan proposes
to ta.ke up these activities in all District of the State.
(g) Non Timber Forest Product
Extraction of herbs and medicines from forests is generally pursued as a
supplementary livelihood strategy. Whatever extraction of herbs and medicines is
being done, its marketing is being done in an unorganized manner. Lack of market
for herbs and medicines within the State makes people sell these to the middlemen at
throw away prices. Middlemen reap huge profits by selling these in the proper
markets of Punjab, Utter Pradesh and Delhi. Existence of common properly rights to
natural resources is negligible. Rather free access rights to the natural resources are
being exercised by the rural people making natural resource based livelihoods
vulnerable to their early extinction. Various national and international organizations
have also been exploring the natural wealth of the State to exploit the potential of
highly valued medicinal and aromatic herbs. The State has enormous potential of
growing herbs and medicinal plants in private as well as common land. The
perspective plan aims at promoting this activity and ultimately linking it with health
tourism in areas of potential for generated employment. There are about 70
units/pharmacies in the State which manufacture Ayurvedic medicines. Profit being
the sole motive of these private sector units, the scientific extraction of herbs and
medicinal plants do not fomi a part of overall operations of these units.
Indiscriminate exploitation by the outside agencies of these plants is likely to bring
many species to extinction. Two bigger units in the Govemment sector are functional
at J oginder Nagar and Majra and they procure raw material from the local producers,
process them and supply to outside agencies as ingredients to various Ayurvedic
medicines. Four herbal gardens have been set up by the Ayurveda Department of the
Govemment of Himachal Pradesh to raise germplasm nurseries. These herbal
gardens have been yeaming for perfecting the conservation and other agro-
techniques for the sustenance and multiplication of such plants which suit best to and
are grown in the given agro-climatic conditions.
3.2 Concerns in the Non Farm Sector
With the rapidly increasing industrialization, educational infrastructural
facilities and new emerging economic enterprise options in Himachal Pradesh, any
36

planned intervention in the rural agro economic scenario should focus on concems in
the non farm sector. This is also important from the strategic point of view as it is
necessary to off load burden of dependence on the farm sector and natural resources.
Over the past few years, the Govemment of Himachal Pradesh has given emphasis
on setting up of hydro-electric projects in the State, exploring and expanding tourism
activities into the rural and far flung areas and setting up of industries in different
parts of the State. Special incentives are also being given for setting up micro and
small enterprises in the rural areas. However, among the major limitations in
expansion of employment avenues in these areas despite the condition of employing
seventy percent people from Himachal Pradesh imposed by the Government are:
i) There is a gap between the kind of skills demanded by the
enterprises being set up in the State in all the above sectors and the kind of
skills available in the market. Often, industries opt for labour from outside
the Stae as people with requisite training and experience are not available. A
planned effort has therefore to be made for identifying manpower
requirement of the enterprises coming up in a watershed area and tie up with
the existing training facilities in the public and private sector for providing
market related skills. For this, convergence with SGSY scheme of the Rural
Development Department and RUDSETIs being set up in the State would
also be necessary;
ii) In order to encourage local youth to set up micro and small
enterprises in the State to encourage expansion in the rural areas, training on
entrepreneurial skill development is required to be undertaken. Along with
this, appropriate interface with the banking institutions will also be required
to be developed to ensure adequate flow of credit; and
111) With the expanding service sector infrastructure in the
State in the Transport, Tourism, Communication and IT related activities and
marketing; potential for employment is large especially in view of the fact
that with the increased educational infrastructure, the reasonably qualified
work force is already available, which can be employed with some hands on
training. In the non-farm activities likely to be taken up under the watershed
management, this aspect will be required to be kept in view.
37

Chapter-4
WATERSHED MANAGEMENT INTERVENTIONS IN HIMACHAL
PRADESH
Presently the watershed development programme/projects are being
implemented through Rural Development Department, Forests Department and
Agriculture Department. The Department wise position of programmes /projects
being implemented is as under:
4.1 RURAL DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT
With the objectives to ensure over all development of rural areas, harvesting
of rainwater, employment generation, poverty alleviation, community empowerment
and development of human and other economic resources of the rural areas,
mitigating the adverse effects of extreme climatic conditions & development of
natural resources, the Government of India launched Watershed Development
Programme on watershed approach during 1995-96. The main activities taken up
under watershed development programmes are Soil moisture conservation, Water
Harvesting, Afforestation, Pasture Development & Horticultural /Agricultural Dev.
etc.
As per guidelines issued by the Govemment of India time to time, the
following three programmes are being implemented in different districts of the State:
(a) Integrated Wastelands Development Programme (IWDP)
This programme is being implemented in districts Chamba,Hamirpur, Kangra,
Kullu, Mandi, Shimla, Sirmour,three blocks of district Solan ( Nalagarh, Solan,
Kandaghat ) and two blocks of district Kinnaur ( Kalpa & Nichar). Under IWDP, 67
Projects consisting of 873 micro Watersheds costing of Rs.254.l2 Crore have been
sanctioned in phased manner from 1994-95 and funds to the tune of Rs. 178,63 Crores
have been released upto September, 2008 against which the expenditure is
Rs.l43.74 Crore. In l4 Projects all due instilments have been received and these
projects almost have been completed or nearing completion.
(b) Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP) z
This programme is being implemented in District Bilaspur, Una , and in Two
blocks of district Solan (Kunihar & Dharampur). Under this programme 412 micro
38

watersheds costing of Rs. 116.50 Crore have been sanctioned in phased manner
from 1994-95 and funds to the tune of Rs.62.92 Crores have been released upto
September, 2008 against which the expenditure is Rs.51.9O Crore. In 71 Micro
Watersheds all due installments have been received and these projects almost have
been completed or nearing completion.
(c) Desert Development Programme (DDP):
The Desert Development Programme is being implemented in district Lahaul
& Spiti and Pooh Division of district Kinnaur. Under DDP 552 micro Watersheds
costing of Rs.159.20 Crore have been sanctioned in phased manner from 1994-95
and funds to the tune of Rs.77.1l Crores have been released upto September, 2008
against which the expenditure is Rs.73.36 Crore. In 80 Micro Watersheds all due
instalments have been received and these projects almost have been completed or
nearing completion
4.1.1 Cost Norms.
The programmes are implemented as per provision of the guidelines and
accordingly the funds are utilized. The cost norms according to guidelines are as
under:
a) Prior to 1-4-2000
Sr. Prog. Rate per ha. Sharing Pattern
No.
ll IWDP Rs. 4000/- per ha.(Rs. 100% GOI
20.00) lakhs) per
2_ DPAP Rs. 40()0/- per ha.(Rs. 50:50 GOI & State Govt. w.e.f. 1.4.1999 75:25 per
20.00) lakhs per watershed) watershed between GOI & State Government
3. DDP Rs. 5000/- per ha.(Rs. 100% GOI . w.e.f. 1.4.1999 75:25 per watershed
25.00 )lakhs per watershed) between GOI & State Government
b) After 1-4-2000
1_ IWDP Rs. 6000/- per ha. (Rs. 30.00 Rs 55001500 per ha. between GOI and State
lakhs per watershed) Govemment
2. DPAP Rs. 6000/» per ha. (Rs. 75:25 per watershed between GOI & State
30.00 lakhs per watershed) Government
3_ DDP Rs. 600()/- per ha. (Rs. 75:25 per watershed between GOI & State
30.00 lakhs per watershed) Govemment
The projects sanctioned prior to 1.4.2003 are being implemented on
old guidelines and the works are being executed through watershed Committees. The
Projects sanctioned after 1.4.2003 are being implemented as per Hariyalli guidelines and
39

the Works are being executed through Panchayati Raj Institutions. The main differences
in old guidelines and Hariyalli guidelines are as under:
S.No.
Old Guidelines (Pre- Hariyali)
1. Execution through Watershed
Associations/Watershed Committees.
Hariyali Guidelines.
Execution through
Institutions.
Panchayati Raj
2. Allocation of funds.
1. Administration = 10%
2. Training = 5%
3. Entry point activities. = 5%
4. Works = 80%
Allocation of funds.
l.Administration = 10%
2.Training & Community Mobilization.
=5%
3. Works = 85%
3. Prescribed installments =7
< 15% 1“ year, 15% +15% in 2″“ and
3’“ yea.r, 15% 4“ year and 10% in 5″‘
yew)
Prescribed installments = 5
(< 15% in 1*‘ year, 30% each in 2″“ and 3″‘
year, 15% 4’“ year and 10% in 5″‘ year)
4 Mid term evaluation required to be
conducted before release of 4“
installment.
Mid term evaluation required to be conducted
before release of 3“ installment.
Although, the Watershed Projects are being implemented as per
provisions of the Guidelines for the programme issued by the GOI, and are to be
completed Within a period of 5 years. But the progress has been rated slow due to
lack of awareness amongst the community of Watershed area. The organization of
awareness camps. training and finalization of work plan took more time resulting
delay in execution of Works. The other important factor is topography of Himachal
Pradesh which is tough having hill terrain and working season is limited particularly
in snow bound areas.
4.2 FOREST DEPARTMENT
(a) Mid-Himalayan Watershed Development Project.
The Mid Himalayan Watershed is operative in 10 districts of the State w.e.f.
1“ October 2005 with the financial assistance of World Bank. The project builds on
the successful experience of Integrated Watershed Development Project Kandi
which culminated on 30”‘ September 2005. Mid Himalayan Watershed Development
40

project would aim at scaling up the success of Integrated Watershed Development
project with two main differences. ls‘ it would expend upwards from the Shiwalik to
the mid hills, a region which covers about of l/3’“ of the State and over half of the
cultivated land. Secondly it would responsibility for most project implementation
with local Govemments (Gram Panchayats) rather with the village development
committees. The goal of the project is to reverse the process of degradation of
natural resource base and improve productive potential of natural resources incomes
of the rural household in project area. Second objective is to support policy and
institutional development in the State.
(i) Project Scope: The Project will cover around 272 Micro- Watersheds spread over
602 GPs,42 blocks and 10 districts(viz Bilaspur, Chamba, Hamirpur, Kangra, Kullu,
Mandi, Shimla, Sirmaur, Solan and Una).
(ii) Project Area 2 Mid Hills and High Hill Zone of the State with in the altitude of
600-1800 meters.
(m) Project Cost : The total project cost is Rs. 365-00 Crore involving World Bank
share Rs.270.00 Crore, State share Rs.67.50 Crore and beneficiary contribution
(app.) Rs.7.50 Crore.
(iv) Implementation Arrangements
The Project is being implemented by the Himachal Pradesh Natural Resource
Management Society (HPNRMS), a society registered under the Societies
Registration Act, 1860. The nodal department is the H.P Forest Department. The
head office of the Project is located at Solan and there are two Regional Watershed
Development Offices located at Dharamshala and Bilaspur each headed by a
Regional Project Director (RPD). There are ll Watershed Development Divisions
headed by Divisional Watershed Development Officers (DWDO), under each WDO,
there are 4-5 Watershed Development Coordinators (WDC) with a multi-disciplinary
“Front Line Multi Sectoral Team”
A key feature of the Project is the proactive involvement of village
level institutions of self-govemance i.e. the Gram Panchayats (GP). It is envisaged
that substantial Project activities, and the Project funds, would be canalized directly
41

through the GPS. The GPs will implement the approved works under the Project
through User Groups, though some works can be implemented directly by the GPS
through qualified agencies. Livelihood enhancing activities will be implemented
through User Groups, Self Help Groups and Common Interest Groups. These groups
will ultimately ensure empowerment to the community. The GPs are being assisted
by its budget and works committees in the implementation of the Project activities
(v) Project Components and Expenditure upto July, 2008: The main
components of the projects are i) Institutional Strengthening ii) Watershed
Development Management m) Enhancing Livelihood Opportunities iv) Project
Coordination. An amount of Rs. 97.25 Crore has been spent under the project till
Jully, Z008.
(b) Swan River Integrated Watershed Management Project Una.
Out of total 180 Gram Panchayats in district Una, 60 Gram Panchayats have
been selected in the project as per criteria of selection. The areas already treated by
Kandi Project and DFID are not the part of project area.
(i) Objectives.
¢ To generate the forests, to protect the agriculture land and enhance the
agriculture and forestry productions in catchments area of nallahsl rivers.
0 To secure protection and optimum use of resources in the catchments area.
‘ To augment the resources of existing flora, fauna, vegetable, Horticulture and
Agriculture produce.
Q To reduce soil erosion and decrease sediment production.
(ii) Roles and Responsibilities.
The Forest Department is a nodal agency for the project and is
responsible for overall project management implementation, monitoring and
execution of project activities through Watershed Development committees/Line
department after approval of micro plan.
(m) Project Costl Project Period and Expenditure: Total Project cost is 4,045
Mil. Yen including GBIC portion 3385 Mil. Yen and others 660 Mil. Yen. The date
42

of agreement is 31.3.2006 and Project period is 8 years.( upto July 2014). An amount
of Rs.9.55 Crore has been spent under the project till July, 2008
4.3 AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT
The Department of Agriculture is taking up watershed development
activities under Centrally Sponsored Scheme NWDPRA for Rainfed Areas which
has now been merged into Micro Management Scheme of Ministry of Agriculture
Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Govt. of India. Under this scheme, no
staffing support has been provided by the GOI as per guidelines. The Watershed
covering an area of 500 ha. to 1000 ha. are taken up in the 1“ year of Five Year
Plan which are saturated by the end of Five Year Plan period. In these watersheds,
besides Agriculture, other activities of Horticulture, Animal Husbandry are also
taken up with the assistance of line departments. The department of Agriculture is
the Nodal Department and for 11’“ Five Year Plan. the Department has taken up 40
Watersheds in different parts of the state covering area of 24692 ha. with a total
outlay of Rs. 14.81 Cr.
Besides above, the department is also taking up water harvesting
activities under RIDF programme supported by NABARD and under Rastriya
Krishi Vikas Yojna and State Plan. Annually Rs 2 to 3 Cr. are being spent for
Water harvesting activities under these schemes. The works are executed through
the Water User Associations registered under Societies Registration Act.
4.4 Experience
With the implementation of Watershed development programme in rural areas
by the different departments, the experience gained reveals that in some projects
good Water harvesting activities have been taken up and positive results/impacts
have been seen in the project areas. As per information gathered from various
quarters approximately 1300 traditional Water sources have been revived by
creating the rain water harvesting structures under Watershed development
programme. In District Hamirpur, Kangra , Solan, Sirmour etc. the traditional
cropping system have been changed by adopting the off searson vegetable and
43

other cash crops by the inhabitants of the project areas. During interaction With
villagers of Gram Panchayat Khart Khas and Rajyana Khas in District Kangra it
was apprised, that after execution of water harvesting structures in their areas and
by introducing improved variety of grasses, the drinking Water and fodder
problems have been solved. Now the services of tankers during summer for
drinking water and arrangements of fodders from outside the State are not required
due to availability of sufficient water and fodder in their area
“Gaon Ka pani gaon mein” Construction of Check Dam.
44

Protecting Soil & Conserving Water Check Dam
Recharging Ground Water by Harvesting Rain Water
45

Pasture Development
Water Management (construction of Tank)
46

Vegetable cultivation after Water Management
47

Watershed Bhadyara (Buhla) District Mandi (C/O Check
Dam and Kuhal)
48

Micro Watershed Kharshali (Chirgaon) DRDA, Shimla (After
Water Management Plantation of Fruit Plants)
“Z-..
¢– zy-
> \.\._§_
\%’ fig
1@;f’c
However the experience also reveals that the soil conservation
activities such as gully plugging, crate work etc are not linked to the livelihood
enhancement as such the impact is not visible in project areas in majority of cases.
The activities defined in the old guidelines for watershed development projects
mostly confine to the land development and due to low land holdings of the people
49

in the State the direct benefits of the programme could not be provided to the
watershed communities. Moreover the hilly ranges of the State remained covered
under snow approximately 5 to 6 months in a year and the people earned their
income from other sources like bee keeping, wool, poultry farm and non timber
products etc. The convergence issue was missing in the previous guidelines and
coordination between line departments in the implementation of watershed
development programme remained paralyzed. Ridge to valley approach also could
not be followed due to lack of coordination, convergence and certain conditions
about the identification of areas like forest areas, private land etc. The small
structures have been constructed in view of the limited financial resources and the
impact of the activities is invisible in most of the cases. The inhabitants of
watershed area have inadequate knowledge of the programme as such active
participation of village community particularly deprived section of the society
could not be ensured in the implementation of watershed development programme.
Similarly separate provisions for livelihood enhancement for vulnerable groups
were lacking in the previous guidelines resulting less impact on poverty
eradication have been observed in the project area even after taking up the
activities for Watershed development.
50

Chapter-5
DRAINAGE AND WATERSHED
5.1 Introduction
The concept of watershed as planning unit for development
of land and water resources has gained importance since 1974 when the Ministry of
Agriculture, Govemment of India initiated various developmental programmes like
Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Desert Development Programme (DDP),
Hill Area Development Programme (HADP), etc. Therefore, it is necessary to
delineate watershed boundaries at various levels of hierarchy to identify
development activities under various schemes in each watershed. Drainage network
helps in delineation of watersheds and for suggesting various water harvesting
structures and soil conservation measures. In Himachal watersheds have been
delineated within the catchments boundary nearest to the ridgelines.
5.2 Drainages
Himachal Pradesh fall partially under three major Water Resources
Region. They are the Indus, Ganga and the Ephemeral Water Resources Region. The
river basin that falls under Himachal Pradesh under the Indus Region comprises of
Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Satluj. Those basin falling within I-Iimachal under the Ganga
Region is only the Yamuna and those are falling within Himachal under the
Ephemeral Water Resources Region are Kaushaliya and Markanda river basin.
The area falling within the drainage area of Chenab River forms
part of the Chandra and Bhaga watersheds. The area can be broadly divided into
three zones on the basis of drainage systems, viz. i) the Upper zone, 2) middle zone
and 3) lower zone. All the rivers flow in the North-East to South-West direction. The
drainage of Bhaga River in the northem zone originates from the Bara La Cha La
Pass range and flows over the slopes in the south west direction and finally drains in
the Bhaga river at Tandi which finally drains to the main course of Chenab River, a
tributary of Indus River. Prominent streams exhibits a dendritic river pattern. The
Chandra River also originates from the Bara La cha la Pass and initially flows in the
east direction then to the south along the Kunzum La pass. This change in its course
51

from east to south direction indicates the change in the underlying litho logy.
Downstream it takes a sharp turn to the where it meets the Bara Sigri River west
before meeting the Bhaga River at Tandi. After flowing through these dissected
mountains the drainage maintains its regular course in the Southem direction.
The area falling within the drainage area of Ravi River comprises part of the
Budhil, Tundahan, Beljedi, Saho and Chirchind rivers. The upper drainage of Ravi
river in the east originates from the Bara Bangal and flows over the slopes in the
west direction and finally drains in the Chamba valley till it meets Siul river at
Chamera which finally drains to the main course of Ravi river downstream that falls
finally in the Indus river. The streams exhibit a dendritic river pattern all along its
course.
The drainages falling within the Beas river comprises part of the Parvati,
Hurla, Patlikuhl, Sainj. and Tirthan river in district Kullu, Uhl, Bakhli and Suketi
river in district Mandi. Awa, Banner, Banganga. Neogal, Luni, Gaj, Bhed, Dehar,
Chakki in Kangra, Bakkar and Man in Hamirpur district. All the major rivers
mentioned above finally drain into the Pong Reservoir that further drains into the
Indus River. All the streams represent a dendritic drainage pattern all along its
course.
The drainages falling in the Satluj river comprises of Spiti river in the nonh
followed by Baspa river, Nogli river downstream, by Gambar river in Bilaspur are
and by Sir and Sulckar river in Hamirpur and Bilaspur. These entire rivers finally
drain in the Govind Sagar reservoir. Downstream of Govind Sagar reservoir Satluj
River is joined by the Swan River from Una valley. Satluj finally joins the Indus
further downstream. The overall drainage pattern is dendritic.
The drainages falling within Himachal Pradesh in the Yamuna region
comprises of Pabbar, tons, Giri and the Bata River in district Shimla and Sirmour.
The river flows through the outer Himalayas and forms a dendritic drainage pattern.
The drainages falling in the Ephemeral region of Himachal is the Kaushalya
River around Dharmpur in district Solan and Markanda River and its tributaries in
the Kala Amb area of district Sirmour. The overall drainage pattem is dendritic in
nature.
52

5.3 Demarcation of Watersheds
Watersheds are natural hydrologic entities that cover a specific
aerial extent of land form, from which rainwater flows to a defined gully, stream or
river at any particular point. The size of the watershed is governed by the order of
the stream or river and the point of interception of the stream or river.
The All India Soil and Land Use Surveys of the Ministry of
Agriculture have developed a hierarchical system of Watershed delineation like
Water Resources Region, Basin, Catchment, Sub-Catchment, Watershed, Sub-
Watershed. However, for land use planning at Block level the following eight levels
of watershed delineation has been adopted. These are as follows:
1 Water Resources Region (as defined by the watershed Atlas of India)
2. Basin (————————do———————–)
3. Catchment ( ———————- –do ——————— –)
4. Sub-Catchment ( ———————- –do ——————— –)
5. Watershed ( ———————- –do ——————— –)
6. Sub-watershed (30 to 50 Sq. Km.)
7. Mini-Watershed (10 to 30 Sq. Km.)
8. Micro-watershed ( 5 to lO Sq. Km.)
Survey of India topographical maps on l:50,000 scales have been
used for extracting surface water body spread, drainage network and water divides.
Latest Geo-coded satellite images have been used to update the drainage information
for any addition or modification Wherever required.
53

Figure : 5.1 Major river basin map of Himachal Pradesh
MAJOR RIVER BASINS IN HIMACHAL PRADESH
N
W%E
S
Chamba ‘ ‘ _ ‘ /\__
“ Che ‘
I I W
Lahul :. Spiti ‘
. _ . a
Kangra i ” ‘
‘ _
I’ J’
t ./
L
git»-“
3 R|\/er Basin
El 15

Legend I i I
21:21;
Mlomeiars
3Cl EU BU 1 2U
a-€“”’
4:-.e,
5.3.1 Indus Water Resources Region:
The Indus River rises from the Tibetan plateau and enters the
Himalaya. The drainage basin of the Indus river system extends from Jammu &
54

Kashmir to Himachal Pradesh. It includes the Whole of Jammu and Kashmir and
most of Himachal Pradesh. In Himachal Pradesh the tributaries of Indus basin like
Chenab comprises of Chandra and Bhaga River that includes the cold desert of
Lahaul valley. Ravi River also forms a tributary to the Indus Region that includes the
Bharmour, Chamba and Tissa valley. Other tributary includes the Beas River that
comprises of the Kullu valley and the Kangra valley and the largest tributary of
Indus in Himachal is the Satluj River and its sub-tributaries that includes the Spiti
valley, Kinnaur, Sangla valley upstreams and the Rampur, Karsog and Bilaspur area
in the lower reaches in Himachal. Climatic conditions in the Indus river system vary
from arctic to sub-tropical. The cold desert area remains devoid of rainfall and
experiences heavy snowfall.
5.3.1.1 Satluj River:-
Satluj rises from beyond Indian borders in the Southern slopes of the Kailash
mountain near Mansarover lake from Rakas lake, as Longcchen Khabab river ( in
Tibet ). It is the largest among the five rivers of Himachal Pradesh. It enters
Himachal at Shipki (altitude of 6,608 metres ) and flows in the South-Westerly
direction through Kinnaur, Shimla, Kullu, Solan, Mandi and Bilaspur districts. Its
course in Himachal Pradesh is 320 km. from Rakastal, with the Spiti, the Ropa, the
Taiti, the Kashang, the Mulgaon, the Yula, the Wanger, the Throng and the Rupi as
right bank tributaries, and the Tirung, the Gayathing, the Baspa, the Duling and the
Solding as left bank tributaries. It leaves Himachal Pradesh to enter the plains of
Punjab at Bhakhra, where the world’s highest gravity dam has been constructed on
this river. Its total catchment area in Himachal Pradesh is 20,000 sq. km. The Satluj
finally drains into the Indus in Pakistan. The catchments area of about 50,140 sq. km.
of Satluj river is located above the permanent snow-line at an altitude of 4,500
metres. The upper tracts of the Satluj valley are under a permanent snow cover. The
prominent human settlements that have come on the banks of the Satluj River are
Namgia, Kalpa, Rampur, Tattapani, Suni and Bilaspur. Its total length is l,44-8 km.
a) Baspa River:- Baspa is an important tributary of the river Satluj in its upper
courses. The Baspa is joined by many smaller channels draining snow melt waters.
The Baspa River has cut across the main Himalayan range. Thereafter it empties
55

itself into the river Satluj in district Kinnaur and leaves Kinnaur district in the West
near Chauhra and enters Shimla district.
h) Spiti River: – The Spiti river originates from Kunzum range. Tegpo and Kabzian
streams are its tributaries. Its position across the main Himalayan range deprives it
from the benefit of the South-West monsoons that causes widespread rain in most
parts of India. The river gets a major contribution of discharge in late summers due
to glacier melting. After flowing through Spiti valley, the Spiti river meets Satluj at
Namgia in Kinnaur district traversing a length of about 150 km. from the North-West
beyond that it flows in South-West direction. Huge mountains rise to very high
elevations on either sides of the Spiti River and its numerous tributaries. The
mountains are barren and largely devoid of a vegetative cover. The main settlements
along the Spiti river and its tributaries are Hansi and Dhankar Gompa.
C) The Nogli Khad:- It joins Satluj just below Rampur Bushahar. The confluence is
opposite the Kullu district in Nirmand tehsil opposite to Rampur tehsil of Shimla
district. The river Satluj enters Mandi district near Firnu village in the Chawasigarh
and passes through the areas of Mahunm, Bagra. Batwara, Derahat and Dehar. The
main tributaries of the Satluj in district Mandi are Siun, Bahlu, Kotlu. Behna. Siman,
Bantrehr, Khadel and Bhagmati.
d) Soan River:- The Soan river rises from the Southern slopes of the Shivalik range
also known as Solasinghi range in the tract to the East of the Beas gap across the
Southern periphery of the Kangra valley. It joins the boundary of Himachal Pradesh
and Punjab. Its gradient is not very steep and the slopes of the Soan catchments vary
from gentle to steep. In the summer the discharge drops drastically, while during
monsoon it is in spate.
5.3.1.2 Beas River:-
The Rohtang pass at 4,350 meters, 51 km. North of Manali is the source of
the river Beas. This river provides the water to the fields of Punjab and Pakistan
before flowing into the Arabian Sea. The river emerges from a cavern at the Rohtang
pass and assumes different identities as the seasons go by. From a clear blue easy
flowing mountain river in the non-monsoon period it turns into an awesome torrent
river during the monsoon.
56

On the South of the Rohtang pass lay the civilized state of Kullant ( Kullu ),
while to the North lay the more desolate and barren areas of Lahaul and Spiti. There
are two mountain streams that meet at Palachan village, IO km. North of Manali to
form the river Beas. The tourist resort of Manali is situated on the right banks of the
river Beas. From Manali, this holly river after passing through dense evergreen
forests reaches the town of Kullu. After covering hundreds of Kilometers through the
hills, the river at Ha.ri Ka Patan in Ferozpore district of Punjab embraces the river
Satluj before flowing into Pakistan.
Its main tributaries are the Parbati, the Spin and Malana nala in the East; and
the Solang, the Manalsu, the Sujoin, the Phojal and the Sarvati Streams in the West.
In Kangra, it is joined by Binwa, Neugal, Banganga, Gaj, Dehr and Chakki from
North, and Kunah, Maseh, Khairan and Man from the South. The Beas enters district
Kangra at Sandhol and leaves it near Mirthal. At Bajaura, it enters Mandi district
situated on its left bank. In Mandi district, its own Northem feeders are Hansa,
Tirthan, Ba.khli, Jiuni, Suketi, Panddi, Son and Bather.The northern and Eastern
tributaries of the Beas are perennial and snow fed, while Southem are seasonal. Its
flow is maximum during monsoon months. At Pandoh, in Mandi district, the waters
of the Beas have been diverted through a big tunnel to join the Satluj. It flows for
256 km. in Himachal Pradesh.The important settlement on the bank of Beas river are
Kullu, Mandi, Bajaura, Pandoh, Sujanpur Tihra, Nadaun and Dehra-Gopipur. The
total lenght of this river is 460 km.
a) Awa River: Rises from the Dhauladhar range in the Kangra valley of Himachal
Pradesh. It flows in a South-Westerly direction before joining the river Beas. It
receives both snowmelts as well as rainfall water from smaller channels.
b) Banner River:- It is also known as Baner Khad. It is a tributary of the Beas river
and drains the central part of the Kangra valley. The Baner Khad rises as a small
snow fed channel on the Southern slopes of the Dhauladhar range near Palampur.
The general direction of flow of the Banner River is towards South-West.
C) Banganga River:- It joins the Beas River in the Kangra valley. It rises from the
Southern slopes of the Dhauladhar range. The river is fed by snow melt and channels
57

emanating from springs. Large fertile sediments have been formed all along the river
near its mouth.
h) Chakki River:- It drains the South-Western part of Himachal Pradesh. The
Chakki River rises as a small snow-fed and rain-fed stream from the Southern slopes
of the Dhauladhar range. The river enters Punjab near Pathankot and joins the Beas
River.
e) Gaj Khad: – It rises as a small stream from the snows on the Southern slopes of
the Dhauladhar range in Kangra district. A number of small streams form the Gaj
Khad. The Gaj River joins the Beas River a little upstream of the Pong dam lake
(now known as Maharana Pratap Sagar).
f) Manuni River: – It rises from the Southem slopes of the Dhauladhar range and
joins the river Beas. Steep slopes form the upper catchment of the Manuni River.
There is a sharp fall in its gradient. Huge river terraces occur on the both sides of the
river bed, which are used for cultivation extensively.
g) Luni River: – Luni rises from the South slopes of Dhauladhar in the Kangra
valley. It merges with the river Beas in the central part of Kangra valley.
h) Parbati River:- It rises in the snowy areas upstream of Manikaran on the foothills
of the main Himalayan range in Kullu district. The glacier which feeds this river
descends down from the steep Southern slopes of the main Himalayas. It joins the
river Beas at Shamshi in Kullu valley.
i) Patlikuhal River:-This River is a tributary of the Beas River in the Mandi area of
Kullu district. It rises from the snow on the Southem slopes of the Pir Panjal range
and thereafter it flows into the Beas River upstream of Kullu.
j) Sainj River:- It rises from the water divide of the Beas and Satluj rivers in the
lower ranges of the main Himalayas to the East of Kullu. Thereafter it flows towards
South-West to join the Beas River just before it cuts across the Dhauladhar range
near Larji.
58

k) Hurla River:- Hurla river rises as a small channel from the snows in the
depression of the North-Western plank of Kullu valley. It joins the river Beas near
Bhuntar. Numerous snow-fed streams join the river Hurla.
1) Suketi River:- This river is a tributary of the Beas river in the Kangra valley. It
rises from the South facing slopes of Dhauladhar range. A number of small channels
join the Suketi River in its upper reaches. The river has formed huge terraces, most
of which are under cultivation. The upper catchments of the river consists of steep
slopes.
l) Tirthan River:- It is a tributary of the Beas river. It rises from the base of an
offshoot of the main Himalayan range to the South-East of Kullu. Thereafter it
follows a South-Westerly course and flows into the Beas at Laiji just before it cuts
across the Dhauladhar range.
n) Uhl River: – It is another tributary of the Beas river which rises as two feeder
channels in the area to the North of the Dhauladhar range in Himachal Pradesh.
Thereafter the two channels cross this gigantic mountain barrier and merge at the
base of the Southem slopes to form the main channel of the Uhl River in Kangra
area. It flows for a considerable distance along the base of the Dhauladhar range.
Then tums towards the South-East to merge with the Beas near the town of Mandi.
5.3.1.3 Ravi River:-Ravi river rises from the Bara Banghal ( a branch of Dhauladhar
) as a joint stream formed by the glacier-fed Badal and Tant Gari. The right bank
tributaries of the Ravi are the Budhil, Tundahan Beljedi, Saho and Siul, and its left
bank tributary worth mentioning is Chirchind Nala. Town Chamba is situated on the
right bank of the river Ravi. The Ravi River flows by the foot of Dalhousie hill,
through the famous Chamba valley. The river with its length of about 158 km. in
Himachal has a catchments area of about 5,451 sq. km. As the Ravi River flows
down from the heights, it passes hill sides with terraced fields. The river looks
devastating in its fury. It carries away even sturdy trees. The Ravi river first flows
Westward through a trough separating the Pir Panjal from Dhauladhar range and
then turns southward, cutting the deep gorge through the Dhauladhar range. It flows
nearly 130 km. in Chamba region, before leaving it finally at Kheri..
59

The Ravi river forms the biggest sub-micro region of Chamba district.
From Bara Bangal of Kangra district, it flows through Bara Bansu, Tretha, Chanota
and Ulhansa. The Ravi River merges with the Chenab in Pakistan. The well known
human settlements along the river are Barmaur, Madhopur and Chamba town. Its
total length is 720 km.
a) Bhadal River: – It rises from the snowy range of the area lying between the Pir
Panjal and Dhauladhar ranges in the Bara Banghal area of the Central Himachal
Pradesh. It flows in a Westerly direction before merging with the Tant Gari River to
form the mainstream of the Ravi.
b) Siul River: – It is the tributary of the Ravi River. It rises from the tract between
the Dhauladhar and Pir Panjal ranges near Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal
Pradesh border. Thereafter this river flows towards East, takes a U turn and attains a
South-Westerly course before flowing into the Ravi River downstream of Chamba.
River Baira is the prominent tributary of the Siul River. This river is fed by both
snow melt and spring waters.
c) Baira River:-It rises from the snows on Southern slopes of the Pir Panjal range in
Himachal Pradesh. Numerous tributaries of the Baira River are also fed by the snow
and so make it a Perennial river before it joins the Siul River, which is a tributary of
the Ravi River. Its catchments consist of steep slopes, deep valleys and terraces that
have been laid down by the river since a long time.
d)Tant Gari:- It is a tributary of the Ravi river. This river rises as a small stream
from the slopes of an off-shoot of the Pir Panjal range in the area East of Bharmaur
in Chamba district. The Tant Gari valey is U shaped. Its bottom is strewn with
boulders and moronic deposits laid down by the glaciers in the past.
5.3.1.4 Chenab River:-Two streams namely Chandra and Bhaga rise on the opposite
sides of the Baralacha pass at an elevation of 4,891 metres and meet at Tandi at an
elevation of 2,286 meters to form the river Chenab. The Chenab rises from the
South-East and Bhaga from the North-West of the Baralacha pass. It enters Pangi
valley of Chamba district near Bhujind and leaves the district at Sansari Nala to enter
Podar valley of Kashmir. It flows in Himachal for 122 km. With its total length of
1,200 km., it has a catchments area of 61,000 sq. km., out of which 7,500 sq. km. lie
60

in Himachal Pradesh. It is the largest river of Himachal Pradesh in terms of volume
of waters. The Chenab valley is a structural trough formed by the great Himalayan
and Pir Panjal ranges.
a) The Miyar Nullahz – It joins Chenab in Lahaul, while Saicher Nullah joins it in
Pangi valley. It meets the Indus River at Mithankot in Pakistan and ultimately joins
Arabian Sea. The important human settlements that have come up along this river are
Udaipur, Killar, Doda and Ramban.
b) Bhaga River: – This river originates from the Lahaul valley. A number of
Snowfed Rivers join it during its course, before it joins the Chandra stream at Tandi.
From its origin it flows in South-South-Westerly direction as a raging torrent before
joining the river Chandra. U shaped valleys, Waterfalls, glaciers and moraines
characterizes the upper catchments of the BhagaRriver. The entire tract is devoid of a
vegetative cover. The discharge of this river increases during the summer months,
when the snow on the high mountains starts melting.
c) Chandra River: – It rises in the snows lying at the base of the main Himalayan
range in Lahaul-Spiti district. Thereafter it flows for a considerable distance along
the base of thin range in the South-East direction, before making a 180° turn and
taking a South-West course in Spiti valley. The entire area is a vast cold desert that
receives little or no rain as it lies in the rain shadow of the Pir Panjal range lying
towards South. The important human settlement along the river is Koksar.
5.3.2 Ganga Water Resources Region: – In Himachal Pradesh the tributaries of
Ganga Region comprises of Yamuna Catchments and falls in the south eastern part
of Himachal. This catchment area comprises the Pabbar in Rohru, Tons and Giri in
Shimla and the Bata River in Sirmour area.
a) Yamuna River:-
Only a small part of Yamuna river system which is a tributary of Ganga river system
flows through the state of Himachal Pradesh. Yamuna enters Himachal Pradesh at
Khadar Majri in Sirmour district. Yamuna River is the largest tributary of the Ganga.
It rises from Yamunotri in Gharwal hills and fonns the Eastem boundary with Uttar
Pradesh. The Yamuna is the Eastem-most river of Himachal Pradesh. Its famous
61

tributaries are Tons, Pabbar and Giri.The Giri rises from near Kupar peak just above
Jubbal town in Shimla district, Tons from Yamunotri and Pabbar from Chandra
Nahan Lake near the Chansal peak in Rohru tehsil of Shimla district. Its total
catchment area in Himachal Pradesh is 2,320 sq. km. It leaves the state near
Tajewala and enters into the Haryana state.
The main geomorphic features of the Yamuna valley are interlocking
spurs, gorges, steep rock benches and terraces. The latter have been formed by the
river over the past thousands of years. The area drained by the Yamuna system
includes Giri-Satluj water divide in Himachal Pradesh to the Yamuna Bhilagana
water divide in Gharwal. To be more precise the South—Eastern slopes at the Shimla
ridge are drained by the Yamuna system. The utilization of water of the river system
is being done by the way of transportation of timber logs, irrigation and hydel power
generation. After Himachal Pradesh, the river flows through the state of Haryana,
Delhi and Uttar Pradesh where it merges with the Ganga River at Allahabad. The
Yamuna is 2,525 km. long.
b) Jalal River:-Jalal River is the small tributary of the Giri River in Himachal
Pradesh. It rises from Dharti ranges adjoining Pachhad and joins Yamuna at Dadahu
from the right side. It also joins the river Giri at Dadahu. The origin and entire course
of this river lies in the lower Himalayas. This is the Rainfed River and has abrupt
flow during the rainy season. A number of human settlements have come up along
the Jalal River. These include Bagthan and Dadhau.
c) Markanda River: – Markanda is a small river of Nahan area of the Sirmaur
district. It rises from the Southern face of the lower Himalayas on the Western
extremity of the Kiarda dun (Paonta) valley. The lower Himalayan hills of Nahan
occur on the right flank of the Markanda valley while the low rolling Shivalik hills
are on its left flank. It is a rainfed river and has very low flow in the winter and
summer months but rises abruptly in the monsoon.
d) Andhra River: – This is a tributary of the Pabbar River which in turn drains into
the Tons River. This river rises from a small glacier in the lower hills of the main
Himalayas in the area to the North-West of Chirgaon in Shimla district. Thereafter it
62

flows in a general direction towards South-East and merges with the Pabbar River at
Chigaon.
e) Giri River: – The River Giri is an important tributa.ry of the Yamuna river. It
drains a part of South-Eastern Himachal Pradesh. The Giri or Giriganga (as it is
famous in the Jubbal, Rohru hills) rises from Kupar peak just above Jubbal town and
flows down in the South-Eastern direction and divides the Sirmaur district into equal
parts that are known as Cis-Giri and Trans-Giri region and joins Yamuna upstream
of Paonta below Mokkampur. The river Ashni joins Giri near Sadhupul (Chail) while
river Jalal which originates from Dharthi ranges adjoining Pachhad joins it at
Dadahu from the right side. The water from the Giri River is led through a tunnel to
the power house of Girinagar and after that it is led into the Bata River.
f) Asni River: – The Ashni River is a tributary of the Giri River. This river flows along
a deep V shaped valley whose side slopes vary from steep to precipitous. It has
carved a steep gorge across the off-shoots of the Nag Tibba ridge. Numerous small
spring fed tributaries join the Ashni River at various places along its course.
g) Bata River: – This River originates in the boulders below the Nahan ridge in the
South-Westem comer of Himachal Pradesh. It is mainly fed by the rain water that is
cycled as underground water before finally coming up on the surface as a spring. The
river flows below the surface for a part of its length in its upper reaches, thereafter
the water flows on the surface. Large and wide terraces have been formed by it. The
small tributaries which join the Bata River in the Paonta valley are Khara-Ka-Khala
flowing in a Southerly direction from the Nahan ridge, and Kanser-Khala originating
from the Southern slopes of the Nahan.
h) Pabbar River: – The Pabbar River is a tributary of the Tons River, which in turn
drains into the river Yamuna. This rises from the Dhauladhar range (South facing
slopes) near the border of Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh. The main stream is
fed by the Chandra Nahan glacier and springs originating from underground waters.
It joins the Tons River at the base of the Chakrata massif near the border of Uttar
Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh.
i) Patsari River:-It is a small spring fed tributary of the Pabbar River. This river
rises from the lower Himalayan hills near Kharapathar in Shimla district of Himachal
63

Pradesh. This river joins the Pabbar River near the mountain hamlet of Patsari about
l0 km. upstream of Rohru. Its bed is strewn with boulders of various sizes. Small
villages and hamlets have come up along this river.
j) Tons River: – This River is an important tributary of the Yamuna River and joins
it at Kalsi in the North-Western part of Dehradun valley. It has two feeder streams –
the Supin River which rises from in the Northern part of the Tons catchments near
the Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh border and the Rupin River that rises from a
glacier at the head of the famous Har-Ki-Dun valley in the North-North Eastern part
of the Tons catchments. These two feeder streams merge near the mountain hamlet
of Naitwar and the channel downstream of Naitwar is known as Tons river. The river
flows along a V shaped valley. A number of settlements have come up along the
Tons River such as Tuni, Naitwar and Menus.
5.3.3 Ephemeral Water Resources Region:
A very small but covering a significant area of the state is drained by
the Ephemeral Water Resources Region in the south. This basin extends from the
ridges around Dharmpur area in Himachal and forms a part of the Solan district.
Further east it forms a part of the Markanda river catchments south of Nahan and the
Kala Amb area.
a) Kaushalya River:-It is a small spring fed tributary of the Ghaghar river. The
river rises from the southem part of Dharmpur and eastern part of the Kasauli area of
Solan district.
b) Markanda River:-The River Markanda originates from village Utamwala
south east of Nahan town and flows westward along the Shiwalik ranges to Kala
Amb in district Sirmour. At Kala Amb it leaves the hills and entres into the Indo-
Gangatic plains downstream it meets river Ghaghar in the Panjab plains.
64

Chapter-6
LAND AVAILABLE FOR WATERSHED INTERVENTIONS
As per information of Wastelands given in the Atlas Of India for the
year 2003 by National Remote Sensing Agency, Department of Space, Government
of India Balangar Hyderabad Andhra Pradesh out of total 55,67,300 hectare
geographical area of the State, 28,33,680 hectare area is Wastelands which is 50.90
% of total geographical area of the State. Similarly in Annual Seasons and Crop
Report (2003-04) issued by Director of land Record Himachal Pradesh, the total
geographical area of the State according to Surveyor General of India is 55,67,300
Hectares. In comparison of this geographical area, the total cadestrally surveyed area
by village papers in the State comes to 45, 44,156 hectares revealing thereby that 10,
23,144 hectares of area is un-surveyed and is not appearing in revenue record.
According to the information given in the above crop Report, out of total
Geographical area i.e.556730O hectare (by professional survey) an area 10,99,055
hectares is forest lands, 6,72,512 Hectare is barren and uncultureable land, 4,53,498
Hectare is Land put to non agriculture use and 15,15,011 Hectare is pasture land.
The quantum of rainfall and proper distribution are the most crucial variables
for the State like Himachal Pradesh Where the development of irrigation
infrastructures is restricted by its topography. The extent of assured irrigation is
limited and net irrigated area as per above report is 1, 05,081 Hectares which is
19.40% of net sown area. The 81% of area is still rainfed and the production of
crops depends upon the quantum of timely rainfall and its proper distribution during
the crop seasons. Thus the land must be preserved and utilized carefully to fulfill
multifarious requirements. The status of agriculture land utilization is given in table
below:
65

Table 6 – Agriculture land (‘O00 Hectares)
SN Item 2002-03
2003-04 2004-05
1. (a) Total geographical area by professional survey 5567.3
(b) Total geographical area by village papers 4543.1
2. Forests 1099.6
3. Area not available for cultivation 1125.5
4. Other uncultivated land excluding current fallows 1698.2
5. Fallow land 75.4
6. Net area sown 544.5
7. Total cropped area 945.2
8. Area sown more than once 400.7
123.9
5567.3 5567.3
4544.1
1099.1
1126.0
1705.9
72.6
540.5
955.6
415.1
105.1
4544.9
1101.1
1130.0
1695.3
74.5
542.7
953.6
410.9
104.5
9. Net irrigated area
10 Percentage of gross irrigated area to gross cropped area 19.7 19.0 —
11 Percentage of net irrigated area to net area sown. 22.8 19.4 19.3
73.6 76.8
12 Percentage of area sown more than once to net areasown. 75.7
Source:— Annual season and Crop Reports. Directorate of Land Records. l-l. P.
6.1 Irrigated area in H.P.
Whatever proportion of the operational holdings is put to cultivation, only
19.40 per cent of it is irrigated and the remaining land under cultivation has to be
dependent on the rain for irrigation (sample data). Data published by the Department
of Land Records of Himachal Pradesh shows net irrigated area as 19.40 per cent of
the net sown area which comes about 1.05 lakh hectares. The information about
source of irrigation is given in table below:
Table :6.1. (i) Agriculture Irrigated area (Haectare)
SI. No Source 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05
1. Canals 3.510 3,520 3.379
2. Tanks 267 3 28
3. Wells and Tube Wells 11,764 13.569 15,512
4. Other Sources 1,08.377 87.989 85,571
Total .. 1.23.918 1.05.081 1.04.490
Source- Annual Season and crop Reports, Directorate of Land Records, H.P.
66

The State Govemment has been implementing various major and
medium irrigation projects and efforts to add more and more culturable command
area (CCA) are on. However, actual utilization of the created CCA is a matter of
concem. The Economic Survey of Himachal Pradesh (2006-07) says that against the
total irrigation potential of 3.35 lakh hectares available in the State, 2.09 lakh
hectares of the CCA has already been created by the end of December, 2006. Thus,
there is a vast gap between the created CCA and area under effective irrigation and
there is an urgent need to bridge the gap between the two so that the massive
investment already made in CCA creation is put to use and also lead to imparting
resilience to the issue of sustainability of farm based livelihoods. An important
comment on this data is that as the topography eases up and the altitude reduces, the
proportion of operational holdings being cultivated also increases. It implies a higher
intensity of land use in Valleys and Plains as compared to that in the Lower hills and
the Northern High Hills.
Table: 6.1. (ii) Irrigated land by source. (%age of total irrigated land)
Regions Canals! Kuhls Nallah Community Private ownership
(Flow Irrigation) ownership
Northern High Hills 98.46 1.54 Nil Nil
Low Hills 88.95 0.11 10.94 Nil
Valleys and Plains 93.16 Nil 6.73 0.11
Total 92.46 0.21 7.27 0.06
Source: Based on the sample data
As is evident from the table 6.l.(ii) almost all the irrigation in Northern
High Hills is done through flow irrigation as the costs of lifting water from the
nearby gorge or valley are exorbitant and does not meet the economic criteria of
evaluation of lift irrigation projects. A major proportion of the uncultivated land in
Northern High Hills is being used as orchards mainly for growing apple and stone
fruits. The proportion of cultivated land in Low Hills is large as compared to that in
Northern High Hills and is still larger in valleys and plains. A very large proportion
of the operational holdings in the Low Hills and Plains and Valleys of the State are
classified as the barren lands or Ghasni (land used for grazing or abundant in grass).
67

The climatic conditions of the valleys and the plains are conducive for growing
citrus fruits yet proportion of land as orchards is very less both in Low Hills and in
Valleys and Plains. A very large proportion of irrigation is done either through
irrigation canals or Kuhls. Most of the irrigation is done through these two sources of
flow irrigation. Community owned and private irrigation is almost missing from
Northern High Hills and the Low Hills and their presence in Valleys and Plains is
negligibly small. A huge investment is required to bring un-inrigated land under
irrigation. It, however, needs to be underlined that with the high O&M costs of
future expansion of irrigation and low cost recovery even from the earlier irrigation
assets will remain formidable constraints for a rapid expansion of irrigation facilities.
This will certainly impact the farm sector based livelihood options and strategizing
such options vis-a-vis others.
6.2 Forest Land
The information in respect of legal classification of forest has been taken from
website of forest department. The legally defined forest area is 37,03,30 Hectare, and
further breakup of classified forest lands is given in the Table below:
Table 6.2. (i)- Legal classification of forest area
S.N. Class of Forest Area in Kn/2 Area in Hect.
l Reserve Forests 1,896 l.89,60O
2 Demarcated protected forests ll,830 ll,83,000
3 Un-demarcated protected forests 21,213 21,21,000
4 Un-classed forest 977 97,700
5 Other forest (managed by forest Deptt.) 369 36,900
6 Other forests (Not managed by forest 748 74,8000
Deptt).
Total 37,033 37,03,300
Out of total legally classified forests are 37,03,300 Hectares, the district-wise
forest cover as per forest survey of India report 2005, the tree cover area is 14,36,900
68

Hectare, out of which the area under dense forest is 8,92,800 Hectare and open forest
area is 5,41,100 Hectare. The District wise break up is given in the Table below
Table: 6.2. (ii)- District Wise forest cover in Himachal Pradesh.
District Geographical Legally Tree Covered
Bilaspur
Chamba
Hamirpur
1 16700
652500
1 1 1800
Area Classified
Forest area Very Moderate Open
42800
503000
Deuce
Dense
Forest
Forest
Total
% oi
Geo.Area
1100
9300
25800
36200
31.02
43600
113100
84600
241300
37.00
21900
300
10600
13300
24200
21.65
Kangra
573900
284200
13400
125000
49500
187900
32.74
Kinnaur
640 1 00
509300
1600
32400
25 700
59700
9.33
Kullu
550300
495200
11700
129700
52700
194100
35.27
Lahl& Spiti
1384100
1013300
700
2800
15000
18500
1.34
Mandi
395100
186000
7800
92900
64400
165100
41.80
Shimla
513100
341800
19200
157600
61100
237900
46.37
Sirmour
282500
184300
5900
62800
69200
137900
48.81
Solan
193600
72800
3900
31100
47300
82300
42.51
Una
154000
48700
500
15800
35500
51800
33.64
Total
5567300
3703300
109700
783100
5441 00
1436900
25.81
As mentioned in above table the dense forest area is 8,92,800 Hectare
(1,09,70O + 7,83,l0O = 892,800 Hectare) and open forest area is 5,44,10O Hectare
which is proposed to be treated under watershed development projects.
6.3 Left out area for treatment
After excluding Net Irrigated, Dense Forest, Land put to non-Agriculture
uses. Lands treated under ongoing WD Programme and snow covered areas, the total
left out area is 3112472 hectare for treatment under Watershed Management
69

programme in all the districts of the State. The district wise information about left
out area is given in table below:
Table- 6.3: District-wise leftout area.
District
Total
(Eeograp
hical
area
Net
Irrigated
area
Snow
covered
area
Area under Area treatedl Total area Left-out area
dense forest under which will
watershed
development
Prog.by
Rural Dev.
Deptt.
not be
coveredin
Perspective
Plan
(3+4+5+ 6)
for
treatment‘
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Bilaspur
1 16700
3164
0
10400
35200
63176
53524
Chamba
65 2200
5712
5504
156700
38222
217860
434340
Hamirpur
111800
1731
0
10900
47552
78208
33592
Kan gra
57390()
35598
()
138400
38343
289743
284157
Kinnaur
640100
4487
130859
34000
40322
334270
305830
Kullu
550300
2878
0
141400
21719
172050
378250
Lah1&
Spill
1384100
3()43
415831
3500
64674
622778
761322
Mandi
395000
13774
0
100700
13588
128062
266938
Shimla
513100
2493
0
176800
25213
219463
293637
Sirmour
282500
13883
0
68700
32064
125305
157195
Solan
193600
9762
0
35000
54808
110401
83199
Una
1 5 4000
8556
0
16300
39550
93512
60488
Total
5567300
105081
552198
892800
451255
2454828
3112472
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6.4 Proposed Area.
As is evident from the above table, total 3112472 hectare area is left out which
is proposed for treatment under Watershed Management programme in all the
districts of the State. The district Wise information about category wise proposed
area is given in table below:
Table:6.4 District wise & categorywise proposed area
S
.N. District
Open Forest Area
proposed for
treatment.
Other Rainfed / Waste lands
area proposed for treatment
(includes Agri.Land.
Pastures, Forest. community
and private areas.)
Total proposed area
for treatment.
(Colmn. 3+4)
l
1 2
Bilaspur
3
25800
4
27724
5
53524
2
Chamba
84600
349740
434340
3
Hamirpur
13300
20292
33592
4
Kan gra
49500
234657
284157
5
Kinnaur
25700
280130
305 830
6
Kullu
52700
325550
378250
7
Lah1& Spiti
15000
746322
761322
8
Mandi
64400
202538
266938
9
Shimla
61100
232537
293637
10
Sirmour
69200
87995
157195
11
Solan
47300
35899
83199
12
Una
35500
24988
60488
Total
544100
2568372
3112472
6.5 River Basin Approach:
The first step of watershed planning process is to develop water
management goals and objectives. It is, therefore, essential that Water management
planning be prepared on watershed basis following river valley approach. The
71

logical sequence of actions of river valley approach would be preparing the
watershed plan, sub- Watershed plan and then site specific plan
Integrated water management planning will involve the multi resource
thematic information on resources availability at micro watershed level will be
prepared through the process of participatory mechanism. Based on this information,
base prioritization of the watershed will be attempted and guided by the following
principles:-
i) Degradation status of micro watershed.
ii) Livelihood and socio-economic status of the inhabitants of the micro
watershed.
m) Sc/ST population.
iv) Water scarcity and drought proneness areas of watershed.
v) Contiguity with the already treated watershed areas etc.
6.6 Delineation of micro watershed:
As already mentioned in Chapter -5,the Sate of Himachal Pradesh has six
major river systems draining its territories which are mainly Satluj System,
Yamuna System, Ephermeral System, Beas Stystem, Ravi System and Chenab
System. Using the Watershed Approach as stipulated in Watershed Atlas of India on
l:l Million Scale with stream names on 1:250, 0000 scale by the All India Soil and
Landuse Survey, Department of Agriculture, GOI , the micro watersheds have been
attempted . Five stages starting with Water resources region, basin catchments, sub-
catchments watershed, sub-Watershed and micro-Watershed. Codifications of each
micro watershed have been done as per the approach suggested by All India Soil and
Land use Survey. Coding of micro watershed has been carried out starting from
downstream upstream. The Basin wise Maps in respect of all the Basins in Himachal
Pradesh are enclosed as Annexure- A to F.
6.7 Basin wise break up of proposed area:
As per basin wise position explained in chapter- 5, the proposed area falls in all the
basins. Although the detailed exercise / base line survey is required to get the
realistic figure of proposed area in each basin but this process involves more time
and as such on the basis of information collected from the field agencies the tentative
72

basin wise proposed area for treatment under watershed management projects is as
under:
i) Yamuna System:
The Yamuna System mainly confines to the major part of district Sirmaur,
parts of Shimla and Solan districts. Out of total area 6.34 lakh hectares falls under
this basin in Himachal Pradesh, an area of 3.02 lakh hectares (approximately) is
proposed for treatment under watershed management projects.
ii) Ephemeral Basin:
The area coveredunder this basin in Himachal Pradesh is very small which
falls in district Sinnour and Solan. Out of total area 0.57 lakh an area of 0.22 lakh
hectare is proposed under watershed management projects
m) Satluj System:
The Satluj System covers the majourity area of the State comprising of
districts of Kinnaur, Bilaspur, Una and parts of Shimla, Mandi, Solan, Kullu,
Hamirpur and Lahaul& Spiti. Out of total area 20.50 la.kh hectares, an area of 11.72
lakh hectares (approximately) is proposed for treatment under watershed
development projects.
iv) Beas System:
The Beas River Basin mainly covers the major part of districts Kullu,
Kangra, Mandi and Hamirpur. Out of total 13.82 lakh hectares area falls in
Himachal Pradesh, an area of 7.48 lakh hectares (approximately) is proposed for
treatment under watershed management programme.
v) Ravi System:
The Ravi Basin covers mainly the large portion of district Chamba (except
Killar area) and smaller part (Bara Bhangal area) of district Kangra. Total area under
this basin falls in the state is 5.15 lakh hectares, out of which an area 3.61 lakh is
proposed for treatment under watershed management projects.
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vi) Chenab System:
The Keylang area of district Lahaul & Spiti and Killar area of Chamba
district falls under Chenab Basin. Total area under this basin tin Himachal Pradesh is
9.30 la.kh hectares out of which 5.08 lakh hectares (Approx.) area is proposed for
treatment under watershed management projects
The proposed area is inclusive of Pasture lands, Community lands, Private &
Forest Lands. Under Watershed Development Programmes implemented by the
Rural Development Department, an area of 4, 51,255 hectare has been treated up to
November 2008 which has not been included in the proposed plan. But due to
limited financial resources it can not be ensured that the entire project areas have
been treated for the fruitful purpose. Thus the possibilities of additions of left out
area can not be ignored in future. In Common Guidelines for Watershed
Development Projects (Para 6) it has been mentioned that “a series of evaluation
studies have been conducted by Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR)
Institutes, State Agriculture Universities (SAUs). National Remote Sensing Agency
(NRSA) etc. Besides, impact assessment studies were carried out by the Ministry of
Agriculture, Ministry of Rural Development, Planning Commission and Intemational
Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) and the technical
Committee constituted by the Department of Land Resources (DOLR). These studies
support the observation that in several watersheds, the implementation of the
programme has been effective for natural resources conservation by increasing the
productivity of land, bringing additional area under agriculture, employment
generation and social upliftment of beneficiaries living in rural areas. But these
successes have been sporadic and intermittent. The overall impact at the state and
national levels has generally inadequate. Additional demand and supply driven
socio-economic and risk managing paradigms are emerging.”
Moreover in the Wastelands Atlas of India the total Wastelands area of
Himachal Pradesh is 2833680 Hectares which is 50.90% of total geographical area.
This figure also confirm that lot of areas in the State are still required the
interventions under Watershed management. Some lands in the category of culturable
waste have neither falls in the category of Wastelands nor in cultivated lands and
these lands are also needed to be treated under Watershed projects. Thus as already
74

mentioned above the total area Which has been proposed under the Perspective Plan
is 3112472 hectare which is 56 % of total geographical area.
The major problems identified in the proposed areas are deterioration of
land due to lack of appropriate water and soil management or on account of other
natural calamities. The deforestation, unscientific agricultural practices and
overgrazing continuously are the reasons of increase wastelands day by day
adversely affecting the fertility of land. The growth of population and stressing needs
of inhabitants, the degradation of land should be prevented and the
wastelands/rainfed areas should be put in the maximum use without disturbing the
ecological balance to meet out the increasing requirement of local community.
Erratic behavior of rainfall, excessive deforestation and conservation of pasture in to
cultivation, all such denudation has resulted in disturbance of the water regime,
causing damages to the top soil and adversely affecting the productivity of land. The
rain fall during rainy season is very high and due to lack of vegetative cover the rain
water causing severe soil erosion and damages to the cultivated land. In the absence
of proper Water management, the Water flowing down from the hills simply drains
away as surface runoff and cause floods in the plains. When the rain fall is
inadequate, the upper catchments areas experience droughts in the absence of in situ
water conservation. Thus the absence of proper water management results in flood in
the down lands and drought in the uplands.
6.5 Preparation of resource information:
Resource information available within each micro watershed such as present
land use, land degradation category, soil and water availability. Socio-economic will
be prepared using the scientific methodology as well as through participatory
approach. The database available with the Remote Sensing Centre of Department of
Science, Technology and Environment has database prepared on l:50,000 scale and
the same will be utilized for evolving micro Watersheds Wise DPRs.
6.6 Preparation of Action Plan
Based on the database compiled through various modes, site specific
Action Plans will be prepared solely using the participatory approach. Prioritization
of action will be carried out taken into consideration the local needs and priorities.
75

The proposed area is required to be treated under watershed development
projects in phased manner with in a period of IO-15 years. All these lands would be
developed, but the priority would be to cover the untreated areas. The duplicity and
overlapping if come to the notice will be avoided at the time of preparation of
Detailed Project Report for sustainable development of the proposed areas, the
community action through demographic process would be ensured in all the stages of
the project, right from framing Action Plans, their execution, sharing of usufructs
and their long term sustainability. The local communities will be organized into Self
Help GroupsfUser Groups. In view of the availability of funds, the consortium
approach for strengthening of capacity building can be considered to motivate and
trained the stakeholders in relation to watershed technologies and activities. Suitable
Training Programmes, work shops, exposure visits, video shows etc. will be
organized. Other Income generating activities for increase in the economic status of
the Watershed community will be propagated and necessary financial support will be
provided from the project fund and converging the funds from ongoing other
schemes.
In the project areas, the priority of activities/Works would be linked directly
or indirectly with livelihood enhancement. The rain water harvesting with pucca
structures, irrigation, plantation of fodder, fruits plants, renovation & augmentation
of water sources, de-siltation of village tanks for drinking irrigation, repair
restoration & up gradation of existing common property assets etc. would be the
main activities in the watershed areas which would be carried out with the active
participation of the watershed community. The agro-climatic conditions of the State
are best suited for Agro Forestry and Horticulture activities and these activities
would be carried out in watershed areas including private lands. Pasture
Development by silvipastural methods including plantation of leguminous species,
nutritious grasses and other economically useful species on the village pasture will
be adopted.
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Chapter-7
STRATEGY FOR WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT
Watershed management‘s underlying principle is that people, land, and water
are connected. People use land in a variety of ways, and affect ecosystems, and
ultimately, their own communities for better or worse. Managing and protecting the
environment while providing a high quality of life for people is a complex process
that is most successful when goveming bodies, community members and experts in
various fields are true partners in the planning process. It shall be the endeavor of the
watershed management approach to bring all these factors together to provide long-
term well being for communities by integrating people, land, and water in a
watershed area.
It is often seen that within any watershed, there are natural resources that
have both ecological and economic value. Human activities can affect those
resources, often with unintended consequences. It is therefore important to work on a
watershed approach that recognizes those consequences by seeing the entire system
in a holistic manner rather than considering each aspect independently as was the
case with watershed programmes earlier. The perspective plan aims at developing
strategies to manage resources and human activities in a coordinated way. Its focus
will be on integration of the efforts of landowners, land use agencies, water
management experts, and communities. Institutional arrangements will be put in
place in a way that these stakeholders work together to ensure proper stewardship of
our natural resources, compliance with regulation and efficient management. The
underlying purpose is to strive toward efficient, sustainable and intelligent solutions
to our Watershed issues: land use, Water supply, Water quality, storm water runoff,
water rights, air quality, planning and utilization. The watershed approach changes
this mindset to develop recognition among members of a community of the value of
their own resources, and to guide a holistic, balanced program of stewardship that
achieves community goals while complying with rules. A watershed approach
integrates biology, chemistry, hydrology, economics, and social considerations into
decision-making. It recognizes needs for water supply, water quality, flood control,
77

navigation, hydropower generation, fisheries, biodiversity, habitat preservation,
recreation, and development; and it recognizes that these needs can compete. It
establishes local priorities, accounts for state and national goals, and coordinates
public and private actions.
7.1 Philosophy
While traditional approaches are reactive, precautionary, regulatory, single-
purpose, and driven by enforcement, watershed management plan aims at making it
proactive, scientific, uses agreement-based approaches to achieve multiple benefits,
and is driven by the self-interest of stakeholders. Watershed protection measures
seek to stop or reduce pollution and prevent degradation. Measures that prevent
degradation before it occurs typically cost less than restoration measures
implemented after watersheds are impaired. When restoration is required, it is more
challenging to establish acceptable and measurable goals. This is where stakeholder
collaboration is most essential. Some will see restoration as the re-establishment of
pre-disturbance aquatic functions, but others may focus more on recreation, flood
protection, or water use efficiency. It is critically important that stakeholders work
out a balance among competing “public goods”, which no single discipline is
equipped to achieve.
In a mountainous state like Himachal Pradesh Where the vast majority of
population has been dependent on natural resources for their livelihoods,
“development” will have to be based primarily on long-term sustainable productivity
enhancement and, in the drought prone regions, on increasing the dependability of
production and, consequently, the security of livelihoods. The interconnectedness of
the biophysical and the social is intrinsic to watershed development and draws
strength from this interconnectedness. The plan sites on the principle that biophysical
and social interventions are not two separate processes, but aspects of a single
unified process and ecosystem processes and resources are basic economic resources
as well.
A review of Watershed development projects in Himachal Pradesh highlights
an immediate need to re-orient the present approach to Watershed development and
put an enabling policy framework in place to ensure that watershed development
78

programmes adequately meet the requirements of the four central concems, namely,
sustainability, livelihoods, equity, and participation/self-govemance. Previous
studies have concluded the following drawbacks in approach and implementation:
0 Problems related to lack of coordination;
0 The need to help community catchments groups mature;
1 Confusion between bottom up consultation and community participation and
top down policy and government investment;
Q The lack of integration of economic development with ecological
management;
‘ Institutional barriers to effective integration; and
‘ The effectiveness of local community institutions
Thus there is a need for a reorientation of approach to watershed development
based on the following: a sustainable productivity enhancement orientation; pro-
active measures to deal with sustainability and equity issues; preceding resource
generation with institutional arrangements to handle those resources; making
adequate technology choices; and taking dependability into account in watershed
planning.
There is also an urgent need for an enabling policy framework for collective
regulation of groundwater use and eventually moving towards Integrated Water
Resource Management. Many policies, which may not be directly related to
watershed development programs per se, also impinge on the outcomes, e.g. tourism
Hydro Power, Industry and TCP electricity tariffs, irrigation policy, agriculture
research and extension policy, fertilizer and agricultural produce pricing, and forest
policy. There is also a need to restructure the watershed development program by
increasing the watershed development allocation and period, and conduct it in
phases. The areas that need particular attention are:
(i) Hydrological: a) cross-scale and inter-scale hydrological effects (upper to valley
portions, intra- and inter-watershed relations up to basin scale); b) surface water-
groundwater interactions; c) aquifer behavior, in particular balance between shallow
and deep aquifers, their sizes, recharge rates, locations, and so on; d) net effect of
79

different soil and water conservation measures as well as afforestation and
agricultural practices on quantities like infiltration and erosion under different
geophysical conditions.
(ii) Land-Vegetation-Water interactions: a) agro ecological relationships and
impact on one another as an ecosystem; b) grazing and forest management, in
particular productivity, sustainability, and offsite effects.
(m) Socio-Economic and Institutional aspects: a) compare asset-based approaches
with income based approaches, in terms of benefits, their distribution and
sustainability; b) scope for biomass-based value addition — biomass, labour, energy,
capital and financial requirements, and identification of possible bottlenecks; c)
scope of watershed and NRM-based development in different regions, limits, and
implications, especially in resource poor areas; d) indigenous knowledge, its scope,
and issues in its interface with modem knowledge; e) role of CVOs and SHGs in
improving participation and sustaining benefits beyond project period; f) ways of
better addressing the problem of local heterogeneity by equitable and sustainable
reconciliation of interests and conflict resolution; g) social and institutional
mechanisms and capability building for incorporating rigorous participatory
grassroots benchmarking, monitoring, and assessment in watershed based
development programs.
7.2. Approach for Watershed management
Based on the experiences of implementation of watershed management
project in the State and elsewhere in India, the new plan proposes to use watershed
development as an opportunity to combine an integrate water conservation with
livelihood concerns. Enhancing sustainable livelihood options of the people shall be
the key objective in Watershed Management activities. The goal of watershed
development would be sustainable productivity enhancement and consequent
increased livelihood option for the local community. As opposed to the traditional
water conservation approach which focused on minimization of run-off as a unilinear
strategy, the new approach will aim at productivity oriented hydrological planning
approach that maximizes agriculture and other bio-mass production within the limits
80

of Water availability and promotes agronomic practices with sustainability and equity
as the key concemed.
The following aspects will constitute the key elements of the approach
followed for watershed development in Himachal Pradesh:
(i) Interconnectedness of the bio-physical and the social aspects.
(ii) Fulfilling livelihood needs.
(m) Sustainability.
(iv) Equity.
(v) Participation.
Interconnectedness of the bio-physical and the social aspects.
The proposed watershed development plan will keep the element of
interconnectedness of bio-physical and the social aspects as intrinsic to the
very concept of watershed development. The underlying philosophy will be
that reads watershed as a bio-physical entity in an eco system comprising of
all bio-physical processes within the watershed and their interaction with
larger systems. Bio-physical and Social interventions are actually not two
separate processes but aspects of the same unified process. What appears as a
soil erosion in the case of bio physical process would appear as inability to
meet food needs in the social aspects due to reduced farm productivity.
Likewise, purchase of fertilizer may be an aspect of bio physical intervention
but the resultant pollution would be the social implication of the same. The
strategy proposed to be adopted under the perspective plan would therefore
keep this bio physical and social aspect in view in deciding technological
interventions.
(11) Fulfilling Livelihood needs
A Livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets and activities required
for a means of living. A livelihood is sustainable when it can cope with and
recover from stresses and shocks and maintain or enhance its capabilities and
assets both now and in the future, while not undermining the natural resource
base. The interventions would be so designed that result in fulfilling
minimum livelihood needs consisting of domestic water (including drinking
water and water for livestock), food, fuel, fodder, some bio mass in put to the
81

V)
agricultural system to maintain soil productivity and other goods and services
that may have to be obtained from the larger system, for example, health and
education.
(m) Sustainability
Maintaining and enhancing the products and assimilative (as sinks)
potential of the local eco systems would be the objectives to be achieved
through using water within renew ability limits, using common property
resources (for example, forest and forest produces) within renew ability
limits, enhancing and sustaining the productivity of crop land uncultivated
land and enhancing dependability of availability of resources, for instance,
water.
(iv) Equity
The fulfillment of livelihood needs depends crucially on who has access
to how much and what kind of productive resources thereby bringing the
element of equity to the watershed management. The equity may have several
dimensions including intra generation distribution of human well being
across barriers of class, ethnicity and gender. Concerns about special or
locational inequality in the level of development require distributing fruits of
development equally in different regions. In the context of water availability
inter-sectoral equity also becomes relevant. Often, the prioritization of water
availability follows the following sequence namely; drinking water: water for
domestic use and for cattle: water required for eco system regeneration and
for livelihood activities: and surplus/extra water that could be used for cash
or commercial crops. The impact of watershed development on all the
dimensions of equity will be an important evaluating criterion of success of
the programme.
Participation
The approach followed in watershed development will see participation as a
goal of a developmental (decentralized) process in that it helps communities
make informed choice and also as a mean of more equitable, sustainable and
efficient outcome. The emphasis will be on creation or enhancement of
82

genuine participated democracy at the grass roots. Participation is seen as a
means to enable the local community to make informed choices and ensuring
more equitable, sustainable and efficient outcomes. However, it is important
to view critically the constituents of local community that are engaged in the
decision making process. General expectations are that homogenous societies
would respond very differently to opportunities of participation available
within the framework of watershed programmes as compared to
heterogeneous societies. Since, in their current form, the Watershed
Development Programmes necessarily require partnership in some form with
outside agencies (governmental and non- governmental organizations,
international donors, etc.), the nature of this collaboration is bound to affect
the efficiency of the participatory communities within the watersheds. In this
context, the increased importance of the institutions of local self government
Panchayats as brought about by the Hariyali Guidelines and further refined
under common guidelines is expected to change somewhat the participatory
dynamics.
7.3. Strategy
(a) Integrated Watershed Management
Watershed Management has evolved and passed through several
developmental stages. In the initial stages, it was confined to soil conservation
mainly handled through Agriculture and Forest Departments with little or no
involvement of people. During the second stage, it became land resource
management related, including activities with an eye on economic benefits. At this
stage, the focus was on beneficiaries. Under the proposed perspective plan, it is
intended to be made participatory and integrated watershed management with
involvement and contribution from local people. The emphasis will be on making
watershed natural source management as a part of local socio economic
developmental processes. The detailed project report will incorporate ways of
integrating natural resource management with socio economic development,
sustainable livelihood and poverty alleviation. Special attention will be given to
strengthening the capacity of local actors to manage the three main components of
83

watershed management namely land management, water management and biomass
management will be kept in focus.
The land management will incorporate major land characteristics like terrain,
slope, formation, depth, texture, moisture, and infiltration rate and soil capability of
the proposed project area. Necessary interventions of different kind like structure
measures, vegetative measures, production measures and protection measures will be
taken depending upon the sight requirement. Structural measures will include
interventions like contours bunds, stone bunds, urban bunds, compartmental bunds,
contours terrace walls, stream bank stabilizing, contour trenches, bench terracing and
check dams etc. Where watershed contain natural ecosystem like grass land, wet
lands, mangroves, marshes, water body, appropriate vegetative measures will be
planed to provide vegetative cover, hedges, grass land management, and agro
forestry etc. Linkage of watershed activities with appropriate agricultural practices
is an important dimension of the watershed management. The DPR prepared for
various sites will include appropriate production measures to improve farm
productivity like mixed cropping, crop rotation, cultivation of shrubs and herbs, use
of improved variety of seeds, cash crop cultivation and horticultural plantation.
Wherever needed, protective measures like land slide control, gulli plugging, run of
collection etc. will also be suggested. Adoption of all the above interventions aimed
at land management will be done in accordance with the characteristics of the land
taken for management.
Economic use of water and avoidance of affluence in use of water at
individual and community levels will be a major concern for water management
under this perspective plan. Water characteristics like inflows (specification, surface
water inflow, ground water inflow) water use (evaporation, evapotranspiration,
irrigation, drinking water) out flows (surface water out flow, ground water out flow)
storage (surface storage, ground water storage, root zone storage) are the principle
factors to be taken care of in sustainable water management. The broad intervention
for water management to be planned under the detailed project reports to be prepared
for each site shall be rain water harvesting, ground water recharge, maintenance of
water balance, preventing water pollution and economic use of water. Rain water
harvesting forms the major component of water management. The rain water
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collected can be recharged into the ground. Roof top water harvesting, diversion of
peremmial springs and streams into storage structures, farm ponds etc. will also be
used for rain water harvesting. Along site, water harvesting, appropriate measures
will be planned to ensure economic use of water. One such most effective measure is
often the introduction of user charges for water usage to recover operating cost and
at the same time introduce behavioral change among the water users by
incorporating cost of water in their usage decision.
Under the integrated watershed management, along site land and water
management, bio-mass management is an important area of concern. Under the
traditional approached followed so far in Himachal Pradesh, no efforts have been
made to establish clear cut linkage between land management, water management
and the bio-mass management. Resultantly the water management structures have
often ended up as stand alone intervention in any area without a clear linkage
without a clear forward and backward linkage in terms of land management and in
terms of bio-mass management. Both land management and a bio-mass management
outcome in fact becomes the key indicator of the watershed management
performance in any area. Appropriate biomass intervention namely eco preservation,
biomass regeneration, forest management and conservation and plant protection and
social forestry will be planned for each area.
(b) Participatory Watershed Development and Management
People participation and collective action are critical ingredients for
watershed management. The perspective plan aims at achieving the three core
elements of participatory watershed management namely sustainability, equity and
participation. Watershed level interventions have the potential of enabling
technological intervention to work better from both technical and social stand point,
given the strong interaction between different stake holders in the watershed
community. However, key challenges of ensuring appropriate and effective
participation are confronted in terms of ensuring equity in such negotiated outcomes
by making a move away from interest based to more equitable decision making. The
watershed action plans will be prepared at the grass root level i.e. by the Gram Sabha
with diverse users and with different priority and the levels of influence. Decision
making at the watershed level will only be done after watershed units have elected
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representatives and established a frame work for more Wide spread feed back and
validation. For this to be effective performance criteria for elected representatives
would be established prior to the identification of individual to avoid the tendency to
reflect existing power dynamics rather than robust leadership criteria. The second
strategy to be followed in this case would be greater devolution of decision making
and management within the watershed and moving to higher levels of negotiation
only in those case where absolutely necessary.
The second consideration when seeking effective participation in watershed
management is often the issue of developing a general watershed action plan versus
plan around specific issues. While the former enables an integrated approach to
planning, the latter is more suited to an emphasis on stake holder equity. This
involves the identification of sta_ke holders specific to each issue, followed by multi
stake holder’s negotiation at village or Watershed level. A stake holder approach
minimizes involvement to only those who have a direct stake in the issue at hand,
and lends itself more easily to effective representation since for any given issue the
individuals directly involved in negotiation will hold views that approximate those or
their constituents. The main objective of this component is to facilitate a
participatory process at the village level to establish Watershed Committees and
develop proposals within a budget envelope provided to each GP and then to enable
implementation of these plans through the GPs. The participatory decision-making
process, including all stakeholders in the village is critical to the implementation and
shall be achieved through the following sub components:
(i) Promotion of social mobilization and community driven decision
making
Key activities under this sub-component would include: (i) facilitation of
participatory watershed and development planning processes at the village level
with the involvement of all stakeholders and, using a budget envelope as the basis
(ii) identification of specific interventions for treatment of the Watershed on arable
and non-arable lands (m) identification of the vulnerable sections o f the village (iv)
integration of proposals into GPWDPs (v) identification of inter-GP areas and
planning for treatment of such areas by the Panchayats.
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(ii) Watershed treatments and village development
Communities at the village level will prioritize (with the help o f the ESMF),
implement, operate and maintain village development and watershed investments as
articulated in GPWDPs. However, all works will be implemented by GPs.
Communities will prioritize and implement sub-projects for soil conservation on
arable lands (e.g. bunds, vegetative barriers, ago-forestry, etc.); development of non-
arable communal and government lands (e.g. forest regeneration, pasture
development, silvi-pasture development, soil erosion bunds, vegetative barriers,
etc.); and, activities other than watershed-treatment related (e.g. upgrading of link
roads, bridle paths/mule tracks, potable water supply, etc.). Communities will be
required to contribute toward the costs of each sub-project and undertake to operate
and maintain the investments.
(c ) Enhancing Livelihood Opportunities
(i) Farming systems improvement
This sub-component will draw on the lessons o f both the IWDP and the DPAP.
It will focus on: (i) disseminate technologies and provide advisory services; (ii)
produce and distribute quality seeds and seedlings; and (m) establish linkages
between farmers and suppliers for processing and marketing of high value crops.
Farmers will be directly involved in identifying problems, establishing priorities,
and on-farm testing of technologies to enhance productivity. The major emphasis
will be the introduction o f off- season vegetables and high value crops. In order
to cover a part of the risk, the project will support all the inputs (seed seedlings,
bio-agents and bio-fertilizers) of the sub-projects, with the condition that the
land, labour, irrigation and farm yard manure will be provided by farmers. In
order to facilitate the production of marketable produce, the plan undertake
programs that demonstrate improvements in the productivity of crops already
cultivated in the area and the introduction of new high value crops (new varieties
of off-season vegetables, fruit crops, medicinal and aromatic plants will be
introduced based on agro-climatic factors, demand and assured market). Training
will also be provided in application of new technologies; training of para vets
and storage techniques etc.
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(ii) Value addition and marketing support
One of the often lacking areas in all farms related developmental programs is
absence of processing and marketing facilities. The experience of the State in
introduction of cash crops and Horticultural produce has been that in the absence
of such facilities either the farmers switch back to their traditional crops or put up
a pressure on the Government to purchase their produce through market
intervention mechanisms. Such an arrangement is not sustainable in the long run
especially with the resource crunch faced by the Governments at all levels, the
plan will support increased private sector involvement and public private
partnerships in agribusiness development. The project will establish an
agribusiness pilot that will be used to fund consultancies, studies and investments
that would: (i) identify potential rich market opportunities; (ii) establish links
with private sector entrepreneurs who could help in exploiting the market
potential; (m) disseminate appropriate information and technology to farmers to
help them to enter into production; (iv) co-finance sub-projects with private
sector entrepreneurs (on a one-time subsidy basis) for storage, processing and or
marketing infrastructure needed to exploit the market potential. This fund would
be administered in consultation with the GPs and communities and would
complement the needs identified during the village level planning process.
(m) Income generating activities for vulnerable group
This is designed to finance small income generating micro-enterprises for
vulnerable groups (women and landless), which will promote the project’s
objective o f equity and sustainable NRM. These SHGs would be identified
during the Watershed planning process. Training will be provided to vulnerable
groups to encourage their entrepreneurial development. The Income Generating
Activity proposals will be developed after the implementation 0 f the
Entrepreneurial Development Program (EDP) and the GPWDP will only reflect
the overall envelope and the target groups. The funds will be disbursed through
the GPs to the SHGs, who will manage them. Final criteria to prioritize proposals
for the SHGs funding will be developed. The funds will be disbursed in two
installments based on the implementation performance of the SHGs who are
managing the income generating activities.
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(d) Institutional Strengthening
i) Capacity building of Gram Panchayats and local community institutions:
Under this sub-component, the core administrative capacity of GPs in
planning, budgeting, financial management, implementation and reporting would be
strengthened. Capacity will also be built in other tiers of PRIs (block and district) as
needed to ensure efficient and effective functioning o f the project. However, the
initial capacity building strategy for the project will be focused on GPs and will
include programs for GP elected officials, community representatives, SHGs, NGOS
and the Watershed staff involved in project related activities. The capacity building
strategy focuses on: (i) enhancing technical skills in Watershed management; (ii)
improving level of information at the community level on the project and other
relevant issues; (m) training all stakeholders in applying the technologies; and, (iv)
institutionalizing a performance appraisal and reward system for the GPs and WMD
staff in the project. The Coordinator for Human Resource Development and Capacity
Building in the Directorate of Rural Development will he responsible for
implementing training and capacity building strategy in collaboration with other line
departments and training institutes. An Incentive Fund administered by the
Department for Rural Development and Panchayats, will be established to reward
better performing GPs based on clear objective criteria and thereby encourage
behavioral change.
(ii) Information, Education and Communication
This sub-component is designed to implement a strategy that identifies
specific audiences and develops targeted messages to increase general awareness
about the project, terms o f participation and overall transparency. The strategy
would target the general public and the state’s political establishment; staff who
would be implementing the project, NGOs, GPs, and, communities. The media
would include traditional folk theatre and dance, print media and audio-visual. The
Communications coordinator at the district would be responsible for the
implementation of this strategy.
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(m)Project coordination, monitoring and management:
This will finance organizational change management initiatives to realign the
WMD to the new implementation arrangements and the increased role o f GPs.
Under project monitoring, links would be developed between the MIS, GIS and
impact evaluation. Participatory monitoring of the project activities by the
communities would be introduced in addition to the tracking of physical and
financial milestones. This sub-component will also finance construction of office
and/or residential quarters for DPDs and MDTs if it is not possible to rent
appropriate office and/or residential space in nearby towns. Finally, the sub-
component will finance incremental operating costs of the project office.
(e) Monitoring and Evaluation
An effective monitoring and evaluation strategy needed to capture trends in benefits
capture and other social impact as they emerge. Without such monitoring systems in
place that make the distribution of benefits and social impacts explicit, it is likely
that current intervention cause problems for certain social groups and further existing
inequalities. Continuous monitoring also enables continuous (re-) planning; a pre-
requisite to adaptive management in that reality encountered during implementation
do not always reflect best approaches as prescribed early in the planning process and
therefore, require continuous adaptation. Appropriate socio culture, economic and
environmental indicators will be developed in each DPR with a definite time frame
to measure performance the socio culture indicators under the following heads will
be specially developed to ensure participation and equity:
0 Decision making power of the community;
‘ Empowerment of women;
‘ Formation of farmer groups/self help groups;
0 Change in ownership of land;
I Improvement in quality of life;
1 Harmonious social life.
The economic indicators would include factors required for livelihood and
economic well being of the people consisting of:
‘ Increase in income level;
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0 Availability of food and food security;
0 Improvement in the standard of living;
0 Off-farm income to family;
Q Improvement in rural economy;
Q Improvement and credit and market supports.
Environmental indicators would include tangible and non tangible factors
influencing the ecology of the community, for example, increase in productive
potential of source base, management of common property resources and
improvement in bio-diversity.
(f) Convergence
One of the important components of integrated watershed management is main
streaming the watershed planning and management by developing appropriate
interface with other ongoing developmental programmes. The possibilities of
identifying and deriving support from other line departments can be subdivided into
the following categories:
a. Infrastructure Development;
b. Productivity Enhancement;
c. Off Farm Initiative;
d. Livelihood Support;
e. Weaker Sections Support;
f. Quality of Life.
g. Capacity Building.
(i) Infrastructure Development
Among the major infrastructure activities that will be taken up within the
watershed areas are Construction of Roads and Provision of Irrigation Facilities.
Among the schemes that are currently handled by various departments and could be
tapped for supplementing resources are:
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Table-7.3. (i) . Infrastructure convergence frame Work
Sr.No. Activity Name of the Scheme Nodle Department
1. PMGSY PWD
Road CMGSY Planning
NREGA RD
2. Water Supply AWRSP IPH
3, [Employment generation NREGA RD
4. Irrigation Medium Irrigation, Flood
Protection, Lift Irrigation Scheme
Irrigation and Public
Health Department(IPI-I)
5, Marketing
Infrastructure
Vikas Mein Jan Sahyog Planning
SGSY RD
Local District Planning Planning
(ii) Productivity Enhancement
Majors aimed at productivity enhancement Will require interventions in the
form of soil conservation, soil quality improvement, improved seeds and fertilizers,
Farm technology equipments, changes in cropping pattem and multiple cropping etc.
Some of the existing schemes of the various departments are:
Table-7.3. (ii)- Schemes for productivity enhancement
1″
Z
9
Activity | Name of the Scheme Nodal Department
istribution of improved seeds Agriculture inputs Agriculture
U
Fertilizer Agriculture inputs Agriculture
!‘-’
Insecticide and Pesticide Agriculture inputs Agriculture/Horticulture
E”
4. Poly Houses Horticulture Technology Horticulture
Mission (HTM)
(m) Non-farm Initiative
One of the major causes of natural resources degradation is excessive
dependence on land and natural resources. Therefore, development of non-farm
sector activities is crucial to a sound natural resource management strategy. Among
the activities that could be started are:
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Table-7.3.(m)-Schemes for non-farm initiative
Sr. N0. Activity
Name of the Scheme
Nodal Department
l. Micro and Small
Enterprises
i)Rural Industrial Programm(RIP).
Rural Artisan Programme(RAP)/
ii)Prime Minister Employment
Generation Programme(PMEGP)/
m) Self Employment Scheme, Him
Swablambhan Yojana (HSY),
Laghu Vikray Kendre Yojana,
Interest free loan Scheme.
iv) Loan to OBC people on lower
interest (6%)
Industries
KBIB
SC/ST Corporation
Backward Classes
Corporation
2. Rural Tourism and
Home Stay Scheme
Tourism
Hospitality related
enterprises
(g) Livelihood Support
The average size of land holding is low especially in high hills of the State.
Terrace farming is widely practiced. Due to difficult terrain, road connectivity is not
always good and health infrastructure is poor. Drinking water and electricity
facilities are available to the majority of households. There are high dependents on
forests property and water resources. The best terms in this zone come from fruits, at
an average return of nearly Rs. 75000/- per ha. However marginal farmers depending
on subsistence agriculture produce at least four-five months a year. The food
insecure months are from January to April, September and October. The poor people
supplement their income from wage labour in mining, other labour Work under any
scheme of the State Government /GOI, in their adjoining local areas. Some villagers
are also supplementing their income by selling their livestock’s and their produce
such as of Goats, Sheep and wool, milk etc. Diary products consumption is less due
to low productivity of milk from local breed milch cattle’s.
On the whole, there is a dominance of marginal farmers who face several
problems including lack of irrigation, poor quality lands, fragmentation, Weather
shocks and in many remote locations poor access to state and marketing
infrastructure.
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The separate provision of funds to cover livelihood components to generate
extra income of the poor inhabitants in the rural area has been made in the common
guidelines for watershed development projects. However the state government is
committed to enhance the livelihoods opportunities in the rural area of the State by
providing sufficient water potential and other avenues in the field of horticulture,
forestry, Mushroom cultivation, sericulture, animal husbandry etc.
In the implementation of Watershed development projects the priority
would be the harvesting of rain water with active participation of village
communities. By creating irrigation potential, the coordination between the line
departments Who are associated with agriculture and allied activities will be ensured
to provide the latest technology and other available benefits to the watershed
community. Presently some schemes for the benefit of individual farmers in the field
of Agriculture, Horticulture Technology Mission, and NREGA etc are being
implemented in rural areas of the State. The other benefits for forward- backward
linkages to the rural families will be provided out of watershed funds for upliftment
of their socio-economic conditions. The assistance for poor people would be
provided not only in Agriculture and allied sectors, but due consideration would be
given to village and cottage industries, and small scale business activities. The
possibilities of marketing potential will be explored and the watershed community
will be motivated for growing of marketing based produce to get maximum
benefit.
(i) Weaker Sections Support
Particular attention needs to be given true address the problem of weaker sections of
the society namely SC/ST, Backward Classes, Women, BPL families and land less
households. The main departments catering to these categories under the existing
schemes are Welfare Department, Rural Development Department, Education and
Food Supplies Department. Among the schemes operated by these are:
94

Table-7.3.(g).(i)- Weaker section support
Sr. Activity Name of the Scheme Nodal Department
No. ‘
RD and Welfare
Department
IAY/AAY and Housing Scheme for
SC/STs for the Welfare Department
l. Construction of Houses
SGSY RD
2. ‘ SelfEmployment I
Free text books, scholarship scheme for Education Department
different categories of students, Mid-day
Meal Scheme, Computer Literacy.
3. Education and Trainee
Moduler Employable Scheme, Training TeChniCalEdu‘:ali°“
under different trades through ITI
(ii) Quality of Life
Improvement in Socio-economic indicator which is an important factor for
performance under integrated watershed management could only be achieved if the
activities contributing to improvement in quality of life could be integrated with the
watershed development plan. Among the main activities under this section would be:
Table-7.3. (g). (ii)- Schemes for improving quality of life
Sr. No. Activity Name of the Scheme Nodal Department
Maternal and Child Health ICDS Welfare
Preventive Health NRHM Health
F‘-’
Sanitation TSC RD
P’
Education SSA Secondary Education
P
(m) Capacity Building
Table-7.3. (g). (m)- Capacity building schemes
‘ Sr. No. ‘ Activity ‘ Name of the Scheme Nodal Department
l. skill up gradation SGSY RD
‘ 2. [Entrepreneurial Development Programmes ‘ EDP Training ‘ Industry & Tourism
95

Chapter -8
INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
The institutional model and implementation arrangements have been
developed to ensure the achievement of the project objectives in efficient and
effective way. In view of common guidelines for watershed development projects the
institutional arrangements at State; District, PIA and Panchayat level have been
designed.
8.1 State Level Nodal Agency (SLNA)
In pursuance to para 28 of the common guidelines for Watershed
Development Projects-2008, a dedicated State level Nodal Agency (SLNA) has been
constituted under the chairmanship of Chief Secretary to the Government of
Himachal Pradesh. A copy of notification is enclosed as Annexure-I
(a) Responsibilities and Role of State Level Nodal Agency
‘ To coordinate Planning, review and facilitate the implementation and
evaluate the progress of watershed development programme.
Q Support policy and institution development to harmonize watershed
development and natural resource management with the best practice.
0 Consider and approve the Project Proposal.
‘ Add and to amend the rules of State level Watershed Development Cell.
0 Secure effective coordination between different departments and other
0 Government]Government added Institutions for the benefit of achievements
of the objective to the society.
0 Preparation of perspective and strategic plan under Watershed Development
Programme on the basis of Plans prepared at the District level.
¢ Preparation of State specific process guidelines.
¢ Approve and finalized the list of independent Institutions for strengthen
capacity building at various level.
0 Approve Project Implementing Agency.
‘ Regular review of the on line monitoring system of the Department
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¢ Constitute and approved a panel of Independent Institutional Evaluators for
Watershed Projects in the State.
0 Perform such other functions as are entrusted to it under the guidelines.
I Under the over all control of SLNA the Department is proposed to constitute
State level Watershed Development Cell and State level Data Cell.
(b) State Level Monitoring/Evaluation Cell
As per para 26 & Z7 of common guidelines for Watershed Development Project a
team of 4 to 7 professionals from disciplines like agriculture, water management,
capacity building social mobilization, economic information technology,
administration , and finance and accounts will be engaged to assist the State Level
Nodal Agency. Requisite number of administrative staff will support this team of
experts. The numbers of officers/officials to be engaged will be decided in view of
the admissibility of the funds. Apart from above a State level data centre will be
created for technical support to district watershed development units all over the
State and to ensure the regular and quality on line monitoring of watershed projects.
The State Level Data Centre will be connected on line with National Level Data
Centre.
(c) Role and Responsibility of State level Monitoring and Evaluation Cell
‘ Prepare a perspective and strategic plan of Watershed Development of the
State and got approved in the meeting SLNA.
¢ Implementation of the project activities in true spirits primarily through the
Watershed Development Committees in conformity with development plan
and objective of the project.
0 Mobilization of the community of the selected watershed /Panchayat of the
catchments to participate in planning and implementation of the programmes
‘ To built the capacity of the staff on technical, financial, administrative and
managerial aspect of the programme through meeting, Workshop, training
and exposure visits at various level
Q Monitoring and review the programme on fortnightly basis and submission
of reports to the concerned quarters.
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¢ Ensure regular and quality on line monitoring of watershed project in the
State.
0 Provide guidance and support to Watershed Development Team and
Executive Agencies in Planning, technical aspects, financial aspects and
decision making process.
I Plan development and to implement livelihood plans at various watersheds of
the catchments through watershed development team.
Q Ensure proper financial managements system.
0 Approve a list of independent institutions for capacity building at various
levels within the State as well as outside the State.
‘ Constitute a panel of independent institutional Evaluator for Watershed after
concurrence and approval of Central Nodal Agency.
Q Consider and approve the projects as well as Annual Work Plan of the
programme.
0 Formation and strengthening of the existing and new community based
organization.
I Other important issues such as Vidhan Sabha matters, Audit and other
general correspondence with the GOI and different offices at State,
District and Block Levels.
8.2 District Watershed Development Unit (DWDU) at District Level
Presently the Watershed Development Programmes at District level are being
implemented through the DRDAs with the involvement of Panchayati Raj
Institutions and local communities. As per common guidelines for Watershed
Development Projects a dedicated District Watershed Development Unit (DWDU)
are proposed to be constituted in all the districts where the area of the District to be
covered under the Watershed Development Project is about 25000 Hector or above.
The officers/officials in the unit will be taken up either on deputation from line
departments of the State or recruited from open market on contract basis only after
keeping in view the qualification and expertise in related fields. The number of
officers/officials to be engaged will be decided as per admissibility of funds under
the programme.
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Role and Responsibility of DWDU/DRDA
0 Identify Project Implementing Agencies (PRIs) in consultation with
SLNA.
¢ Take up the overall responsibility of facilitating the preparation of
strategic and annual action plan.
‘ Providing professional technical support to project implementing
agencies in planning and execution of the watershed development
projects.
I Develop action plans for capacity building with close involvement of
resources organizations to execute the capacity building.
‘ Carry out regular monitoring evaluation and learning.
0 Ensure smooth flow of funds to watershed development projects.
0 Ensure timely submission of required documents to SLNA/ Nodal
Agency of the department at centre level.
¢ Facilitate coordination with relevant programmes of agriculture,
horticulture, rural development, animal husbandry etc. with Watershed
development project for enhancement of productivity and livelihood.
0 Integrate Watershed development project] plans into district plan of the
district planning committees.
I Establish and maintain the district level data cell and link it to the state
level and National Level Data Centre.
8.3 Project Implementing Agency (PIA)
The implementation of Watershed projects in different districts will be done
through the Programme Implementing Agencies (PIAs). As per common guidelines,
these PIAs may include relevant line departments, autonomous organization under
State/Central Govemment, Panchayat Samiti, Voluntary Organizations (VOs).
However, the selection of PIAs will be prefer on the basis of prior experience in
Watershed related aspects or management of watershed development and they should
be prepare to constitute dedicated Watershed Development Team. (WDT). In view
of common guidelines the PIAs would be decided by the State Level Nodal Agency
on the recommendation of District Watershed Development Unit.
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Role and Responsibility of PIAs
I Providing necessary technical guidance to the executing agency for
development plan through participatory rural appraisal (PRA)
exercrse.
I Preparation of Micro planning and detailed project report.
‘ Conducting the participatory base line survey and Capacity building
arrangement of village communities, Panchayats through meetings,
workshops, training, and exposure visits etc.
‘ Preparation of Action Plan for Watershed Development Programme.
‘ Convergence and networking with respective line department.
‘ Responsibility for planning and designing the implementation
strategy for enhancing livelihood sub component of the project.
‘ Guidance to the Watershed Development Committee in the formation
of the Watershed Action Plan.
‘ Formation of user groups and Self Help Groups.
‘ Coordinate and monitoring the implementation of the programme.
I Maintenance of project accounts.
0 Ensure the post project maintenance and sustainability of the assets
created under the project.
8.4 Watershed Development Team
After sanction of projects, the Watershed Development Team (WDT) will be
constituted at PlAs level from the field of Agriculture, Horticulture, Social Science,
Water Management, and Animal Husbandry Forestry etc. having professional
qualification and sufficient expertise. It would be ensured that at least one women be
selected as WDT member as per provision of guidelines. The role of the WDT
members would be to guide the Watershed Committees in the formation of Action
Plan, Preparation of Detailed Project Report, to provide technical assistance in the
execution of Works etc. The expenses towards the salaries of the WDT members
would be charged from the 10 % Administrative Cost admissible in the guidelines.
The training to the WDT members will be provided by the District Watershed
Development Units (DWDU) /DRDAs.
9
8.5 Institutional Arrangements at the Village Level and Peoples
Participation.
It will be the efforts of the department to implement the watershed
development Projects with active participation of local people. The Self Help Groups
(SHG) and User Groups (UGs) of local communities dependent on area would be
100

formed and assisted under livelihood activities. User Groups of the beneficiaries
would be constituted, those having land holding in the watershed area and will drive
direct benefit from the activity/work. These User Groups will be responsible for
operation and maintenance of all the assets created under the project.
(a) Watershed Committee
At the village level the Gram Sabha will constitute the watershed committee
comprising of at least 10 members from SHGS, UGs, Weaker sections of the village
etc. to implement the Watershed Projects with the technical supports of the WDT at
the grass root level. The Watershed Committee would be registered under the
Society Registration Act-1960. Where watershed projects cover more than one Gram
Panchayat, separate committee will be constituted for each Gram Panchayat. The
Gram Sabha will appoint any suitable persons from the village as the Chairman of
Watershed Committee. The Secretary of Watershed Committee will be a
independent paid functionary of the Watershed Committee and salary of the
Secretary will be charged from the administrative expenses.
(b) Role and Responsibility
0 Ensure quality works and implementation of the programme as per work plan.
0 Ensure proper maintenance of records of project activities and
Watershed Development funds.
¢ Convening meetings of Gram Sabha, Gram Panchayat Watershed
Committee for facilitating the decision making process of the
Programme.
0 Taking follow up action on all decision.
0 Ensuring payments and other financial transaction.
Q Maintenance and sustainability of assets created after completion of the
projects.
(c) Role of Gram Panchayat
The Gram Panchayat would have to perform the important role in the
implementation of projects and execution of the activities. The main function of the
Gram Panchayat will be to facilitate the convergence of various projects/schemes
besides supervise, support and advise the watershed committee and authenticate the
accounts/expenditure statement etc.
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Chapter 9
PROPOSED PLAN
As per provisions of the common Guidelines for watershed Development Projects,
the proposed area will be treated according to the funds provisions made by the
Government of India. The administrative expenditure such as salary/ honorarium to
the staff engaged in the implementation of Projects, contingencies and other
expenses of stationary, IEC activities etc. would be meet out from the provisions of
Administrative Head.
9.1 Monitoring and Evaluation
Monitoring is one of the most important components of the Watershed Development
Programme. The Department is of the view that independent dedicated Monitoring
Cell be include Within its purview that will handle all aspect of monitoring project
across the State. Its functions will include developing a Management Information
System on the basic data of the projects, canying out physical monitoring of the
project besides financial and social audits. The Perspective Plan is based on the
Watershed approach and hence the key focus of the project will be on the building
capacities of the people and the project organizations to achieve a truly demand
driven approach. This implies that the project has to adopt a flexible strategy to be
able to be responsive to the change.
The Project will support an integrated information management, monitoring and
learning system for assisting in effective implementation, facilitating inter-sectoral
coordination, and mainstreaming knowledge management. The objective of
monitoring , evaluation and leaming system is to (i) provide regular and timely
feedback to the project management and other stakeholders on the quality and pace
of project implementation; (ii) regularly assess outcomes and impact of the project
vis-a-vis the objective (m) facilitate inter-sectoral coordination and mainstreaming of
knowledge management ; (iv) provide effective use of leaming forum at various
levels to review project performance; and (v) facilitate appropriate and timely
decisions.
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9.1.1. Monitoring and Evaluation System.
The Monitoring and Evaluation system shall have five distinct components,
namely
‘ Baseline study- for assessing the pre-project conditions.
‘ Performance monitoring- Management Information System based input
system to track the progress and performance on a periodic basis.
¢ Institutional Performance monit0ring- Internal and External process
monitoring to track the processes (to provide leads and direction on the
progress towards the achievement of the various end results of the project
component) and Comprehensive group, self-monitoring system for tracking
institutional development at community based organizations.
Q Internal Learning- Internal management review and learning system
(monthly) review the implementation and monthly reporting by the project staff
at various level particularly at district, block and village level).
I Evaluati0n- External impact evaluation involving mid-term review and
impact assessment (by independent agency). Each evaluation will include physical,
financial and social audit of the work done and to assess the status of Watershed
related intervention as per procedure of new guidelines. The department has already
started the process to constitute the panel of reputed institutes/organizations having
sufficient expertise and infrastructure for National panel of evaluating agency as well
as for empanelment as evaluator for watershed development programme of the
State. The panel of such institutes/organization will be forwarded to the Ministry
after approval and concurrence of the State Level Nodal Agency.
Similarly the evaluation and impact studies will be carried out to ensure the quality
and benefit from the interventions carried out in Project areas. The Evaluation would be
carried through independent agencies approved by the State Level Nodal Agency and
Departmental Nodal Agency at Central Level. The Physical, Financial and Social Audit of
work done would be ensured under each evaluation. The concurrent and Post Project
Evaluation would be conducted to assess the Status of watershed related interventions. The
expenditure under this head will be restricted as per admissibility in the guidelines.
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9.2 Entry Point Activities:-
Under Entry point activities the priority would be to ensure the sufficient
water availability to the local community by revival of traditional water sources.
Repair, restoration and up gradation of existing common property assets like
bowries, tanks, well, pullies, community buildings etc. would be taken up. The
village level institutions such as watershed committees, self help groups and user
groups will be strengthen under this head. All such type of activities which will help
community participation in watershed development programmes will be covered
under this component. But it will be ensured that the expenditure under this
component may remain Within the prescribed ceiling i.e. 4%.
9.3 Capacity Building
The capacity building strategy and action plan of the project aims to build the
competence and capability of targeted village communities including the poor, their
organizations and the GP so as to collectively enable them to achieve the project
objectives.
The main objectives are as under:-
I Strengthening knowledge base.
I Increasing awareness
I Enhancing skills.
I Developing ability to train further.
I Developing share vision
I Developing confidence and self esteem.
The training, Workshop, Seminars, Exposure/Exchange visits, Demonstration, Tele-
conferencing, on the job support etc will be the tools for capacity building of all the
stakeholders. The capacity building needs of the various stakeholders and their
capacity building requirements are in table below:
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Table 9.3 Stakeholders and capacity building requirements
Project Stakeholder
C
ritical Capacity Gaps
Target Community
Participatory Watershed Development and Livelihoods Planning
Livelihoods Skills
Project provisions
GPs
Project Management (Planning and implementation)
Inclusive of the needs of the poor
Project provisions
Post Project sustainability and exist protocol.
Gram Panchayat
Committee s
Project Management (Planning and implementation)
Inclusive of the needs of the poor
Project provisions
Post Project sustainability and exist protocol
SHGs
Group Dynamics
Funds Managements
Marketing Awareness
User Groups
Planning, Implementation, Operations, Maintenance
Project provisions
Project Process
Watershed Dev. Team
Members.
Para-skill
Project provisions
Project implementing process.
Business promotion and marketing
Watershed Development Plans
Participatory Natural Source Management.
Project Implementing
Agency
Formations of Watershed Committees.
Institutional building
Community learning
Project provisions
Project process
Watershed Development
Committees
Community Mobilization &Community learning
Implementation Process
Project rule, Financial rules and budgeting process
Exit Protocol systems
Livelihoods enhancement
Business promotion
Marketing
Convergence
9.3.1 Strategies for Capacity Building
The various strategies that could be adopted for building the capacities of the various
stakeholders are as follows-
(i) Gradual scaling up- A phased approach for implementing the project in different
batches so as to provide opportunities to leam by experiences would be followed.
For the subsequent batches of GPs/WCS the previous GPs/WCS will serve as
learning grounds for building their capacities.
(ii)Experiential learning- The capacity building approaches will focus on all
opportunities of experiential learning including interactive learning and exposure
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visits .Reviewing and sharing of project learning will be an important element of CB
strategy.
(m) Internalizing capacities locally- For building the capacity of GP
members/WC members, SHG and UG members so as to empower the community
Organizations to manage their livelihood affairs by themselves, the funds Will be
provided as per provisions of guidelines
9.3.2 Capacity Building Programs
In order to accommodate the capacity building needs of all the stakeholders of the
project and also to meet the demanded capacity needs during the evolving later
stages of the project, the following broad capacity building programs have been
identified.
Table 9.3.2- Various Capacity Building Programs
Z Programs
Participants
Key Contents
Tools
l Sensitization
programs
Community, GP,WDC and PIAs
Innovative project
approaches and Key
Project Principles
Workshop
/campaigns
2 Induction
programs
Project Management staff and WDC
team members
Project principles,
community manual,
participatory
methodologies,
Livelihood planning
process, SHG formation
Training on COM,
Field
placementl village
immersion
programs
3 Orientation
programs
Empanelled appraisers outsource
technical service providers, resource
agencies, line department
Key Project Principles,
project institutional
model, project
processes
Workshops and
Field visits.
4 Thematic
Training
programs
Specialist in PlAs, WDC, GP office
bearers SHG/User groups office
bearers. professionals.
Social mobilization,
livelihood planning,
marketing, micro
finance, institution
building,
entrepreneurship,
procurement, accounts,
monitoring
Separate modules
on each thematic
areas, experiential
learning, thematic
workshop and
discussion forums.
5 Skill
building
programs
Service providers, community resource‘
persons (Livelihood) Project
professionals, community groups and
their leader, GP. Master trainers,
external resource persons, project staff
and WDC member, communication
team, skills for enhancing the
livelihoods of poor-poor, managerial
skills for community leader.
Accounting and
monitoring, planning,
community monitoring,
learning and reporting,
conflict resolution, joint
appraisal mechanisms,
negotiation skills,
operations and
maintenance
On the job training,
field based
training.
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Based on needs,the content and scope of the programs will be finalized at the levels
of the Secretaryl Director (Rural Development) office and Deputy Commissioner-
cum-Chief Executive Officer DRDAs. . Sensitization on the issues of gender,
environment, tribal etc. will be part of all the programs mentioned above.
9.3.3 Institutional arrangements for Capacity Building
The following arrangements for capacity building of project stakeholders will
be made.
9.3.3.1 State Level
The State level Resource Agencies will be utilized to train the State level and
District/Block level key staff and will hire appropriate physical facilities to
undertake state level training programs and workshops. Appropriate national level
institutions will be identified to run thematic training programs as and when required
which will also be followed by refresher programs. Periodic exposure visits will be
undertaken to learn from experience of similar projects being implemented in other
States. A National Level pool of resource persons will be identified to run workshops
and short-terrn programs for state level specialists.
9.3.3.2 Capacity building service providers at, State, District and Block Level.
The project will hire the services of capacity building agencies to plan and
implement capacity building activities at State, District, Block and Gram Panchayat
level. The primary task of the capacity building agencies will be to impart required
knowledge altitude and skills to the PIAs, WDT members and WDC Teams. In
addition, these agencies will design and implement specialized programs for GP and
Watershed Committees office bearers on a demand responsive basis. The agencies
will use wide range of capacity building tools and techniques including innovative
approaches. It will be the responsibility of the capacity building agencies to develop
the capacity building implementation plans and training materials based on
Community Operation Manual, Project Implementation Plan and other Project
Manuals. It will also be the entire responsibility of the capacity building agencies to
review the emerging capacity building needs evaluate the effectiveness of the
capacity building activities and to make appropriate changes in the training material
and capacity building action plan.
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The capacity building agencies will field a team of trainers at State/District level
comprising of all essential expertise required for the project. Regular monitoring of
the capacity building service rendered by the agencies will be reviewed at State as
well as District level. The capacity building agencies will sign performance-linked
contracts and the payments will be linked to the successful achievements of
milestones. The TOR for the capacity building agencies is to be developed.
9.3.3.3 GP level capacity building
The PIA will be responsible for building the capacity of the target poor, the
GP, Watershed committees, User Groups, SHGs etc. including providing
handholding supports. The capacity building at the GP level will primarily be on the
Community Operation Manual (COM). The COM will have all the details of the
project relevant to the community clearly explained and therefore, COM will be the
main resource material for training at village level to the community. In addition to
this, the other major focus of capacity building component at GP level will be
orientation of Gram Sabha and elected representatives to the project processes and
building capacity of 10-l2 paraprofessionals for each GP. As a part of capacity
building strategy at the GP level, the project will put special efforts on exposure
visits for community members.
Apart of Livelihoods component, the provision will be made for demonstration of
best practices for various livelihoods at the district/regional level. These funds can be
utilized to build suitable models within the reach of the poor in their neighborhood.
These sites will be used for exposure visits and influencing the poor/poorest to adopt
the best practices.
9.3.4 Indicative Modules for Various Capacity Building Programs.
Based on the project requirements, the various modules required for training
the project stakeholders have been categorized into l 1 generic modules. The
indicative contents in each of the modules have been fumished in table below.
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Table 9.3.4 In
dicative Modules for Various Programmes
Sr. No.
Module
Content
l
Understanding
Poverty,
Environment,
Ecology and
Development
Poverty- dimensions, coping mechanisms, poverty webs and vicious
cycles Participatory Identification of the poor
Development» process, dimensions, approaches
Delivery- roles of state, civil society and markets, functions, evo
and growths;
Government Programs- their approach, present programs
Vulnerability Sensitization- Gender, Tribal, Youth
Environment and Ecology
Watershed and Natural Resources
lution
2
Management Sills
Visioning- Strategic planning
Financial- Costing, Budgeting, Accounts, Financial Statement and
auditing
Markteting- Marketing basics, Market Intelligence, Consumer
Behaviour, Product,
Management, commodity Marketing-Forward Linkages
Project Management-Project Planning, Sequencing and activity
scheduling, Responsibility matrix. monitoring and evaluation
Human Resource Management-Monitoring. Team Building
Management, Performance Measurement, Review
Communications and Information Technology- Document
Written and Oral Communication, Written Analysis, Facilitation
and
ation.
3
Institution Buildin
E
Community Mobilization-process
Structure of the primary and federations of poor and their groups-
group dynamics. group development processes
Design Prnciples of the People’s Institutions
Promotion Process of the Institutions
Institution Development- Organization Development-life cycles
Systems for the Institutional Requirement- Statutory, Transparenc
Institution rating-credit rating, groups and federations rating
Conflict resolution and Accountability
Bylaws and Business Rules

4
Watershed
Development and
Natural Resource
Management
Watershed concept, micro-watershed, ridge-to-valley approach
Natural Resource Cycles
User Groups
Various elements of watershed development including soil and
moisture conservation
Operations and Maintenance
Ownership and access- individual, common and public properties
Enquiry considerations
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Engineering works
Rural Infrastructure
Fodder Conservation and Augmentation
Livelihoods, Micro
finance and Micro
Insurance
Livelihoods basics, concept, frameworks, Sectors, local economy
Livelihood mapping and analysis-tools
Livelihoods-value chains, sub-sector assessment
Livelihood Opportunities, New Livelihood Development Process
Feasibility, Viability and Cost-effectiveness considerations
Enterprises for livelihoods opportunities-management
Collective Enterprises for Livelihoods
Gender, Tribal, Youth, Disabled, Vulnerable and Environment-
Livelihoods
Marketing-Backward and Forward Linkages
Fund Management-Revolving Fund, Financing Livelihoods
Risk Management-Insurance, People Institution based Insurance,
Insurance»life asset, health etc. futures options
Project
Management and
Values
Project Scope, Objectives, Outputs, Components, Indicators,
Processes, Value Non- negotiable, key principles»Sustainability,
Equity and Productivity
Project Budget and Implementation Arrangements
Livelihood Skills
Sectoral requirements
Sectoral Understanding and Inputs
Participatory
Planning, Process
and Research
Participatory Identification of Poor (PIP)
Participatory Research- processes, tools, methodology, sampling
framework
Participatory processes- decision making, planning, monitoring,
evaluation, review
Visioning and
Strategic Planning
for Institutions,
Units and
Individuals
Strategic Management-Basics
Visioning, Development of Vision and Plans
Monitoring the Plans- progress-quantitative and qualitative
Leaming-feedback, review, view of poor
Individual
Development
Personality development, Career Development
Counseling, Monitoring
Development Worker- Characteristics, Love
Leadership-skills
Conflicts, Time Management
Specific functional
Knowledge and
Skills
Training Needs Assessment (TNA) and Training of Trainers (TOT)
Training specific to Functional Area at cluster, district and State levels
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In addition to the content of the modules, the mix of the knowledge, skills and
attitude needs to be fine-tuned for each of the various levels of the programmes.
Institution Development and Participatory Development Specialists and the Capacity
Building Agencies can further reinforce and detail the content with extensive
consultation based on the ground reality.
Project wise Detailed Project Report will be prepared by the concemed
DRDAs / PIAs under the technical guidance of Watershed Development Team
Members (WDTs) for integrated development of watershed area with active
participation of the watershed committee on the basis of perspective and strategic
plan of the State and procedure exist in the common guidelines for watershed
development project after PRA exercise and comprehensive beneficiary level
database separately for private and community land development with linkages to
the cadastral data base under overall supervision of the department. This will
facilitate spatial depiction of action plan. The DPR should include the basic
information on watershed including rainfall, temperature location including
geographical coordinates, topography , hydrology, hydrogeology, soils, forests,
demographic features, ethnographic details of communities, land-use pattem, major
crops & their productivity, irrigation, livestock, socio-economic status, institutional
mechanisms, micro watershed wise land classification, detailed mapping. The details
of expected User Groups and Self Help Groups , activities to be taken in the project
area, expected contribution of watershed development fund, information about soil
and land —use, existing assets related to water harvesting, recharging and storage etc
will be provided in the DPR. The problems in the project areas, and interventions
proposed to enhance the livelihoods will be specified in the report. Every detail
about the activities to be undertaken, financial projection and time table along with
technical details and drawing will be reflected in the DPR. Detailed mapping
exercise will also be incorporated in the report. The emphasis would be on the active
participation of community in decision making equity and sustainability of the
benefits. All the issues prescribed in the common guidelines will be kept in view on
finalization of DPR for the particular project.
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9.4 Work Phase
Under this component the objectives are:-
‘ Economic development of community through optimum and sustainable
utilization of natural resources like land, water, forest etc. to save environmental
degradation and employment generation through works and development of human
and other economic resources by promoting savings and income generation
activities.
¢ Restoration of ecological balance in the villages through soil and water
conservation measures leading to reduction in soil erosion, water conservation,
increase in vegetative cover etc. and sustained community actions to operate and
maintain created assets and further development of natural resources in the
watershed.
‘ Improvement of socio economic conditions of the village community
particularly the resource poor and the disadvantaged sections of the community such
as asset less, SC/ST and the Women through ensuring their effective participation in
the programme, more equitable distribution of the benefits of land and Watershed
resources development and biomass production and greater access to income
generating opportunities.
9.4.1 Activities
9.4.1.1Water Management Activities:
To improve the water availability in the project area by evolving various water
harvesting technologies and promoting optimal use of available water for the purpose to
improve the rural livelihood & economy of the farmers of the project area and to reduce the
chances of floods and soil erosion in the areas down below, the following activities are
proposed:
a) Rain Water harvesting. It is common that in the State like Himachal Pradesh, the
rain water flows top to down which generally run away from surface into deep drain in
Nallas and waste away. As such to conserve the rainwater for domestic as well as for
irrigation purpose the following rain water harvesting activities are proposed:-
i) Construction of Ponds/Tanks: The ponds are constructed by excavating earth and
forming embankments with stone lining to harvest rainwater. An approach path with stone
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pitching is provided in these ponds. Size of these ponds depends upon catchments area and
space available. The ponds are main source of rain water harvesting in rural areas because
the water stored in the ponds are used by the villagers not only for irrigation purposes but
also for their domestic and cattle use. These ponds a.re also helpful in recharging of ground
water table. The irrigation tanks to provide the irrigation potential in watershed areas will be
constructed keeping in view the suitable sites, availability of water and provisions of funds
in the guidelines. No doubt with the construction of ponds and tanks the harvesting of rain
water will be ensured and with the recharging of traditional water sources the problem of
drinking water in project areas will be reduced.
ii) Rooftop rainwater harvesting structures: The Government is very keen to construct
maximum roof rainwater harvesting structure to meet out the drinking as well as domestic
needs . These are underground stone masonry tanks in which roof run off are lowered
down through pipes for kitchen gardening and domestic use etc. is having capacity of 9 to 10
cum. Such type of activities will also be given due consideration in the implementation of
watershed development projects in rural areas of the State.
m) Dams: The soil conservation and rain water harvesting are the major component for
treatment of area under watershed development projects. The construction of dams will be in
the priority areas to harvest the rainwater and to check the soil erosions of the area
concerned. Keeping in view the geographical conditions and position of sites the following
type of dams will be constructed in the watershed areas.
(a) Earthen Dams: These are constructed with rammed earth and a central core wall of
some impervious material across the nallah having slope less than 5% and have sufficient
pondage on the u /s side. Suitable spillway is provided to dispose of the surplus run off.
Harvested water is used for providing irrigation, development of fish; cattle’s drinking etc.
height of dam depends upon water demand. storage, catchments areas etc. But generally
average height proposed is 6.00 meters.
(b) R.C.C. Dam: These types of dams are constructed of mass concrete where foundation is
rocky & cross section of nallah is small and stone aggregate is cheaply available. In these
types of dams spill way is provided within the dam body.
(C) Masonry Dams: These dams are constructed of stone masonry at places where stones
are cheaply available as compared to stone aggregate. The purpose and size of the masonry
dam are same as that of RCC Dam.
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b) Water use
9.4.1.1.2 Minor Irrigation Activities
The irrigation is the major component that play pivotal role to improve the
agriculture horticulture production and attractive income generation to the watershed
communities, The proposed activities under this component are:
i) Lift/Gravity irrigation scheme: In take structures are constructed at the available Water
sources from where it is taken to the fields either by lifting or by gravity through irrigation
channels and accordingly the scheme is called lift or gravity irrigation scheme. In case the
discharge at the source is not sufficient to meet the requirement, storage tanks are
constructed from Where the stored water is recycled to the command areas.
ii) Makowal type structure: At locations Where river beds are generally sandy and an
impervious layer lies at a small depth, harvesting of sub-surface flow is done by construction
of a head wall across the nallah up to the impervious layer, a water collection chamber with
filters and Wing walls. Water from the water chamber goes to the storage tank constructed on
d/s side banks from where it is delivered to the fields through pipes/irrigation channels.
m) Irrigation channels (kuhls): Under this activity, lining of existing water channels is
done with cement concrete or stone masonry in cement mortar so as to reduce the water loss
due to seepage and more area is brought under irrigation. Size of channels depends upon the
availability and requirement of water.
9.4.1.l.3 Snow Harvesting Activities:
From climatic to geographic to human-induced challenges, the hardship for livelihood and
habitation in cold deserts of the State are one of the most acquit and part of the solutions lays
harvesting snow in sensible Way. Harvesting snow in this region is a way to rehabilitate the
land for crop growth. It can bring live to cold desert and renewal traditional heritage as an
example of sustainability that all of us can learn from globally.
Snow harvesting requires the construction of pit, generally ranging in size from
about 6 to 8 meters in dia-meters and l0 meters in depth. This pit is heavily compacted and
the collected snow is dumped into the pit to a depth of 2 to 3 meters. The compacted snow is
covered with the earth, which acts as an insulator and a bamboo tube is placed about 50 CM
about the base of the pit to serve as an outlet. As the snow melt around the bamboo pipe
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water tickles along with bamboo and into a pot beneath the outlet. This technology can be
effectively implemented at small community levels.
All the works/activities under Non-arable Land Treatment will be identified in
micro watershed basis as a part of watershed planning and will be implemented through
Watershed Development Committee(in the jurisdiction area of Watershed Committee with
technical support from the Project staff) and by the Project staff.
Since the objective of the Project is to reverse the process of degradation of the
natural resource base, soil and water conservation measures will receive priority. The basic
principle of ridge-to valley approach in watershed management will be followed. As such,
treatment of the catchments area before or along with the development of water resources
will be the essential process for Project implementation. The soil and water conservation
measures will be areas specific, need based and will be decided for specific catchments area.
Maximum importance will be given to vegetative and engineering measures for
enhancement of livelihood of local communities.
9.4.1.2.1 Afforestration
Since the rural population of the state depends mostly on forest to meet their fuel and fodder
needs, due to which there has been gradual depletion of forest wealth in the Himalayan.
Afforestation is thus essential for the sustainability of Himalayan ecosystem. The forest
blank are potential area for carrying out afforestation under which mix spices are suggested
in various patches mainly to produced multi purpose forests products to improve the
economic status of the watershed community.
The catchments area treatment will receive priority over general improvement of
forest area. The treatments will be site specific and will include not only tree plantation but
also improve the grass production which is more attractive to the community due to quick
and visible benefits. Concept of Ridge-to-Valley treatment is to be followed strictly.
The plan of work and selection of tree and vegetative species will be the choice of
the community/GPs and execution will be done by the GPs/WC.The Watch and ward of
plantation, to ensure the effective use and maintenance would be the responsibility of
GPs/WCs. The need—based training to the Project staff and local community will be provided
under this component. The treatments in inter-GP areas (i.e. those areas outside the
jurisdiction of GPs) will be executed by the Project Implementing Agency.
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i) Rehabilitation plantation (Normal and lantana):
The objective is to improve, restore and maintain the stocking of desired species in the
degraded forest areas where natural regeneration is deficient or absent. Temporarily un-
stocked-forests, away from habitations and inter G.P areas will be taken up for treatment.
Indigenous species or specie growing under similar habitat condition elsewhere will be
preferred.
ii) Conservation plantations:
The objective is to raise productive plantation in the form of three tire combination
of grasses, shrubs and trees to check, soil erosion by both falling and flowing water, promote
in situ moisture conservation and improve soil fertility, productivity and biodiversity.
Ravines, erosion prone areas, large slips and catchments of reservoirs and dams,
water harvesting structures will be taken up for treatment with species of soil conservation
base of thick foliage. Efforts to control lantana will be made by special treatment of cutting
twice a year till there is enough vegetative cover to suppress it.
111) Community Plantation:
The productive plantation of grasses and trees with people’s participation for augmentation
of availability of fodder, fuel and small timber in the rural areas will be raised. Reducing the
pressure on forestlands, Fringe areas between forests and habitation, common lands and
wastelands will be taken up for treatment with species preferred by the local community.
iv) Development of Non Timber Forest Produce:
Keeping in view the geographical conditions and marketing potential, the medicinal grass,
shrubs and tree species of economical importance to augment the rural house hold income
will be introduced. Choice of species will be according to locally factors, choice of villagers
and marketing possibilities.
v) Nursery raising:
Under this component a centralized nurseries are raised at—least on 2 hac of land each in
order to ensure adequate and low cost supply of desired spices for plantation purpose. It is
also proposed to setup decentralized nurseries particularly in distance located watershed
where the cost of transporting the plants become uneconomical so that the area proposed to
cover under a forestation sector can be treated more effectively
With the active participation of watershed communities, the nurseries will be established
with modern techniques to ensure the quality planting material for plantation in watershed
areas.
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The capacity building measures will be initiated under the project to enhance the capacity of
User Groups to collect and market the NTFPs, and sub-projects/activities will be
implemented to encourage the plantation of medicinal and other high value crops- especially
short duration species- to make the forestry plantation as an attractive income-generating
component for the community.
9.4.l.2.2 Pasture Development:
With increase in cropping area under vegetable production (300% increase) alternative
sources of fodder are shrinking and thus pressure on natural pastures is increasing. Natural
grasslands and pastures are the major sources of fodder for wild animalsl cattle and play
critical role in livelihoods of transhumants and locals alike. The production of dry grass
ranges from lO-I5 quintal/ha, which can be raised upto 150 q/ha with better management.
Grasslands are facing major threats from invasion of weeds rendering them unproductive
and women do not prefer cutting grass in such areas. The problem of grazing is further
increased due to stopping of winter grazing facilities of transhumants, which were earlier
available to the grazers of the state in adjoining states and the flocks of these grazers had to
be accommodated in the state for winter grazing. Natural pastures are reported to be
overgrazed to the extent of three times their carrying capacity. As already mentioned in
Chapter VII, an area of 1515011 hectare is permanent Pasture and other grazing lands in the
State which is roughly 27 % of total geographical area. Such huge portion of land ment for
permanent pasture can not be overlooked for development under watershed development
programme. Thus the Pasture lands will be developed by silvipasture methods including
plantation of leguminous species, nutritious grasses and other economically useful species
with active participation of village people to ensure the sufficient availability of fodder
through out the year. By sufficient quantity of fodder the Animal Husbandry Sector will
definitely be strengthened and quantity and quality of milk production, wool production,
will also be increased substantially in rural areas of the state. The developed pasture land
will be protected by barbed wire fencing and social fencing as suitable for the area and
undesired bushes and weeds and other grasses with less nutrients particularly lantana bushes
besides being harmful for the grazing animals will also be removed and area will be covered
with improved quality grasses and fodder tree plantation.
9.4.2.3 Soil Conservation Activities:
i) Drainage Line Treatment:
To facilitate the establishment of vegetation or to provide protection at points cannot be
adequately protected in any other way. The erosive velocities of run off are reduced
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manifold by flattening out the steep uniform gradient of the gully by constructing a series of
checks dams (commonly known as check dams) with locally available material from top to
bottom. Activities proposed under this component are:
ii) Brush Wood check dams: In gullies having side slopes less than 45 degrees, poles of
about 7.5 cm diameters are driven into the ground in a single or double row across the nalla
at right angle to the flow. The brushwood is packed against the u/s face of the poles.
m) Contour Trenching -Contour Trenches is excavated along the uniform level across the
slope. Bunds are formed down hill along the trench with material taken out of them. The
main idea is to create more favorable moisture conditions and, thus accelerate the growth of
the plated trees. Plants are put on the trench side of the bunds along the berms. The excess
runoff is conveyed through a vertical disposal drain.
9.5. Livelihood Component
In Himachal Pradesh 90% population in rural areas dependent on Agriculture, Horticulture,
Animal Husbandry and other traditional activities like weaving, wood craft work, etc.
Hence, the focus under watershed development will be to improve the socio—economics
conditions of the community of rural areas. In the common Guidelines for watershed
development Projects, specific provisions of outlay have been kept for livelihood
component.
In certain pockets of Himachal Pradesh, it is feared that the crafts like Metalcraft.
Ornaments, Wood Carvings, Wood Turnings, Kinnauri Shawl Weaving, Traditional Foot-
wears, Embroidery, Paintings etc. have either gone extinct or are on the decay. Besides their
employment potential these crafts depict the aesthetic genius and technical competence of
the craftsmen of the Pradesh.
Livelihood is a key component of the household economy in Himachal
Pradesh. It is source of additional income to farming households, especially the
poorest of them. About 73% total rural household in India keep and own livestock of
one kind or another to drive an average 20% of their income from this source.
Women provide nearly 90% of all labour for livestock management. The entire
rural economy of the State Centers on Agriculture, Horticulture, Animal Husbandry,
Sheep and Wool Development, Forests, Fishery, Poultry, Bee Keeping. Floriculture,
Mushroom cultivation, Sericulture. Mining etc. Livelihoods dependent upon Forest
goods and services are very high in many areas. Total rain-fed conditions and lack of
access to markets alone (despite their large landholdings and greater livestock
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numbers) can make the people of such areas much poorer than those Who have small
holdings but live in the valley.
Under Watershed Development the productivity, enhancement and livelihood will be
given priority alongwith conservation measures. The systematic approach would be adopted
for resource development in order to promote farming and allied activities, by resource
conservation and regeneration. Suitable water sources are to be created to ensure irrigation
for the agriculture and horticulture crops round the year for creating community tank,
assistance will be provided to the community/Group of farmers as per provision of the
guidelines, besides providing assistance for maintenance and construction of ponds, wells.
Apart from developing Water sources to ensure round the year irrigation. The use of plastics
for on farm management of water has gained significant importance in recent years. The
plasticulture applications include water distribution network through plastic pipes, plastic
sprinklers, micro irrigation, micro sprinkler, nursery bags, green house, net structures, walk
in and low tunnels, plastic mulching etc. Drip irrigation is useful from the point of view of
judicious utilization of scarce surface and ground Water resources.
In the rainfed areas the animal resources are major source of income and will be integrated
with Watershed Development Projects so that a comprehensive animal husbandry
component would contribute significantly to ensuring a better and sustainable livelihood for
the people of the Watershed / rainfed areas. Watershed approach is gaining importance is
planning and implementation of natural resources management programmes. Such approach
will be used to check soil erosion and denudation of catchments areas of important river
systems for mitigating floods, landslides and for reducing siltation. Synergies between
concerned Government Agencies, PRIs and NGOs will be developed for supporting
watershed approaches for natural resources management. This will be coordinated through
nodal agency. The state will explore the potential of market-based infrastmctures for
facilitating protection and development. The Government will also liaison with other
mountain state in the country to explore market or ensuring payment for watershed services
to the State and village community for protecting, managing and developing Watershed.
(a) Livelihood Frame Work:
‘ Choosing the right livelihood activities for intervention through techno-
marketfeasibility.
0 Choosing an appropriate form of household level groups to mobilize.
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0 Choosing an appropriate structure at the cluster level to federate village level
organizations and identify what they should do collectively.
‘ Identifying a suitable market to sell the products.
‘ Ensuring adequate finance to operate the whole chain from farm to market.
(b) Institutional Building
0 Promoting/strengthening Community Groupslinstitutionsl User Groups, Self-Help
Groups (SGHs), particularly of the poorl Women.
0 Promote and support the federations (of SHGs, CGs, User Groups).
0 Capacity building of PRIs and other local village level institutions to Plan,
Implement and maintain the assets created under watershed Development
Programmes.
I Building the skills and capacities of the poor and their service providers.
‘ Sensitizing line departments and banks to extend their moral suppon and
responsive behavior according to the needs of inhabitants of the watershed area.
I Organize Exposure visits for community leaders and representatives of the
federations, GP representatives and the project staff.
(c) Livelihoods Gaps/Opportunities
Since the project’s livelihoods interventions would target the poor sections, it
become critical to define who will be those poor since many of the criteria for defining and
understanding poverty at the village level may not be uniformly applicable. For instance, at
high altitude, remote village or Panchayat land holdings may be comparatively larger than
the valleys or livestock numbers may be greater, but total rain— fed conditions and lack of
access to markets alone can make the people of such areas much poorer than those who hold
less land but live in the valley. For the marginalized groups who are generally the poorest,
traditional occupations like grazing the village livestock, fuel wood and fodder collection,
tree cutting and timber conversion, NTFP collection, etc. still form major livelihood.
The Gram Panchayat with the help of SHGs, Professionals and WDC, will initiate
participatory process for preparation of Watershed Development Plan for the GPfMicro
Watershed. This plan will be a result of livelihoods analysis that include resource
mapping/assessment, analyzing existing livelihoods and new livelihoods opportunities
against items like availability of raw materials, Skills available, existing livelihoods, existing
Market demand, Marketing facilities within and outside the village, transportation networks
etc. Potential livelihood opportunities for CGs will also be identified during this process.
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Natural resources form the livelihood basis for most people of the state. There is a
high degree of dependence on these resources and as a result often conflicts are observed
between resources managers and other stakeholders. With the active involvement of PRI,
SHG and USGs all the conflicts will be resolved by introducing equitable distribution
system.
9.5.1. Livelihood Activities
i) Agricultural! Farm Sector activities: Out of total 55.67 lakh hectare area of the
state, 5.82 lakh ha (12%) is net sown area out of which 82.3% is rain-fed area. Ninety
percent of the population (mainly women) is engaged in agriculture. The climate of the State
is suitable for growing non —seasonal vegetables and there is sufficient scope for increase in
production of off-season vegetables under watershed development projects. Similarly, the
production of cereals and pulses can be increased with the interventions under of watershed
management.
Production of cereals and pulses has increased from 923 thousands tones to 1446
thousand tones over last 30 years but during the same time period, total cropped area
declined marginally from 874 thousand hectare to 822 thousand hectare. Area under
vegetables has registered an increase of 300% during the last three decades. For traditional
crops, fertilizers use is generally 40 kg/ha, whereas for both HVC and fruits, this is up to 60
kg/ha. Agricultural practices are contributing to soil erosion and people are facing marketing
related challenges. These gaps will be bridged through implementation of watershed
development projects.
This subcomponent will improve cropping systems through promoting adoption of
new agronomic practices, crop diversification into high-value crops, reducing post-harvest
losses, and increasing value-addition. It will also improve water availability in the Project
area using evolving water harvesting technologies and promoting optional use of available
sources. The activities such as Land Development and to introduce improved cropping
system, Introduction of High—Value Crops/varieties, Improve Cropping Systems
(Horticulture), Homestead Horticulture and High Yielding Cultivars will be introduced in
the watershed areas. The Agriculture will continue to remain the main source of income for
the community in the Project area, support will be provided for the traditional crops as well
as the High—Va.lue Crops (HVCs).
While preparing the DPR the main focus will be given for the land development
activities particularly for the development of lands of weaker section with the active
participation of the beneficiaries. The activities such as protection of soil erosion and
introduction of vermin-culture will be given priority under watershed development within
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the prescribed limit of outlays as per common guidelines for watershed development. The
convergence of other on going schemes relating to area development and poverty alleviation
will also be taken into account on formation of action plan. Major emphasis will be given
on the production of HVCs especially for those areas where new irrigation resources will be
developed. This will include off-season vegetables, spices, floriculture, medicinal and
aromatic plants. For vegetables and spices where the local market is available or can be
stored before sale, demonstrations will be laid out in an area of maximum 0.2 ha for one
family. Besides the seed planting material, training/exposure visit, demonstration will be
provided to build the confidence and know-how about the latest technology.
For HVCs such as medicinal and aromatic plants which have no local market and
the produce has to be partially or fully processed, a strategy will be developed to identify a
new potential crops which: (a) can be successfully cultivated in the Project area; (b) perfect
production technologies are available; (c) quality seed and planting material can be made
available in time; (d) facilities exist for processing or can be made available if essential
before the produce can be marketed; and (e) assured markets are available (specific trader
with commitment and an important stakeholder). Following will be the approach to facilitate
introduction of such crops:
To assure minimum marketable produce, cluster approach will be followed and if
required clusters will be federated on commodity basis. Emphasis will be on value addition,
organic farming and IPM besides field demonstrations with necessary inputs including seed
and planting material support for efficient use of water through sprinkler and drip irrigation,
poly houses and processing will be provided following the basic principle of subsidy for
individuals and the group. This will be complemented with the existing practice in the State
by making suitable amendments;
Farmer’s nurseries will be encouraged through training and providing support on
cost sharing basis for greenhouse, plastic tunnels etc. The benefits of green houses for high
breed vegetables, floriculture and for nursery rising will be admissible to the fanners from
project funds as per provisions exist under Horticulture Technology Mission.
The support will be provided for the introduction of fruit crops in terms of quality
seedlings for a family with the condition that all other practices will be implemented by the
beneficiary as per agreed technology.
ii) Animal Husbandry and Diary Development: Rising up of livestock is an integral
component of rural economy in Himachal there is a dynamic relationship between common
property resources such as forest, water and grazing land, livestock and crops. Livestock
depend to a certain extent on fodder and grass grown on common property resources as Well
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as on crops. At the same time the animals returns, fodder, grass and crop, residues to the
common property resources and fields in the form of manure and provide much needed
draught power. The contribution of major livestock production during the year 2006—2007
was 8.72 lacks ton of Milk, 1605 tones of wool, 77.00 Million eggs and 31110 ton of meat
which will like to be of the order of 8.73 lacks tones of milk, 1615 ton of wool, 80.00
Million eggs and 31 15 ton meat during 2007-2008.
Comparison between various livestock censuses in H.P is given in Table below.
Table 9.S.1.(ii) Livestock population in Himachal Pradesh
Name of livestock Livestock census
1987 1992 1997 2003 2007
(inlakh)
Cattle (Cows&Bulls) 2,24 4,815 2,165,034 2,001,826 2,196,538
IQ
2.78
Buffaloes 794991 03549
\l
O\
52373 73229
\l
.\’
o\
no
Sheep ll 12768 1078940
08831 906027
\o
>5
0
Goats 1120139 1118089
0
46529 1115587 12.41
Total 5272713 1 5065617 4509559 1 4991381 1 51.82
The perspective plan laid emphasis on the livestock sector and established Cows
semen processing lab for breed improvement, emphasized mineral-mixture feed
supplements, provided chaff cutters, and promoted stall-feeding and other facilities to the
farmers in project areas as per admissibility in the guidelines and in other on going schemes.
The main activities which will be considered under Watershed Development Project
to enhance livelihood are as under:
Himachal Pradesh has no recognized breed of cattle and buffaloes and the livestock
population mostly comprise of non-descript type with relatively low milk production
potential. The productivity of animals maintained under village conditions is comparatively
low. Cattle and buffaloes rearing for milk production is the prominent animal husbandry
occupation of the rural people and 90% of these nlral households are engaged in keeping the
livestock for supplementing their source of income and nutrition,
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In predominately agrarian economy of the State, agriculture and animal husbandry is
the main stay for more than 80% of the rural people. The agriculture in general is restricted
due to hilly-terrain, full of climatic hazards and small and scattered land holding with limited
irrigation. Besides, agriculture, the farming families are having livestock as a primary or
secondary source of earning from the sale of livestock and their produce such as milk, milk
products, wool mutton etc. As a result of the ongoing cattle breeding programmes, the
average milk production of cross breed cow is very low per day. The department has planed
to increase the population of crossbreed cows from the present level in order to enhance the
milk production substantially per day. The milk production shall be achieved by
supplementing the present infrastructure by providing l0O% breeding facility through the
artificial insemination. Milk production shall be simultaneously sustained by boosting fodder
production by cultivation in the field during both the Rabi and Kharif fodder production
season for which a timetable for green fodder production round the year shall be evolved.
Improved fodder seeds shall be distributed to the identified farmers as per provision of the
guidelines so that the farmer grow maximum green fodder as a cash crop to exploit milk
production potential of a cross breed progeny. Factors like cattle breed, feeds and fodders,
age variation, water supply, clean and hygienic sheds, disease free status, macro and micro
nutrient level, stage of milking and frequency of milking are responsible for variation and
production of milk, which needs to be taken into consideration of improvement under one or
the other components for ensuring maximum level of production of milk. To promote these
activities Self Help Group/Society Mode approach can be given emphasis so as to make
them self —reliant and help them grow and progress on sustainable basis. However, majority
of the beneficiaries will be from BPL families giving at-least 60% representation to women
and SC/ST families but the non BPL families can be considered for benefits as admissible
under the common guideline for Watershed management.
The main objective of this venture is to develop the milk production and to generate
self-employment potential. To ensure the availability of fodder during dry season and to
facilitate the weaker section of the society, the provision of fodder stores and cattle sheds
can be considered The milk so produced shall be marketed directly by the self-help groups
or through the already existing net work of Milk Society / Milk Federation
(m) Sheep and Goat Husbandry:
Sheep and Goat farming is a traditional occupation of economically weaker
segment of the society having twin purpose i.e. Wool development and meat
production particularly in Tribal belts and remote areas of the State. Comparatively,
lower body sizes of the two species and their adoptability to vide range of agro-
climatic conditions have rendered them suitable for poor farmers. These animals are
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predominantly maintained under extensive range management on community range
land, cropped land after harvesting of standing crops and forest under mixed grazing
conditions. The management of small ruminants does not required specialized skills;
the surplus labour is gainfully employed for management and upkeeps of the
animals. In the State of Himachal Pradesh, the organized breeding programmes,
feeding management, husbandry practices, health coverage and marketing linkages
are not adequate.
The National Institute of Nutrition has recommended that a balance human
diet should comprise of ll KG of meat per annum. The available figures show that
the current availability of meat is only 2.26 KG. Therefore the rapid increase in meat
production is the necessity. But the lack of technical know how, improved breed and
lack of marketing awareness are the main hurdles which are also effecting the
economic health of particularly those families which entirely depend upon this
activity. In order to boost and make this venture successful and more economic generating
factor the following activities are proposed under this component:-
¢ To supply the veterinary facilities and equipments.
‘ To improve breed through cross breeding with improved quality breed.
0 To impart training and technical know how to the breeders in order to
improve their skill in sharing and breeding etc.
0 To establish wool research and quality control laboratories for research
and extension work in wool.
‘ To established wool procurement and grading centers.
I To initiate welfare measures for sheep breeders.
Q To facilitating marketing of wool within a State and outside the State.
0 To promote production shearing, procurement and processing of the wool.
(iv) Rabbit Rearing:
In Himachal Pradesh because of ideal agro-climatic conditions, Rabbit
Farming has proliferated in hilly areas, which has opened opportunities of self
employment to the educated youths in particular and to others in general. Although
Rebbitary is of recent orgin as an industry yet has gradually acquired the status of
full-fledged, self sufficient industry equipment with many fold sophistication
including breading, production feed manufacturing, pharmaceutical and equipments.
The majority of people In the State have under taken the Rabbit Rearing for wool
production rather to have Rabbit meat.
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With import of German Angora strain by HP Govemment in l986 the
advanced scientific proven techniques also flowed in Rabbit Rearing. It is obvious to
mention that Rabbit Fanning is gaining popularity in cooler and temperate part of the
State. The profitability of Angora farming generally depends upon quality and
quantity of Wool produce. To ensure optimum production of quality Wool planning
and implementation of breeding, general management, veterinary health cover
extension and marketing are of utmost importance. The Angora Wool marketing
reveals that the prices of Angora wool fluctuate a lot, as such proper planning and
policies required to be formulated that wool production in country encouraged and
import duties should be imposed on import of Angora wool and its products.
In feasible areas of the State the Rabbit Rearing would be boosted by
educating the people to adopt this activity for additional income generation
resources. The provision of funds for purchase of improved breeds of Angora Rabbit,
shedsl cages etc. beside other inputs will be kept in the DPR as per provision of
guidelines. But the quantum of subsidy will be fixed as admissible under other
similar ongoing schemes in the State. These activities will also be linked to the loan
facilities from the commercial / cooperative banks if needed. The best marketing
facilities will also be ensured to provide maximum benefits to the beneficiaries under
this activity.
(v) Poultry Farming: In the State of Himachal Pradesh, Poultry Farming has shown vast
potential of self employment opportunity and augmenting the nutritional status of the rural
population by enhancing the availability of proteins in the diet at a reasonable cost in view of
decreasing trend of per capita availability of pulses.
The Poultry Farming in Himachal Pradesh play an important role in improving the
socio economic status of rural population particularly the landless because Poultry Farming
requires minimum capital and ensures quick returns. The sale of eggs on day to day basis
helps in increasing crop production through purchase of essential inputs such as seeds and
insecticides etc., while the broiler faming provide handsome return for major investments at
the farmers level. Therefore, need to start a chicken scheme in rural area under Watershed
Development Programme especially of dual purpose variety, efficient for both egg as well as
meat production in the State of Himachal Pradesh has been felt to make the rural inhabitants
especially poor families self dependent. The people of Himachal Pradesh prefer quality units
of small size i.e 50 to 100 birds each rather then big units. The State Department of Animal
Husbandry has also developed poultry faming in the State through their net work. The
topography and the climatic conditions of the State are such that small size Poultry Farms
are more successful. As such need to start small faming under subsidy especially for the
beneficiary belonging to scheduled caste families and landless in the entire State is felt so
that the poorest families are provided an incentive for starting poultry farming as an
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occupation. Under the proposed scheme one time assistance on sharing basis as per
provision of guidelines in the form of Poultry Farm sheds, chicks, equipments, medicines,
Training and marketing facilities will be provided.
(vi) Fishery Development: The scope of Pond fish Culture existed in the State but due to
hilly terrain valley and complex topography the better results under this component are yet
to be achieved. In cold areas the State has good scope for Trout culture and other cold water
fishes. As such a scheme of fresh water fish culture in the State can be boosted successfully
in private sector. The Trout, which is international known fish is being cultured in the
Government Farm. To take up this activity in project mode, some infrastructure will be
required to setup, awareness activities amongst the people to be taken up on campaign and
sustained basis, beside, raw material, seed and feed and marketing network need to be
strengthen. The objective of the component is to generate more employment opportunity in
fishery sector, to make fish farming a common man livelihood activity and to utilize the
wasteland trout farms.
One unit of trout farming require constmction of at-least two cemented raceway with a
provision of RCC wall (l5mx2mxl.5m) which involve approximately Rs. 1.20 lacs, with
each raceway costing Rs.().6O lac.
Basic principle of Trout Culture is “Running water fish culture”, which lies in
intensive stocking and fish rearing in barricaded longitudinal stretch well guarded by inlet
and outlet properly flow of water required to each unit varies fomi 200-400 L/sec. Besides
this facilitation of transportation for inputs and products, since fishery is a perish
able commodity it needs to be transported in cool chain to the market. For this purpose
special funds provision required.
(vii) Horticulture: The Horticulture section, which includes fruits has ample potential
for development as compare to other crop in the Northern Eastern States, Himachal Pradesh,
Jammu & Kashmir, Uttranchal in view of diverse agro—climate conditions, varies soil types
and abundance of rain fall which has remained unexploited
The development of NE region examined by various commissions and committees
recommended Integrated Development of Horticulture based on the recommendations a
centrally sponsored scheme on technology mission for integrated development of
horticulture.
The Horticulture Technology Mission is working in the State with the goals to establish
convergence and synergy among numerous on going governmental programmes in the field
of horticulture development to achieve horizontal and vertical integration of these
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programmes to ensure adequate, appropriate, timely and concurrent attention to all the links
in the production, post—ha.rvest management and consumption chain, maximize economic,
ecological and social benefits from the existing investments and infrastructure created for
horticulture development, promote ecologically sustainable intensification, economically
desirable diversification and skilled employment to generate value addition, promote the
development and dissemination of eco-technologies based on the blending of the traditional
wisdom and technology with frontier knowledge such as bio—technology, information
technology and space technology, and to provide the missing links in ongoing horticulture
development projects. The components/activities of Horticulture Technology Mission will
be adopted in the implementation of Watershed Development Programme. The small
nurseries will be developed and provision will be made for the availability of plant material,
equipments and Farm Tools besides facilitating the families in watershed areas with
sufficient availability of water, birds’ protection nets, post harvest management technology
in the cluster approach. Green House approach will also be given due weigtage under this
component. Since the State is having hilly terrain and in case of the areas where road
connectivity is lacking the ropeways connectivity for trans-shipment of the agriculture
horticulture produce will be introduced. This will not facilitate the farmers for transshipment
of their produce but also the transportation charges will be less in comparison to
transportation of their produce through roads.
(vm) Bee Keeping: Small farmers of the State have adopted Bee keeping with the
objective to produce disease resistant types as well as best quality honey and to promote the
role of honey bee as agents of pollination for increasing crop productivity. About 85% crop
plants are cross—pollinated, as they need to receive pollen from other plants of the same
species with the help of external agents. One of the most important such external agent are
the honeybees. A few colonies of honeybees when placed in the field, when crop is in
flowering stage, press into service several thousand foragers for pollination. The abundance
of pollinators, help in early setting of seed, resulting in early and more uniform crop yield.
Scientific studies have established that increase in yields of various crops due to the
pollination by honey bees range from 20% to lO0%. On the basis of published information,
l2 crops of economic importance such as almond, apple, coconut, grape, guava, mango,
papaya, mustard, sunflower, cotton etc. are specifically dependent upon or benefit from
honeybees pollination. Honeybees also produce honey, bee wax and royal jelly thus giving
additional benefit to farmers. Moreover, honeybees do not limit their pollination services to
a single species rather 21 large number of agricultural crops are pollinated by them. To
encourage the groups of BPL / small famiers at district level bee keeping equipments with
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latest technology to assist the procurement, storage and marketing of honey will be
patronized under watershed development projects.
(iX) Mushroom Cultivation: The cultivation of mushroom was initially started in district
Solan during 1961, because of rich contents of protein its cultivation has gained momentum,
and there is large scope for cultivation of mushroom in middle hill of the State and small
grower have taken the mushroom cultivation on commercial scale. The Mushroom
Development Project under the aegis of United National Development Programme was
established at Chambaghat District Solan in 1977. Under the progrannne, the inputs such as
compost, casing, soil & spawn etc. are supplied to the mushroom growers. Now this project
has converted into National Center for Mushroom Research and Training by the Government
of India. Besides, making research and imparting training this center is providing various
incentives to the small-scale farmers and un-employed youths for the cultivation of
mushroom. Resultantly Solan district of the State has been able to come up on the
Production Map of mushroom cultivation in the country. In order to enhance the
productivity of mushroom in the State, this activity will be adopted in the suitable areas by
making the provision of funds for construction/renovation of mushroom sheds. Making
provision of subsidy as per admissibility in the common guidelines will cover the other
components of mushroom cultivation such as compost and spawn.
(X) Cultivation of Medicinal /Aromatic Plants. A number of species, mostly important
herbs of mid hills and particularly high hills required special attention for conserving them.
These species are threatened primarily due to habitant degradation, weed invasions and over
exploitation (rampant extraction), as these are sources of livelihoods for poor. Plantations of
sea buckthom will be given high priority in cold desert areas and plantation technology for
sea buckthorn will be standardized through collaborative research for wider adoption and
acceptance. Better and modern nursery management practices will be adopted at block level
to ensure the availability of quality planting stock.
The climate and geographical conditions of the State are suitable for growing
medicinal and aromatic plants. The trade in medicinal plants from the state involves about
165 species, growing wild or cultivated in the state. An important aspect of this trade is that
24 species out of the top 100 medicinal plant species traded in the country are found in the
State. An assessment in the buffer zone of Great Himalayan National Park about the
contribution of medicinal plants to the economy of forest side people reveals that harvesting
and trade of medicinal plants gets every household and average annual income of Rs.l4000.
The trade in medicinal plants is largely unregulated, secretive and exploitative and takes
place in the form of raw material. People therefore, do not get benefits of possible value
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addition to this raw material, Keeping in view the market requirements, cultivation of
selected medicinal plants such as Kuth (Saussurea lappa) was introduced in Lahaul region in
early forties making the State the largest grower of this important drug. Similarly, Poshkar
(Inula racemosa) and Caraway (Carum carvi) have been successfully cultivated in the tribal
region and have proved very productive for the tribal population of the State. Similar
initiatives in temperate Zone with selected high value specie will be every fruitful to the
farmers in augmenting their cash returns.
Among the forest products, Himachal Pradesh meet almost 70% of the total
requirements of Dioscorea deltoids rhizomes of the Indian drug and pharmaceutical industry
or almost fifteen years and is the largest supplier of many important crude drugs such as
‘Kutaki’ (Picrohiza kurrooa), ‘Choorah‘ (Anglica glauca), ‘Som’(Ephedra gerardiana),
‘Kirmala’ (Artemisia maritime), ‘Mushkbala’ (Valeriana jatamansi), Banaisha, (Viola
serpens), ‘Pashanbheda’ (Bergenia ligulata), ‘Bahera’ (Terminalia belerica), ‘Birmi’ (Taxus
buccata), Amrit Harritaki, a longer sized forest variety of Terminalia chebula much prized
for its therapeutic value and commanding a very high market price, comes exclusively from
Himachal.
Most of these plants are collected from the natural forests and sold to the ‘local’
traders and middlemen on charging a very nominal export and collection fee for exporting
these herbs outside Himachal Pradesh. Regular exploitation of these important plants and
increasing degradation of the forest areas has almost wiped out these important plants from
their natural habitat. Production and collection as recorded by the State Forest Department is
practically too less than the actual and which has also noticed a drastic decrease. Local
people who were dependent on these resources for augmentation of their cash earnings are
facing a lot of difficulty in meeting their day-to-day requirements. Since the agriculture is
the main occupation of the rural people and collection of minor forest produce such as
medicinal herbs was the easiest way of generating income for the families, which needs to be
protected.
Cultivation of selected medicinal plants of known commercial value is the need of
hour and can arrest the on going exploitation from natural forests. Development of
cultivation practices will be useful on one hand to the local people as additional source of
income and on the other hand technology will help in the conservation of these important
biodiversity.
There are a number of Protected Areas in Himachal Pradesh; Access denial to
resources affects livelihoods of communities in and around protected area. Besides the PA,
there are some good quality patches of natural habitats falling in the State and these areas
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may require special attention. Under Watershed Development Programme the cultivation of
medicinal/aromatic, plants will be propagated for generation of additional income of the
people of watershed areas.
(xi) Sericulture: Mulberry based sericulture is a land-based activity with good potential for
generating productive employment. It has several advantages such as labour intensive
nature, low capital investment, short gestation period, and good market. It has also special
significance in employment of women and aged who have limitation like low resource base
of less physical stamina or due to social custom against working outside the home. In the
lower hills of the state majority of families are engaged in sericulture activities who are
producing good quantity of cocoons and also earning good return. There is an existing
network of technical service stations and mulberry plantation, which provide a technical
input to the farmers and which need to be further strengthened.
However, sericulture is still being practiced in the most traditional way and in
unhygienic conditions, which has restricted growth of sericulture both in quality and
quantity. The need of hour is, therefore, to organize the poor families in SHG’s and
motivate them to adopt latest technology developed by the technical agencies, viz by
adopting low cost humidity free rearing structure along with local technology inputs. Under
Watershed Development Project the technical assistance and other inputs would be provided
to rural poor for adopting sericulture as alternative economic activities.
The benefits to the poorest section of the society by way of organizing them into
S.H.G’s, will be provided from project funds and necessary technical infrastructure will be
created as per requirement of DPR. The capacity building infrastructure, technology, and
credit & marketing support will also be provided.
Under Watershed Project additional area shall be identified and following
opportunities will be created:-
0 Macro propagation of Mulberry Plantation by involving Gram Panchayats,
Yuvak Mandals, Mahila Mandals etc.
‘ To double the numbers of existing sericulture families by introducing multiple
rearing pattern.
0 Forward linkage by way of introducing silk reeling and weaving.
(xii) Mining: Unscientific mining of sand, aggregates, sand stones, limestone etc., is on
the rise. Based on conservative estimate, approximately 35 lakh tones of sand, gravel and
boulders are extracted annually from river/streams. Apart from generating Rs.28 Million of
131

direct revenue it has generated direct/indirect employment to about 20000 persons in far-
flung areas of the state. Although the activity of mining cannot be adopted frequently due to
environmental hazards but where the resource of livelihood depends on mining, this activity
can be consider under watershed development project subject to permission of competent
authority. People earning their livelihood from mining are required to provide scientific
training and mining techniques to ensure minimum damage to environment.
(xm) Handicrafts and Handloomsz Handicrafts are an important cottage Industry of
Himachal Pradesh and have the second largest employment potential in the rural sector
being next to Agriculture. Importance of Handicrafts Industry in the economic lies in the
artistic designs, low capital investment and family based skills, which passes on from
generation to generation with no formal training. The revival of Indo China Trade from routs
through H.P. will give further boost to the Industries in the Pradesh. The State Government
has setup the H.P. State Handicraft and Handloom Corporation limited in the year 1994 with
the primary objective of up-liftment of weavers/artisans of the Pradesh. The handicrafts,
handlooms, and other rural artisan’s activities will be given priority under watershed
development programme for additional income generation by the watershed communities.
(xiv) Eco-tourism: A wide variation in the geographical and climatic conditions
prevailing in Himachal Pradesh has resulted in vast potential in tourism. In fact, the
policy makers have always considered tourism as an industry while formulating
strategy for actualization of this potential. If guided by the right policy, this
particular industry has a potential for long term sustenance as well. Clean and
beautiful environment, sacred shrines, historic monuments and hospitality of the
native people of the State complete the indicative list of prerequisites for sustaining
tourism related activities in the long run. The potential for earning livelihood not
only by the urban population but also by rural population of the State in this sector is
immense. Tourism helps providing employment mainly in three ways:
i) Direct employment by rendering of hotel and catering services, as
porters, transport and working as tourist guides.
ii) Employment through production of goods and services required by
the tourists during their stay at the destination.
m) Employment through the activities undertaken for development of
infrastructure required for promoting tourism.
132

The number of tourists visiting in Himachal Pradesh has been increasing over
the years. The number of tourists Who visited the State in the year 2002 was 51.04
lakh and this number rose to 75.72 lakh in 2006 (upto November, 2006).‘ All the
three regions of the State have vast tourism potential, a large part of which is still
unexploited. The Northern High Hills are known for their clean environment and raw
beauty in terms of high snow clad mountain peaks, meadows, thick forests, wide
range of flora and fauna and places of historic and religious importance. This region
has slight advantage in terms of natural beauty as compared to that available in the
Low Hills and the Valleys and the Plains.
Promoting tourism in the lesser known areas through a suitably designed
policy will surely help in providing livelihood opportunities to the people living in
these areas on sustainable basis. The tourism industry in Himachal Pradesh has
already ventured into the fields of recreational travel, adventure and sports tourism
and cultural tourism. Under Watershed Management. the places of high attraction of
tourists will be developed by adopting the activities linked with eco- tourism in
identified areas. The big Check Damsl Ponds having the scope of boating / Water
games etc., the assistance from watershed management programmes will be provided
to the youths for purchase of boat, Dhabas and other small business activities etc.
Another segment which has a vast potential for promoting tourism is health tourism
in terms of herbal and medicinal plants cultivation. There is also a need to convert
Himachal Pradesh from being a holiday destination to tourist destination. Under
Watershed Management Programme the cultivation of medicinal/aromatic, plants will be
propagated to attract more tourist and to generate additional income of the people of rural
areas.
The quantum of funds for these activities would be made according to the
admissibility in the guidelines.
(xv) Micro Enterprises and Skill Up gradation.
In Himchal Pradesh approximately 24% rural households are living
below the poverty line. Apart from BPL families. some other households are
having very small land holdings or come under the category of landless. These
133

households are mostly dependent for their survival on the agricultural, Animal
husbandry and other labour intensive activities. But due to limited opportunities and
lack or technical know how the youth of rural area are visiting other places
especially in urban areas for employment. Due to meager opportunities of jobs for
non technical persons in industries, these youths are either engaging themselves in
uneconomical jobs or remained ideal for long period involving wasteful expenditure
and wasting valuable time. If the employment opportunities to the youths in micro
enterprises are ensured at their door steps or nearby areas, the valuable time and
expenditure can be saved and financial status of these families will be improved.
Thus the opportunities exist under Watershed Management for skill up gradation of
rural youths through reputed/recognized institutions/organizations in the field of
micro enterprises. In the present scenario the electronic related items are available
with almost every rural household and in case of any defects in these items the
solution is to get repaired these items in the market or by engaging the mechanics
which is time consuming as well as the costlier affair. If the youths of the area or
nearby area are trained in these activities, the wage employment to the needy person
and saving in the expenditure can be ensured at village level. Similarly the
Refrigerator repair, Motor repair, Welding etc. can also be considered as trade for
skill up gradation of rural youth in project area. Other professions like Masson,
Carpenter are also important mean of income generation in rural areas. But due to
change in living standard of the perople, the modem items are being used for
construction/decoration of buildings for which the latest technical skills is required
to be upgraded of the persons involved in massonary and carpenter works to earn
sufficient income from these professions. . The small business such as Dhabas, Tea
Stalls near to common village location /bus stoppage can also be propagated to boost
the income of rural poor people by providing assistance and skill up gradation
training under these trades. The Animal Husbandry is most important mean for
livelihood enhancement in rural area. But due to lack of proper marketing
arrangements, the inhabitants use to sell their produce in through away prices to the
middleman. In case the local youths are trained in the preparation of especially bio
product of milk such as Cheese Khoa etc, the wage employment opportunities will
be increased and producer will also get more income from their products. The other
trade relating to food products like Sepu Bari, Pickles, souses Jams, juices and food-
134

cum medicinal items like Ambla Candi, Trifla, Murba, etc. can also change the
economic status of rural people in case these items are prepared properly in
hygenice conditions by maintaining standard. The training on these trades will be
fruitful in relation to self employment opportunities and to increase the economic
status of rural people. To make the rural youth self dependent the Watershed
Development Programme can be the most useful tools especially to build their
skills/knowledge. It is therefore proposed that the self help groups of village
community in the watershed area will be constituted; and proper training for up
gradation of their skills will be provided as per provisions in the Watershed
Development guidelines to make them self employed by adopting income generating
activities.
To upgrade the skill and to start the income generating activities, the
provisions of subsidy will be kept to all the rural households comes under the
category of landless, agriculture labourer, non agriculture labourer, marginal
farmers and rural artisans through self help groups irrespective of their selection in
BPL list. But the quantum of benefit would not be more than the prescribed limit
under SGSY , in other projects and provision of the guidelines.. However, the first
priority for these benefits will be the BPL families.
135

CHAPTER-10
FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS
To achieve the objectives of Watershed Development Projects and
to enhance the livelihood opportunities total 3112472 Hectare areas has been proposed for
treatment in different districts of the State‘ The proposed area will be treated in a phased
manner within a period of 10-15 years and involvement of Panchayati Raj Institutions and
local communities will be ensured at each level to achieve the objectives of the Watershed
Development Projects. The financial provisions as made in the guidelines are not sufficient
for treatment of whole proposed areas but the concept of convergence is important for
adding additional financial resources to taken up the suitable infrastructure and livelihood
related activities. The additional provisions of funds are required for implementation of
watershed projects in the hilly areas like Himachal Pradesh. However with the possibilities
of increase in per hectare norms for hilly areas, the per hectare cost norms have been
proposed at the rate of Rs. 15000/— per Hectare instead of 12000/-.
In common guidelines para 9.3,the following budget component has been
prescribed.
Table 10.1 Budget Component
S.N. Components
Provi
sions( %age)
1 Administrative Cost.
10%
2. Monitoring
1%
3. Evaluation
1%
Prepatory phase
1. Entry point activities
4%
2. Institutional and Capacity building
5%
3. Detailed Project Report
1%
Watershed work phase
1 Watershed development works
50%
2. Livelihood activities
10%
3 Production system and micro enterprises
13%
Consolidation phase
1 Consolidation phase
5%
Grand total (a+b+c+d)
100%
The total projected amount for treatment of 3112472 1-Iectare area is Rs
4668.71 .Crore and component Wise breakup is as under:
136

10.
1. (a) COMPONENT WISE PROPSED FINANCIAL OUTLAYS FOR
TREATMENT OF 3112472 HECTARE LAND IN HIMACHAL
PRADESH (@ Rs.15,000/ per hactare)
Crores)
S.N. Components
Pr0visi0ns( %age) Amount
l Administrative Cost.
10%
466.87
2. Monitoring
1%
46.69
3. Evaluation
1%
46.69
Sub-Total (a)
12%
560.25
Prepatory ph
BS9
1. Entry point activities
4%
186.75
2. Institutional and Capacity
building
5%
233.44
3. Detailed Project Report
1%
46.69
Sub-Total (b)
10%
466.87
Watershed
work
phase
1 Watershed development
Works
50%
2334.35
2. Livelihood activities
10%
466.87
3 Production system and micro
enterprises
13%
606.93
Sub-Total (c)
73%
3408.15
Consolida
ti0n p
hase
1 Consolidation phase
5%
233.44
Sub-Total (d)
5%
233.44
Grand total (a+b+c+d)
100%
4668.71
(Total Project Cost is Rs. 4668.71 Crore or Say Rs. 4669Cr0res)
137

10.1 (b) DISTRICT WISE FINANCIAL OUTLAYS FOR HIMACHAL
PRADESH
i) TOTAL AREA PROPOSED FOR TREATMENT 3112472 HECTARES
ii) TOTAL BUDGET (@ RS. 15,000/- PER HECTARE) —RS.4668.71 CRORES
(RS.IN CRORES)
S.NO
DISTRICT
TOTAL AREA AMOUNT
PROPOSED TO BE
TREATED
1
1.
Bilalspur
53524
80.29
2.
Chamba
434340
651.51
3.
Hamirpur
33592
50.38
4.
Kangra
284157
426.23
5.
Kinnaur
305830
458.75
6.
Kullu
378250
567.38
7.
Lahaul & Spiti
761322
1141.98
8.
Mandi
266938
400.41
9.
Shirnla
293637
440.46
10.
Sirmour
157195
235.79
11.
Solan
83199
124.80
12
Una
60488
90.73
3112472
4668.71

10.1.2 DISTRICT-WISE COMPONENT WISE PROPOSED FINANCIAL
OUTLAYS
l0.1.2.1.. DISTRICT BILASPUR
i) TOTAL AREA PROPOSED FOR TREATMENT 53524 HECTARES
ii) TOTAL BUDGET (@ RS.l5,000/- PER HECTARE) —RS.80.29 CRORES
(RS.IN CRORES)
S.NO PARTICULARS (BUDGET COMPONENT) NORM TOTAL
A. ADMINISTRATION
i) Administrative cost 10%
8.029
ii) Monitoring 1%
0.803
m) Evaluation 1%
0.803
B. PREPARATORY PHASE
0
i) Entry Point Activities 4%
3.212
ii) Institution and capacity building 5%
4.014
m) Detailed Project Report (DPR) 1%
0.803
C. WATER SHED WORKS PHASE
0
i) Water Shed Development works 50%
40.145
ii) Livelihood activities the for asset less persons 10%
8.029
m) Production system and Micro Enterprise 13%
10.438
D) CONSOLIDATION PHASE 5%
4.014
TOTAL 100 %
80.29
139

10.1.2.2 DISTRICT CHAMBA
i)
ii)
TOTAL AREA PROPOSED FOR TREATMENT 434340 HECTARES
TOTAL BUDGET (@ RS.15,000/- PER HECTARE) —RS.651.51 CRORES
CRORES)
(RS.IN
S.NO
PARTICULARS (BUDGET COMPONENT) NORM
TOTAL
A.
ADMINISTRATION
i)
Administrative cost 10%
65.151
ii)
Monitoring 1%
6.515
m)
Evaluation 1 %
6.515
B.
PREPARATORY PHASE
i)
Entry Point Activities 4%
26.06
ii)
Institution and capacity building 5%
32.576
m)
Detailed Project Report (DPR) 1%
6.515
C.
WATER SHED WORKS PHASE
i)
Water Shed Development Works 50%
325.76
11)
Livelihood activities the for asset less persons 10%
65.151
m)
Production system and Micro Enterprise 13%
84.696
D)
CONSOLIDATION PHASE 5%
32.571
TOTAL 100 %
651.51
140

10.1.2.3 DISTRICT HAMIRPUR
TOTAL AREA PROPOSED FOR TREATMENT 33592 HECTARES
(RS.IN CRORES)
ii) TOTAL BUDGET (@ RS.15,000/- PER HECTARE) —RS.50.38 CRORES
S.NO PARTICULARS
NORM TOTAL
A.
ADMINISTRATION (BUDGET OMPONENT)
i)
Administrative cost
10%
5.038
ii)
Monitoring
1%
0.504
m)
Evaluation
1%
0.504
B.
PREPARATORY PHASE
i)
Entry Point Activities
4%
2.015
ii)
Institution and capacity building
5%
2.519
m)
Detailed Project Report (DPR)
1%
0.504
C.
WATER SHED WORKS PHASE
i)
Water Shed Development works
50%
25.19
ii)
Livelihood activities the for asset less persons
10%
5.038
m)
Production system and Micro Enterprise
13%
6.549
D)
CONSOLIDATION PHASE
5%
2.519
TOTAL
100%
50.38
141

10.1.2.4. DISTRICT KANGRA
ii) TOTAL BUDGET (@ RS.15,000/- PER HECTARE) —RS.426.23 CRORES
i) TOTAL AREA PROPOSED FOR TREATMENT 284157 HECTARES
(RS.IN CRORES)
S.NO PARTICULARS (BUDGET COMPONENT)
NORM TOTAL
A.
ADMINISTRATION
i)
Administrative cost
10%
42.623
ii)
Monitoring
1%
4.262
m)
Evaluation
1%
4.262
B.
PREPARATORY PHASE
i)
Entry Point Activities
4%
17.049
ii)
Institution and capacity building
5%
21.312
m)
Detailed Project Report (DPR)
1%
4.262
C.
WATER SHED WORKS PHASE
i)
Water Shed Development Works
50%
213.115
ii)
Livelihood activities the for asset less persons
10%
42.623
m)
Production system and Micro Enterprise
13%
55.410
D)
CONSOLIDATION PHASE
5%
21.312
TOTAL
100 %
426.23
142

10.1.2.5 DISTRICT KINNAUR
TOTAL AREA PROPOSED FOR TREATMENT 305830 HECTARES
ii) TOTAL BUDGET (@ RS.15,000/- PER HECTARE) —RS.4S8.7S
CRORES
(RS.IN CRORES)
S.NO PARTICULARS (BUDGET
COMPONENT)
NORM TOTAL
A.
ADMINISTRATION
i)
Administrative cost
10%
45.875
ii)
Monitoring
1%
4.587
m)
Evaluation
1%
4.587
B.
PREPARATORY PHASE
i)
Entry Point Activities
4%
18.35
ii)
Institution and capacity building
5%
22.938
m)
Detailed Project Report (DPR)
1%
4.587
C.
WATER SHED WORKS PHASE
i)
Water Shed Development Works
50%
229.375
11)
Livelihood activities the for asset less persons
10%
45.875
m)
Production system and Micro Enterprise
13%
59.638
D)
CONSOLIDATION PHASE
5%
22.938
TOTAL
100 %
458.75
143

10.1.2..6 DISTRICT KULLU
i) TOTAL AREA PROPOSED FOR TREATMENT 378250 HECTARES
ii) TOTAL BUDGET (@ RS. l5,000/- PER HECTARE) —RS.567.38 CRORES
(RS.IN CRORES)
S.NO PARTICULARS
NORM TOTAL
A.
ADMINISTRATION (BUDGET
COMPONENT)
i)
Administrative cost
l()%
56.738
ii)
Monitoring
1%
5.674
m)
Evaluation
l%
5.674
B.
PREPARATORY PHASE
i)
Entry Point Activities
4%
22.695
ii)
Institution and capacity building
5%
28.369
m)
Detailed Project Report (DPR)
1%
5.674
C.
WATER SHED WORKS PHASE
i)
Water Shed Development Works
50%
283.69
ii)
Livelihood activities the for asset less persons
10%
56.738
m)
Production system and Micro Enterprise
13%
73.759
D)
CONSOLIDATION PHASE
5%
28.369
TOTAL
100 %
567.38
144

10.1.2.7 DISTRICT LAHAUL & SPITI
i) TOTAL AREA PROPOSED FOR TREATMENT 761322 HECTARES
ii) TOTAL BUDGET (@ RS.15,000/- PER HECTARE) —RS.1141.98
CRORES
(RS.IN CRORES)
S.NO PARTICULARS (BUDGET
COMPONENT)
NORM TOTAL
A.
ADMINISTRATION
i)
Administrative cost
10%
114.198
ii)
Monitoring
1%
1 1.420
m)
Evaluation
1%
11.420
B.
PREPARATORY PHASE
i)
Entry Point Activities
4%
45.679
ii)
Institution and capacity building
5%
57.099
m)
Detailed Project Report (DPR)
1%
11.420
C.
WATER SHED WORKS PHASE
i)
Water Shed Development Works
50%
570.99
ii)
Livelihood activities the for asset less persons
10%
114.198
m)
Production system and Micro Enterprise
13%
148.457
D)
CONSOLIDATION PHASE
5%
57.099
TOTAL
100 %
1141.98
145

10.1.2.8 DISTRICT MANDI
i)
ii)
TOTAL AREA PROPOSED FOR TREATMENT 266938 HECTARES
TOTAL BUDGET (@ RS.l5,000/- PER HECTARE) RS.400.41 CRORES
RS.IN CRORES)
S.NO
PARTICULARS (BUDGET
COMPONENT)
NORM TOTAL
A.
ADMINISTRATION
i)
Administrative cost 10%
40.041
ii)
Monitoring 1%
4.004
m)
Evaluation 1%
4.004
B.
PREPARATORY PHASE
0
i)
Entry Point Activities 4%
16.016
ii)
Institution and capacity building 5%
20.021
m)
Detailed Project Report (DPR) 1%
4.004
C.
WATER SHED WORKS PHASE
O
i)
Water Shed Development Works 50%
200.205
ii)
Livelihood activities the for asset less persons 10%
40.041
m)
Production system and Micro Enterprise l3%
52.053
D)
CONSOLIDATION PHASE 5%
20.021
TOTAL 100 %
400.41
146

10.1.2.9 DISTRICT SHIMLA
i) TOTAL AREA PROPOSED FOR TREATMENT 293637 HECTARES
ii) TOTAL BUDGET (@ RS.15,000/- PER HECTARE) Rs.440.46 CRORES
CRORES)
(RS.IN
S.NO PARTICULARS (BUDGET
COMPONENT)
NORM TOTAL
A.
ADMINISTRATION
i)
Administrative cost
10%
44.046
ii)
Monitoring
1%
4.405
m)
Evaluation
1%
4.405
B.
PREPARATORY PHASE
i)
Entry Point Activities
4%
17.617
ii)
Institution and capacity building
5%
22.023
m)
Detailed Project Report (DPR)
1%
4.405
C.
WATER SHED WORKS PHASE
i)
Water Shed Development Works
50%
220.230
11)
Livelihood activities the for asset less persons
10%
44.046
m)
Production system and Micro Enterprise
13%
57.260
D)
CONSOLIDATION PHASE
5%
22.023
TOTAL
100 %
440.460
147

10.1.2.10 DISTRICT SIRMOUR
CRORES
i) TOTAL AREA PROPOSED FOR TREATMENT 157195 HECTARES
1i) TOTAL BUDGET (@ RS.15,000/- PER HECTARE) —RS. 235.79
(RS.IN CRORES)
S.NO PARTICULARS (BUDGET
COMPONENT)
NORM TOTAL
A.
ADMINISTRATION
i)
Administrative cost
10%
23.579
ii)
Monitoring
1%
2.358
m)
Evaluation
1%
2.358
B.
PREPARATORY PHASE
i)
Entry Point Activities
4%
9.432
ii)
Institution and capacity building
5%
11.789
m)
Detailed Project Report (DPR)
1%
2.358
C.
WATER SHED WORKS PHASE
i)
Water Shed Development Works
50%
117.895
11)
Livelihood activities the for asset less persons
10%
23.579
m)
Production system and Micro Enterprise
13%
30.653
D)
CONSOLIDATION PHASE
5%
11.789
TOTAL
100 %
235.790
148

10.1.2..11 DISTRICT SOLAN
i)
11)
T OTAL AREA PROPOSED FOR TREATMENT 83199 HECTARES
TOTAL BUDGET (@ RS.15,000/- PER HECTARE) RS.124.80 CRORES
(RS.IN CRORES)
S.NO PARTICULARS (BUDGET COMPONENT)
NORM TOTAL
A.
ADMINISTRATION
i)
Administrative cost
10%
12.480
ii)
Monitoring
1%
1.248
m)
Evaluation
1%
1.248
B.
PREPARATORY PHASE
i)
Entry Point Activities
4%
4.992
ii)
Institution and capacity building
5%
6.240
m)
Detailed Project Report (DPR)
1%
1.248
C.
WATER SHED WORKS PHASE
i)
Water Shed Development Works
50%
62.400
11)
Livelihood activities the for asset less persons
10%
12.480
m)
Production system and Micro Enterprise
13%
16.224
D)
CONSOLIDATION PHASE
5%
6.240
TOTAL
100 %
124.800
149

10.1.2.12 DISTRICT UNA
i
) TOTAL AREA PROPOSED FOR TREATMENT 60488 HECTARES
ii) TOTAL BUDGET (@ RS.l5,000/— PER HECTARE) RS. 90.73 CRORES
(RS.IN CRORES)
S.NO
PARTICULARS (BUDGET COMPONENT)
NORM TOTAL
A.
ADMINISTRATION
i)
Administrative cost
10%
9.073
ii)
Monitoring
1%
0.907
m)
Evaluation
1%
0.907
B.
PREPARATORY PHASE
0
i)
Entry Point Activities
4%
3.629
11)
Institution and capacity building
5%
4.537
m)
Detailed Project Report (DPR)
1%
0.907
C.
WATER SHED WORKS PHASE
0
i)
Water Shed Development works
50%
45.365
ii)
Livelihood activities the for asset less persons
10%
9.073
m)
Production system and Micro Enterprise
13%
11.795
D)
CONSOLIDATION PHASE
5%
4.537
TOTAL
100%
90.730
150

William Moorcroft
Ninth Fasciculus of a Journal from Sept. 16″‘ to Oct. 21“ 1820 in
the Country of Ladakh
British Library, London
India Office Records
MSS/EUR/D244
FILMED DECEMBER 1993
Transcribed by Janet Rizvi, February to May 2016
Published in the Mountains of Central Asia Digital Dataset (MCADD) on
the www.pahar.in website on July 7, 2016
1

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l
Sept. 17 — The name of our last nights encampment was Room-choo or che for each
termination is used indifferently and is so called from a village of that name the first we have
seen since we quitted Lubrungl on the 3d instt. so that we have travelled in the Mountains of
Tatary for fourteen days without having found a fixed habitation of man. Roomchoo consists
only of a few straggling houses of stone whited of three stories with flat roofs and appears to
have for inhabitants the Priests of the red order who cultivate the Awa J ao or Tatary Wheat in
patches of flat land surrounded by loose stone walls and well watered by trenches led from
convenient levels in the Rivulets at a great distance. The bottom of these cuts are uniformly
covered with large stones and the sides are of earth covered with an elastic thick but short
sward. This rough paving I presume has been found to prevent the water striking against the
earthy bottom with such force as to cut it up as is observed in mountain Streams where there
are few stones. The force of the water is spent upon the sides of the stones and their
interspaces serve as channels to carry it off silently and without injury to the bank or bottom.
Some of the Com was pulled up by the roots and laid in heaps but more was standing and
nearly 3 feet high. Many of the heads were nearly purple but though the Stems were green
and seemed to require Sun for at least 3 weeks none of the Plants appeared to have been
injured by the cold or piercing Wind. This variety of Wheat? Barley? seems very hardy and
ought to be sent to the western Isles and
i Triticum Hinangulare? Hordeum nudum?
[2]
to the northern parts of Britain where it would succeed much better than Barley or Oats. I will
procure some at Leh and forward it to Dr. Wallich and request a sample may be sent to Thos.
Scarisbrick Esq”. for trial on Martin Meerz as provided the Plant meet only with moisture
enough it can resist a great degree of cold hence would well suit those situations in which our
harvests are very late.3 I went into the fields and beckoned to some Priests who were going
from me to stop which they did. I saluted them and repeated the phrase “Om ma nee put me
hoon” which I knew would excite their attention. The oldest of the Priests apparently about
80 plucked a handful of ripe Ears of Corn and offered them to me. I took one Ear and
thinking he might take Snuff made signs to him to send a person on to our Camp and I would
retum some by him. On the road I shot some wild Pigeons with a white belt round the
backbone [?] of the body and with the upper surface of the tail feathers mainly white. This
variety I saw in the Mountains of Gurhwhal. It is at least only two thirds of the size of the
blue Pigeon. For some days past I have observed a variety of Lark in vast flocks, and the
Snow Cock with a brown head and band under the neck beginning to puck[?], an indication
of the approach of hard weather. The road crossing a rivulet of the purest and cold water
reaches two large white sepulchral buildings with a long and thick pile of stones roofed with
others taken from the river and covered with inscriptions. The erections were above
3
25 feet high of better workmanship than I had before observed in this kind of edifice. On a
square basis fonned of three or four heights [appar. sic] receding inwards each by the breadth
of a brick stood a square Pillar of about 14 feet on a side and about 8 feet high, this was
surmounted by several heights of receding steps and upon the uppermost was a large
compressed urn the smallest part downwards and surrounded by a belt of simple but large
2

foliage. The upper part was rounded and a pole of about 6 feet projected upwards through the
middle of the roof. On the northem side was a hole by which a person could ascend through
the top of the um to the pole. The roof seemed to be covered with a grouting or rough cast of
lime. The water in flowing from the Snow had dissolved some of the lime and carrying it
down along the sides of the Um fonned projecting ridges and grooves from top to bottom
with reticulations crossing them. Some of our party pulled off the stalactic drops from the
Eaves and thought they would answer as pencils of Chalk. The Priest of Room choo is said to
be the Carver of the Stones of the Pile which is stated to be the Register of the Village. At
present I cannot safely be very particular in my enquiries but gradually I will procure a clear
explanation of many circumstances connected with these Piles which puzzle me at present.
There are several Walls of Stone about 8 feet hight 2 feet thick and from 50 to
[4]
a hundred feet in length some placed abreast of the road, others along the summits of the
verge of ravines, turreted on the top and calculated to serve as stockades to defend the
frontier, the interstices of the turrets serving as loop holes to fire from. Some of these
presumed defences are judiciously placed to command the road but others may easily be
tumed. The stream which had conducted us to Room Choo was now become red from
containing the earth of the red [illeg. ?pitts] I yesterday observed. In my last joumey I was
informed by the Gold washers that they frequently found Gold in the same kind of red Earth
but I held it imprudent to ask any questions on this subject here. On tuming a comer I
observed the town of Gah before me and at a short distance from the left bank of the Rivulet.
I was about to pass it but was prevented by one of our Carriers who requested that I would
order the Camp to be formed on the right bank of the Rivulet and short of the Town and stay
there three days. As I observed many fields of corn unripe on the left bank and all those on
the right bank cut I saw reason for complying with his wish as far as regarded the locality
leaving the period of stay for farther discussion. The old Priest sent a few handfuls of
Turnips, about the size of Walnuts as a present. I divided them with the Meer’s Party. Two
small bundles of dry Furze cost two J ous or half a rupee and their weight did not exceed
5
ten pounds. However the Country seems wholly destitute of both Timber and Brushwood
save five or six Trees in the Town. Towards evening the person whom I had seen at
Rookchoo came to our Camp and addressed himself first to Meer Izzut Oollah Khan. His
name was Abdool Lateef and he proved to be an Agent of Kuloon Wuzeer of Leh. He arrived
at the moment when the Lahoul carriers declared their intention to leave our Baggage at Gah
and to retum to Lahoul instead of carrying it on to Leh as they had agreed and for which they
had received the full hire. Meer Izzut Oollah appealed to Abdool Lateef as a person
acquainted with the customs of the country from his official situation and showed him the
agreement of Rama Kanungo and of Ram Dhan the Agent of the Lahoul Chief with their
receipt for 1500 Rupees for the conveyance of the baggage to Leh. He enquired if the writing
was theirs and they acknowledged its correctness. He then said that the matter ought to be
brought before the Raj a of Gah Kagha Tunzeen the Son in law of Kuloon the Wuzeer of Leh.
After this Abdool Lateef took the Meer aside and addressed him in the following manner
“You are a Moosalman and a Sueyud [apparently sic, ?Syed] and a friend of Khwaja Shah
3

Neas* and I am his pupil swear to me that you will truly disclose the motions of Europeans in
this country. Meer Izzut Oollah complying with his request stated that the intention of the
* A Peerzada or Moosalman Priest of great respectability who had resided on a Jagheer granted him by
the Dooranees of Kashmir but deprived of it by the Sikhs had taken refuge in Ludagh . Meer Izzut
Oollah had pleaded his case with Runjeet Singh and obtained a promise ofa reversal ofthe
sequestration pronounced. [appar. sic]
[6]
Europeans was to proceed to Bokhara to buy Horses that the legitimate Govt. of Kabool
being overtumed and the country in disorder and having leamed that the roads in Tibet were
safe and the inhabitants well disposed they came here. And having consulted the Raja and the
Wuzeer on the best road to be taken would follow their advice. Having heard this Abdool
Lateef said that it was proper for the Meer to pay his respects to the Raja and Kagha Tunzeen
taking with him a Ser of white Sugarcandy to each. Abdool Luteef then came to me & after
some conversation I gave him a Ser of Sugar Candy a pound of green Tea and a large Roll of
[illeg. ?Pristine] Virginia tobacco with which he was highly satisfied. The distance of our
march ths day was 7673 paces and the direction roughly to the W of North. The‘. 33 Min [7]
77 — N – 50 Night. Lat 33″.30’.9″ Alt. ll6.55.40.
Sept. 18. The Meer visited the Raja and found with him Kagha Tunzeen after mutual
compliments tea was brought and the attendants dismissed. The Raja and Kagha said you
formerly were at Leh, by what road did you come?— By that of Kashmeer. — Where did you
go from Leh? To Yarkund, Kashgar, Khokhun, Sumarkund to Bokhara. — On your return by
what route did you proceed to Hindoostan? By Kabool. What is the native place of your
family? First Bokhara now Dehlee. Are there any persons with you now who first
accompanied you to Leh? No. I-Iow long have you been with the European Gentlemen now
here.
7
A year. By your former journey and residence amongst us you must have known that our
religion prescribes not enmity to those who follow different faiths and that We have a
particular respect for those who profess that of Islam and as a proof Quaja Shah Neas has
resided 13 Months with us. Now relate your intentions and we will forward your report to
Kuloon the Wuzeer. I yesterday under the formality of an Oath fully explained the object of
this joumey yesterday to Abdool Luteef and I have no alteration to make thereon. We ask
more particulars of you that when we meet before the Wuzeer along with Quaja Shah Neas
there may be no difference of facts. The first report that reached us that an Army was on the
march towards us and Kuloon sent me to ascertain the tmth. — You have now seen with your
own eyes the actual state of things. “shoonede qace bowud mancuide deede”. [apparently sic]
– With Runjeet Singh what are your relations? Friendly or inimical? Friendly. D0 the borders
of the English and of the Sikh territory join or are they separated by other countries? The
River Sutlej separates the two territories the right bank belonging to the Sikhs? Does the
country on the left bank appertain to the English? No It belongs to the Sikhs but an English
Military force is permanently encamped upon it. How does it happen that an English Anny is
established upon the Sikh Demesnes? The Peasantry are the subjects of the English but they
pay revenue to the Sikhs. The object of the Anny is to prevent their being oppressed and to
preserve the relations of peace for the intentions of the British Govt. are not to take Countries
4

[3]
unless the Governors of countries act with hostility against them. The Traders of Yarkund,
Bokhara Kashmeer and of other places have commercial intercourse with this country and go
backwards and forwards but heretofore no English or Europeans have ever come and this
being a new occurrence we have much anxiety respecting it. Within a short period this also
will be an old occurrence everything has a commencement. There was a moment when you
had no communication with Yarkund but when this was established and your good faith
known other tribes came into your country and by degrees established commercial
communication. People say that Europeans first visit a country under pretence of establishing
commercial relations and afterwards take it from the Nation’s rulers. This is false as was the
case in respect to the report you had heard of an Army being on the march towards your
country. Exaggerations constitute the character of reports. Well so far we will relate what you
have stated to Kuloon and acquaint you with his answer. How long did you remain at
Kooloo? Ten of fifteen days. How long at Lahore? At the first period ten or fifteen days and
at the second when Runjeet Singh being sick recalled the Sahib who is a Medical Man to his
assistance we stayed eight days. We have heard that the Raj as of Mundee and of Katoch
opposed your coming. The Raj a of Mundee wished to have the concurrence of Runjeet Singh
to our passing through his territory and the latter on this being represented directed all the
Rajas on our course to give us assistance and they have fumished Porters &c. And men
9
from the Rajas of Kotoch and Koolloo now accompany us. Have you any writing from
Runjeet Singh to the authorities of Leh? No and for this reason when I saw Runjeet Singh he
asked me if Leh was tributary to Kashmeer I answered that the Raja of Leh held some land as
J agheer under the Sooba of Kashmeer and as an acknowledgment sent annually some
presents to the Govemor of that country. I was induced by the question of Runjeet Singh to
believe that he was ignorant of what relations of policy or custom existed between Kashmeer
and Leh and therefore thought it unnecessary to ask him for any letters to Leh, but I have
letters from Runj eet Singh to the Soobedar of Kashmeer of which the object is to direct him
to furnish carriers and other facilities to the Sahib should he on his return from Leh wish to
pass through Kashmeer. We are in some degree tributary to or politically [illeg.] connected
with three countries viz Yarkund, Lhassa and Kashmeer and therefore hope that no
disturbance will arise with any of them in respect to the Sahib’s journey. But as you have
sworn so will we write. You need not entertain any apprehension with regard to our
intentions and you have two witnesses or [illeg.] in the letters of the Raja of Koolloo to the
Raja of Ludagh and of the Wuzeer Sobha Ram to the Wuzeer Kuloon. Here Meer Izzut
Oollah read the letters in question the purport of which was—That we by good luck have an
opportunity of doing business for the Sahib and we wish that you should
[10]
do him good offices and as you have friendship towards us that you should bear also towards
him. The Meer then related our embarrassments in respect to the demand of the Carriers and
they stated that the conditions should be performed according to the tenns of the Agreement.
They enquired the name of the principal City of the English Answer London. There resided
the King and the Marquis of Hastings was Govemor General of India. They asked particulars
about the Small Pox. The Meer answered that if they would send two proper persons to
5

Almora they would be instructed in a mode of preventing that disease proving fatal. How
many days journey is Almora from hence. It is about twenty days journey from Gurhdookh.
Did the Sahib ever go to Gurhdookh. Perhaps he did. They then examined the agreement with
the carriers and wrote down the name of the Meer.
Sept. 19. I was desirous to meet the Raja and Kagha Tunzeen and directed the Meer to adjust
this matter with Abdool Luteef who accordingly despatched a messenger to the Raja. An
answer was returned that it was expected I should first go to them. If there was any form of
ceremony to be observed I requested Abdool Luteef to apprise me of it in the first instance
that no misunderstanding might occur afterwards as from Meer Izzut Oollah I understood that
they both according to his conception appeared to him exceedingly punctilious and proud
having neither of them returned his salutations of respect on entering and leaving the room
I 1
by rising or other mark of acknowledgement. Some talk took place about seats on which I
observed that I was disposed to observe the ceremonials practised usually in the country and
not to prescribe new ones. This principle being adopted I proceeded along with Mr Trebeck,
Meer Izzut Oollah, his Son Meer Hajee Nujuf Uleel on horseback to the house of the Raja
which is at the upper end of the town by a stony narrow winding path between low flat roofed
Houses of two or three Stories on the right hand and small walled enclosures for Cattle on the
left open at the top end of irregular forms suited to the unevenness of the ground. The
inhabitants not numerous had resorted to the roofs of their houses to see the strangers and the
women huddled behind each other peeped with diffidence and as it were by stealth. Having
ridden into the small courtyard defended by two low and stout woolly haired dogs with heads
much resembling those of Bears we passed through a short dark and narrow entry up a
narrow short flight of steep stairs making our way more by feeling than sight. At the top was
an Antichamber open above except on one side where it was shaded by a slip of roof serving
as covering for a passage from rooms on one side to others on the opposite side of the house
and indicating by the irregularity of the beams the scarcity of timber in the Country. From the
top of the Door of the Raja’s apartment was suspended a narrow valance of white and red
plaited Cotton Cloth.
[12]
On entering the apartment I found the Raja sitting on one of my two Chairs at the farther side
of the room with his feet on a white felt and on the side facing a small Veranda. Kagha
Tunzeen was seated on a Camp Stool. The other Chair placed on the edge of the felt directly
opposite the Raja was reserved for me and the other stools &[c.] on a line with it. After
saluting these personages who neither spoke nor moved I took my seat and enquired after
their health. Meer Izzut Oollah interpreted in Persian to Abdool Luteef who spoke
Kasmmeeree Persian and he conversed with the Chiefs in the language of Tibet. The Raja
hoped that the roads had not been very bad nor the weather very cold. Our progress to Leh he
said would not be difficult as the road was level. Salted Tea without milk was introduced and
served to the Raj a and Kagha Tunzeen and to us out of a Tea pot which would hold about two
Quarts. The Raja pulled a small yellow China Tea cup out of a packet before his breast and
the Kagha displayed one made of the knot of the Horse Chesnut lined with a Silver and
having a small ornamented knob or projection in the middle of its bottom. We came prepared
with our own Cups. The Tea was not very strong and tasted something like weak broth. The
6

teapot appeared to be of silver. The sides were convex gilt and of a shield like shape but
plain. The top bottom handle and spout were curiously wrought in filligree work.
13
Below the shield was a medallion hanging by chains and the embossed figures on which were
executed in good taste. [sic] The spout rose out of the throat of a Dragon. I had but a cursory
view of this Utensil as I had not become so fully reconciled to the Tea as to take a second cup
full but it appeared to me both in general fonn and in detail to be one of the most splendid
Teapots I ever saw and I much regretted that I had not a drawing of it as I am convinced it
would have had many admirers in Europe. I asked some questions about the Grain, Harvest
&c. which were answered with complacency. I regretted that the shortness of the day
imposed on me the necessity of so soon taking leave but trusted to have the pleasure of
another interview with them at my tent in the course of it. On their expressing their
acquiescence I took my departure and observed that the crowd in the Antichamber had their
countenances brightened with smiles and by gestures expressed their satisfaction at what had
passed. The women too emboldened as it seemed by our interview with their Chief salaamed
freely to us on our retum. The apartment of the Raja was tolerably spacious but low. It
contained little fumiture save a few wooden chests a small wooden Temple in which was a
figure of the Lama with the face exposed the body wrapped in a Tunic of Dove colored silk
and another statue entirely shrouded by a covering of the same material. The side of the
Wall[?]
[14]
near to the Raja was decorated with several colored drawings of Lamas in attitudes of
devotion but I was too far from them to be able to form an opinion of their execution. In
about an hour after we reached our Tents the Raja and Kagha Tunzeen arrived preceded by
Musicians. I received the former on alighting from his Horse and led him by the hand to a
Chair whilst Mr Trebeck went through the same ceremony with Kagha Tunzeen. They both
expressed themselves pleased with the neatness [7] of the Tent. Tea was served accompanied
by sweet Cakes, Sugar and Milk. The principals drank Tea and ate the Cakes but did not
choose Sugar or Milk though these were taken by Abdool Luteef and the Moonshee of the
Kagha. After tea a Glass of Creme de Noyau was offered to each. The Kagha just tasted but
declined drinking making signs that he feared it would affect his head. But on my taking a
little the Raja tasted the Liqueur coughed and made wry faces but took off half the contents
of the Glass and would I believe have finished the whole had he not been deterred by the
example of the Kagha. The Attendants at the door begged to have the liqueur rejected by the
Kagha divided amongst them and drank it from the palms of their hands. They afterwards
requested to be indulged with a little more and expressed their satisfaction with its flavor by
gestures and smacking their lips. After some little conversation the Kagha said that report had
propagated strange things respecting us but that having seen, talked with us and observed our
behaviour he found we had been grossly misrepresented, and that he should immediately
15
forward a true account of all the circumstances he had observed and leamt respecting us to
the Kuloon Wuzeer. I presented the Raja with a dress of superfine Scarlet Cloth [and the
Kagha] with one of a dark blue color but of the same quality. The Kagha said that the present
was as unnecessary as unexpected and that at all events it could only have been merited by a
series of friendly offices which had not yet been performed. That for his part he was
7

distressed at not having it in his power to make any return at this place but he hoped to have
this opportunity at Leh. I replied that we desired no further return than his friendship and that
I trusted all parties would be benefited and pleased by farther intercourse. Both the Raj a and
the Kagha appeared gratified with the treatment they had experienced and departed. The Raj a
sent two men’s loads of Sattoo and a Sheep and a Goat which I ordered to be divided
amongst all the Servants of the party after having rewarded the bringers With money as also
the Musicians who began to serenade after the departure of our Guests. To Abdool Luteef
who as I before remarked acted as interpreter and to the Moonshee of Kagha Tunzeen I gave
each a very handsome Punjabee Loongee purchased at Umritsir. In the evening an
examination was made of the quantity of our merchandize by persons deputed by us and by
the Raja in order that the frontier duties might be levied by him. But a difference arising in
the estimate the Assessors for the Raj a declared that they would be satisfied with what might
prove to be the net weight of the merchandize when taken at Leh and for doing which here
facilities were not at hand. With this just and handsome
[16]
proposition I assented. The Carriers were ordered to proceed to Leh according to the purport
of their agreement. The Raja’s name was Tsimma Punchook. He was a man of low stature
about fifty. Had a short thin clipped [?beard], his complexion was dark and his features were
rather ordinary except by smiling they became particularly expressive of complacency.
Kagha Tunzeen was about the same size and differed not much in character of feature but
was a few years younger and had the unembarrassed air of a man used to society. The Raja
carried a dagger and a knife in his girdle and this day he had in addition a Starheaded Mace
with a silvered top and a sliver filligree worked handle.
The Raj a wore several coverings over each other of which the outermost was of Chintz in
the form of a wrapper or gown fastened by a girdle round his waist. He had on boots of
Russian Leather the toes of which were thrust into narrow pointed slippers of green Morocco
Leather the grains of which were particularly prominent. His Cap was of black Velvet made
in the shape of a long Sack a little rounded at the end. It had a small facing of silver flowered
Brocade tumed up in front and the end fell down on the shoulder. The dress of Kagha
Tunzeen differed little from that of the Raja except that his Coat was of Mooltan Chintz. The
Chintz of the Rajas Coat was of a yellow color and had small flowers of different form and
tints so composed as to compose groups of a pine shaped figure similar to those worked on
the pullu or end of Kashmeer Shawls. These flowers in embossed silk were handsome but
must have cost a large sum in the material and trim.
Such cloths were doubtless the Cheets originally
I7
made in China imported into (Calicut) India there imitated by printing with blocks and
latterly much excelled by our Calico printers. The Meer was called upon to sign a kind of
certificate of our intentions and that we had no hostile designs. Geah is a small town
containing not more than twenty houses and six or eight trees of a variety of Poplar with
broad and pointed leaves and a tree with a white bark and a willow shaped leaf white
underneath having many red berries adhering to the branches. Fuel is very scarce and the
discovery of a mine of Coal in this neighborhood would greatly conduce to the comfort of the
inhabitants.
All of us were much affected by a difficulty of breathing which compelled us to pause for
some seconds before we could speak even after ascending only fifteen or twenty feet.
Requiring an effervescent mixture it boiled over the vessel as soon as the ingredients came in
8

contact with more quickness and more force than I ever before saw from the union of the
same materials.
Sept. 20″‘. Left Geah following the left bank of the Geah River. On a stream which fell
into it on the laft hand was a small stone building which at first view appeared to be a water
mill but which proved to be a religious cylinder carved and painted turned by water in honor
of the Deity. Opposite to Geah on a lofty ridge of rocks shelving down towards the river was
a large pile of houses formerly inhabited by the Raj a and lower down one belonging to the
Lama. The situation of these buildings perched upon the rocks was picturesque and reminded
me of the situation of Kien-loong.
[18]
Close by the road were several monumental Urns of large size and probably belonging to
the deceased members of the Raja’s family and on the registral piles several figures carved in
outline on stone. One represented three two of which appeared to have a masculine and the
third a female expression. There was also a representation of the punishing Deity as figured
on the door of the temples of Lama. Here was likewise a sketch of a temple and the rose like
flower which has been observed on every pile. The rocks on each side of the river were high
peaked, rugged and consisted almost entirely of Plum pudding stone. In general the color was
reddish whilst seen in the entire rocks but when detached the Matrix or uniting medium was
of various colors as red, green, grey, brown and almost white and the rolled Pebbles were of
all kinds of colors and sizes. Some of the masses were very beautiful and would have formed
very valuable slabs for tables. A small patch of cultivated land on the left was called Latoo
and belonged to two or three houses almost concealed by overhanging rocks. The valley of
Meeroo with its large cultivation principally fine barley its poplars and a considerable town
with good sized houses formed a great relief to the scenes of barren desolateness that had
characterized this march but this was in a degree compensated by the goodness of the road.
There were here many black Cattle smaller even than those of the blackest Counties in Wales
[77]. We passed through a doorway under a religious
I9
building the sides of which were omamented with flowers and figures of boys striking
Cymbals and surmounted with a tapering Pillar ornamented with a brass coronet[?]. Near our
encampment was a plantation of Poplar trees surrounded by a stone fence to keep off Cattle a
precaution very necessary in a country where no other Timber is to be found than what is
raised by man near streams of water. The Kagha Tunzeen here infonned us that he had
received a letter from the Wuzeer stating that there was another road to Yarkund besides that
of Leh and we were requested to take it as the Small Pox was in the villages on the road to
the City and it was feared we might by communication with the villagers bring with us that
disease to the City. Abdool Luteef could not devise whence this blow to our hopes originated
as he had orders not to molest [us] but Kagha Tunzeen said he would write in our behalf. I
addressed a letter to the Wuzeer explaining our motives for taking the road of Leh in which a
compliment was passed on the reported good govemment of the Country and the good
disposition of the inhabitants and this was accompanied by a dress of superfine blue broad
Cloth. The Meer wrote also to him and sent a Kaleidoscope inclosing letters recommending
me to the Raja and Wuzeer in the warmest terms from the Raja and Wuzeer of Koolloo. The
Meer likewise desired Quajah Shah Neras to use his interest with the Wuzeer to avert the
mischief with which we were threatened
9

[20]
and Kagha Tunzeen advised our pressing forwards. Abdool Luteef took our letters and
promised to use his utmost exertions in our behalf which he was assured would be rewarded
in case of success. Kagha Tunzeen sent me twenty Apples from his Garden at Nobra. They
were exactly like our first Summer fruit. The distance of our march has been [blank] the
direction roughly [blank].
Sep‘. 21. The road continues along the banks of the same Rivulet sometimes crossing from
one side to the other when the rock was too precipitous to admit of a path but every where
labor and ingenuity were displayed in taking advantage of ledges and slopes and in very few
places was the road dangerous. Six feet seem to be sufficient for a horse with as much load
projecting from each side as ever is proper for the Mountains and as it was customary in the
time of the Rajas for the landholders to make and keep in good order the roads and as the
same usage still prevails at Joshee Muth it would be no difficult matter to re-establish the
custom along such lines as still retain their former populousness. And in others a remission of
part of the annual land rent on the land actually cultivated would be sufficient. This sacrifice
of a little labor for the service of the community would be much less onerous than the corvée
under the former Govt. of France or than our Highway work and in a few years would be
abundantly repaid to the inhabitants by the demand for the produce of the land by travellers
and the road from Almora to Neetee might be rendered safe with scarcely any expense to the
Govt. but the first measure to be taken is to induce the Tatar Chinese
21
Govt. to allow of a free commercial intercourse and to this point I will direct all the influence
I can raise. I remarked that when a Stone of a breastwork of the path was displaced by the
foot of a horse the man who next came forward made a point of replacing it or of supplying
its place with another so that during the time when the road was traversed no repair was
required from the villagers and their labor would only be wanted after the melting of the
Snows of each season. Reflection on this matter will however be most advantageously
employed when the consent of the Tatars shall have been obtained to a less limited
communication than now exists. The first two Kos of the present road was remarkable for the
surface of the plates and veins of white Quartz running into shoots of Rock Chrystal the
points perfectly transparent the base obscure. I saw no Chrystals of considerable size but
every piece of Quartz glittered in the Sun so as to dazzle the eye from the multiplicity of
points of reflection. The Rocks on each side but particularly those on the left hand presented
an aspect of novelty. Long lines of wall with mainly straight & upright but with a peaked and
rugged upper line stretched from the level of the River for several hundred feet up to the top
of the Rock. These were generally parallel and preserved mainly an equal distance from each
other in the whole of their mn Taken together they formed a great number of avenues running
from the base to the summit of the Mountain where they appeared to be met by similar
avenues and ridges from the opposite side.
[22]
The walls were in great measure composed of Plumpudding stone, the pebbles round or
oblong as if rolled and the matrix principally of a red color and excessively hard. In some
parts a hard clay stone interrupted the vein of Plum pudding stone but the latter structure
generally ran upwards as high as the sight could distinguish clearly the composition of the
Rock. The Avenues were floored with fragments from the Walls and a reddish Eanh. It
would seem that the Rocks were composed of perpendicular leaves of Plum pudding Stone
separated by a softer Material. On the annual melting of the Snow, the descent of the water
brought down with it the softened parts of the softer material and this diminution gradually
10

produced the lanes or avenues just mentioned the walls of harder material standing fast or
only falling in blocks or in fragments so that its waste was much less than that of the softer
substance. Yet the Plumpudding stone hard as it is resists not wholly the vicissitudes of the
seasons. The surface of blocks that have been recently detached is irregular & marked with
the convex projection of rolled pebbles in the mass in some parts and with depressions of
cavities from which others have been torn in the separation and have remained adhering to
the living rock. But in blocks which have been long detached and the surface of which is
either sloping from the perpendicular or perpendicular the whole face appears as if it had
been shaved
23
or planed smooth the pebbles as well as the cement having undergone equally the influence
of the moisture of the water which fell on it in snow and of the weather. But when a block has
so fallen that a surface happens to be defended from the weather that is the Snow cannot
lodge upon it the irregular superficies remains whilst the exposed surfaces become smoothed
and as it were glazed.
Following the whole of our route the course of the Rivulet we reached the town of Ookshee
where the Rivulet of Geah and Meeroo falls into a River which comes from the East and runs
to the West. It varies much in breadth but its medium was about 50 yards. Its color was
greenish, it was not fordable but seemed to run at about four miles an hour. It was here called
Yooma and I apprehend is the Gurdhdokh branch of the Indus but I could not learn
particulars of its origin. The distance of our march has been [blank] and the direction roughly
[blank]. Kagha Tunzeern sent word that he wished to purchase a Razor and one from Mr
Trebeck was sent for his acceptance.
Sep‘ 22d. It was much warmer in the night than we had felt it for some time. A little rain fell
on our Tents and new Snow had whitened the tops of the neighboring Mountains. Ookshee
contains about ten or twelve houses tolerably well built and its small walled gardens have in
them Apricot trees of large size, yellow Willows and Poplars. We were all on horseback at an
early hour to advance as near as possible
[24]
to Leh that we may negociate with greater speed than at two days march distance should our
first advices from thence be unfavorable. The direction of the road is W of N along the left
bank of the Yooma on a high plain which flanked by a line of Mountains on each side
descends to the river the left side being by much the broadest. The whole surface covered by
blocks of Stone, principally Plumpudding fragments presents an uninten”upted view of barren
desolateness. The furze and compact moss have long been left behind and nothing of the
vegetable kingdom is observable save a dwarf Artemisia and Chenopodium with a few tufts
of thin and stunted Grass notwithstanding there were many fields of Barley near Ookshee but
there was much water judiciously employed and here all is a dry waste. The road, however, is
good, where there is a flat surface the large blocks are removed to each edge and the angles
of ravines guarded by breastworks. These obligations are due to the commerce carried on
upon it. In a Valley that comes down from the Mountains on the right in a right Angle to the
Yooma at about two Miles from Ookshee is a small town surrounded by cultivated lands and
plantations the name of which I could not learn. The Mountains before us are covered with
Snow and long dark pillars descending from the clouds which hang over them and one while
resting upon one peak and at another stretching to a second or third are rapidly increasing [?]
their covering. After running from between I4 and 15000 paces along this barren
11

25
plain which in breadth seldom exceeds a mile the road descends to the edge of the left bank
of the River at the foot of the cliffs of a ridge of rock composed of compact sandstone in the
lower stratum or that on a level with the path and about a hundred feet in length, then broken
by lines of rolled Pebble stones and afterwards by layers of Pebble and sand stone. The holes
whence large pebbles had fallen formed convenient asylums for the Ravens, Choughs and
Pigeons which frequented these almost desolate tracts. With the greatest attention I examined
the large blocks of Pebble masses that had fallen near the road but saw not the slightest
indication of organic remains. On the opposite bank at a short distance in a retiring Angle
betwixt Mountains is a small cultivated tract and some houses and a Sanga of two parts is
thrown across the river in a place where its stream is divided into two channels by a large
fragment of Rock. The framework of the principal of the two bridges is formed of Trunks of
Poplar Trees laid over each other horizontally and overhanging & of a platform covered with
flat stones. After having skirted the left bank for some distance under high cliffs of loosely
connected Sand & Pebbles the road gradually rises and from an eminence the eye is delighted
by the sight of an enclosure of Poplar trees which at the distance of two miles looks like the
belt of a Park surrounded by a stone Wall. On a nearer approach several of these belts are
seen communicating with villages and com fields interspersed. In some places the Corn is on
the ground but ripe, in others persons
[26]
are busied in cutting it, in others Cattle are treading it out and in others again men and women
are engaged in throwing up the thrashed heaps that the Chaff may be blown off by the wind.
This they do with a willow Staff cut at the end and spread into four diverging fingers whilst
they keep time by singing an Air which to our Ear contained not much of harmony. The
Bullock driver in forcing his Cattle in a line around the post to which they were tied whilst
treading out the Grain chanted the same Air without ceasing as if to encourage them whilst
pursuing the same dull circle. Here I saw four Magpies the cries, plumage and habits of
which were exactly those of this bird in Europe. The road crosses a watercourse which
proceeding from the left falls into the River Yooma on its left bank. From this source trunks
are carried so as to supply an extensive stretch of cultivated land with water. Having crossed
the Rivulet I was met by a Servant of Kagha Tunzeen who by holding his right hand clenched
with the Thumb upright indicated his wish that I should attend him and following [him I] was
led into an enclosure from which the grain had been lately cut. Here I found most of my
party. Meer Izzut Oollah Khan was in low spirits. An Answer had been returned to our letters
and the intimation to assemble and encamp in one spot whilst Kagha Tunzeen had pitched his
Tent close by seemed to him an indication of care that bordering on an appearance of
guarding [?] us in his opinion boded us no good. This appeared to me a matter of indifference
27
and might just as easily be considered as an act of civility as of precaution and if of
precaution to prevent intercourse with villagers who might have the Small Pox. In the
absence of infonnation I was disposed to see a favorable indication for if there had been an
intention to arrest our progress it would consistently with prudence have been manifested at
an earlier period and we should not have been suffered to proceed unmolested to within one
days march of Leh. Shortly afterwards a person came to say that we might turn our Cattle into
the plantation and the Meer was invited to Kagha Tunzeens Tent and to the house of the
Chief of the village where he was regaled with salted Tea. On his retum leaming that he was
a Lama and the spiritual Director of Kuloon the Wuzeer I expressed my wish to pay him a
visit. He however rode past our Tent accompanied by two Servants on horseback. He was a
12

portly, jolly looking Priest about forty wore a crimson cloth dress and had on a hat like that of
a Cardinal with a more flat Crown with cross ribbands with a broad Rim covered with red
cloth. The hat was tied under the Chin had two broad Ribbands flowing behind and two cords
and Tassels of white Silk. His Servants wore white Hats without decorations but little
differing in shape from that of the Lama. I prepared a present consisting of a suit of orange
colored broad Cloth, a fine red woollen cap, some Knives, Scissors, Thread, Thimbles,
Needles and a Crimson Moirée Snuff Box filled with Snuff.
[Z3]
I went accompanied by Mr Trebeck, the Meer, his son Meer Nujuf & Hafiz. Seats were taken
for five and our party was received at the door by a Geloon who taking my hand led me up
Stairs through an open square into a low apartment open on one side in which the Prelate was
sitting having before [him] one of the same kind of small long low painted table or bench
which I had seen preparing at Sreenuggur as it was said for the market of Tibet. He received
us very courteously and ordered Tea which was served round by a Priest from a teapot of the
same kind and dimensions but of inferior design and execution to that of the Raja of Geah.
Our interpreter a Carrier though apparently proficient in the Tibet language did not in some
instances succeed in exactly communicating our sentiments. He succeeded however so far as
to convince us that we had subdued the greater part of the apprehensions first entertained
when a report reached Leh of an European armed force being on its march against that town.
The Lama directed a large Tray of Apples, a double Wallet of fine Rice and a large Sack of
Flour to be set before me. He was he said unprepared for such civility but hoped in some way
or other to be able to retum it. I would have limited his present to the Apples but found it
inpracticable to decline taking the whole. The flour I directed to be divided among all the
Servants and a Goat and a Sheep to be taken for the use of my party and that of the Meer.
29
In the evening Abdool Luteef arrived with a letter from the Wuzeer to me & one to the Meer.
That to me explained the apprehensions of the Raja on the reports spread by traders from
Koolloo and other places and expressed much civility accompanied by a piece of red China
Silk and a white [illeg.] Scarf as a cover to his letter. The letter to the Meer was less formal
but very civil. A Messenger from Qwaj a Shah Neas brought a letter which informed the Meer
that a reference was made to him as to the expedience of our being allowed to visit Leh and
of the nature of his answer. All apprehensions on the score of our reception at Leh were now
removed and twenty Rupees were directed to be given to Abdool Luteef for his good offices
on this occasion.
Sep” 23“. We waited on the Lama to take leave. He stated that he had forwarded his
sentiments respecting us to Kuloon Wuzeer and convinced as he was that I was a Merchant of
great respectability and not a person come to make preparations for taking the Country he had
made such representations as he hoped might have some weight towards gaining for us a
favorable reception. We expressed a wish that he would permit us to visit a Gompha or
Temple not far distant from the road and in which were several Statues of great value from
the materials of which they were reported to be composed but he replied that the sight of
them would not repay the inconvenience of our being so far taken out of the road proposing
as we did to reach Leh that day. Feeling that there existed
[30]
some disinclination on his part after having tried to discover whether our intention was fully
understood we no longer persisted but after some further expressions of good will on both
sides took leave. A Goom—[illeg.] was sent to my Tent and after rewarding the bringer, the
13

Priest who officiated as Tea-bearer and the Gardener [apparently sic] we mounted our
Horses. The Lama the day before had reconnoitred our party through a telescope which I was
desirous to see. It proved to be an old one made by Pyefinch London and numbered No. 27.
Its glasses had become loose by the rotting of the Brass wires which retained them in their
places and the surface of the object Glass had undergone a little of that decomposition which
is the result of the action of the Climate in Hindoostan. Without promising to replace it by a
better I expressed a hope that in future visits this might happen. The Lama said that this
instrument had been given by the Great Lama to one of his predecessors and had descended
to him. It is by no means improbable that this Glass was given by Mr Bogle the Surgeon to
the Grand Lama of Lhassa when he was deputed by Mr Hastings to visit this personage. The
name of the residence of the Lama is Marsilla, its grounds under cultivation are large, the
houses good and extemally neat and clean. But the lands in plantation are still more
extensive. The outer belt consists of the broad leafed and Lombardy Poplars the next of the
yellow or black stemmed Willow on the edge of the watercourse which at a short distance
from
31
the outer wall generally runs parallel with it in its whole outline when practicable. From this
shallow broad ravines descend towards the river and in these are planted Willows and a
variety of prickly Gale5 called Chutha thickly beset on all its branches with a small yellowish
red fruit extremely acid much relished by the carriers but of which I requested our
Hindoostanee Servants to eat cautiously. The whole of the ground that receives any water is
covered with tufts of Luceme of spontaneous growth which has just been cut and packed on
the tops of the houses. Marsilla from the extent of its cultivated lands its plantations and the
apparent neatness of its houses is by far the prettiest place I have seen since I left Hindoostan
and this it principally owes to the abundance of water it enjoys and the ingenuity and
assiduity with which it is distributed. On the right bank of the River and opposite to Marsilla
is the village of Choomri which in the extent and pleasing appearance of its plantations is
little inferior to Marsilla. A watertrench is taken from the Rivulet which divides the grounds
of Marsilla and led by a serpentine course on the right hand side of the road to the grounds
belonging to the villge of Chunga. It is about five feet broad and two deep. As the grounds of
Chunga are greatly lower than the source of the water though two miles distance some
contrivance was necessary to diminish the rapidity of the current and this is advantageously
effected by the interposition of several water corn mills. The edge of the stream is
[32]
belted by a fringe of fine short grass about two feet in breadth on the outer border of which is
placed a line of sand about a foot in breadth and heighth [sic] and a range of heavy stones
extend as a backing to the outer part of the grass. The waterway is perfectly free from weeds
and the roots of the grass bind the edge so much as to keep it firm. The object of the grass and
stones is clear and perhaps that of sand may be to fill up any chinks fonned by the side
straining of the water and to [illeg.] the spreading of the herbage. I never saw so long a line
so regular as this was without cleft or breach.
Between Marsilla and Chunga were two Temples with Geloons houses. That on the right
bank of the River is called Hemice [apparently sic] and the one at the foot of the Mountains
on the left bank but distant from it at least a mile is named Gompha is [sc. if] this be not the
general appellation for a Temple containing the figure of a deity of Which I have some
suspicion. The Crops on the lands of Chunga had been cut and were either piled or on the
thrashing floor. They appeared to consist of Barley and a small but sweet green Pea. After
leaving Chunga and passing over a barren plain we can-re in sight of the village and fort of
14

Takna with its grounds, the village of Gompha and that of Mashoo. The road skirted the
watercourse that surrounded the lands of Tuksee and in the Mountains on the left was the
village of Mashoo distant above a Mile. Opposite to Mashoo and distant from the road about
half a Mile was Tikse which may be divided into upper and lower. Upper Tikse is situated
along the upper
33
ridge of an insulated rock. One of the Houses is high has an extensive front and is said to be
fortified. Adjoining it to the West is a Monument or place of worship and still further West
are some houses of respectable appearance. These edifices appear to be about two hundred
feet above the land of the plain and the road to them is circuitous. Lower Tiksee on the plain
at the foot of the Mountain contains many more houses and several whited sepulchres.
Many neat cattle of a small kind a few Jubboos some Horses and Asses were grazing in the
newly reaped fields. The River divides the lands of Tiksee on its left bank from that of
Gompha on the right.
The Buildings in the town or village of Gompha seem to ascend in stages to a considerable
height and near the base is a long plain structure like a high wall without door or Window
discoverable on the front towards the road. Gompha is said to be the residence of great
numbers of the religious order and of the relations of the Raja. At the eastem end of Tiksee
begins the extensive valley of Jubboo covered with villages and fann houses the roofs of
which covered with a thick bed of fire wood and of dry luceme whited without and fumished
with balconies have a comfortable appearance.
We were met on the road by a Messenger from Qwaja Shah Neas who resided at the town of
Sheh situated at the foot of the Hills on the right bank of the River and who desired to see us.
We crossed two branches of the Stream by fording on an Island
[34]
between the second and third branches were received by the Qwajah who had provided a
small low tent for us to prevent the necessity of our crossing the third branch. This was done
that we might not communicate with the inhabitants of Sheh amongst whom it Was suspected
there were some affected with the Small Pox. Qwaj ah Shah Neas is about sixty years of age
of rather low stature and somewhat corpulent. He has an expressive and prepossessing
countenance and appears healthy and active. He was dressed in a large Gown of new and fine
snuff colored broad cloth lined with Woollen Chintz. He had prepared for us a repast of sweet
and salted Tea with wheaten Cakes Yarkund Biscuits apples fresh Apricots and green Grapes
from Kashmeer. The salted Tea was by far the best we had met with, the cakes were good the
Yarkund Biscuits were almost as hard as pebbles and were intended to be soaked in Tea, the
Apricots were tolerably good but small Grapes sour. Our Repast was spread on a Carpet and
partaken with a relish that was heightened by the frank manners and attentive hospitality of
our Host with whose manners I was highly pleased. He said that he had been for seven
Months as it were a prisoner at Sheh having not once been at Leh during that period on
account of the small pox having been common in the former town. He had been accused by
the Kashmeerees of having invited us to come to Ludagh. On a reference being made to him
by Kuloon Wuzeer stating that a new occurrence had taken place on
35
which he wished for his advice viz. That Feringhees a people only known to him by report
had entered the country of Ludagh and he desired to have his opinion on the propriety of
allowing them to come to Leh the Qwajah answered that if he had not wished them to come it
was his duty as Governor of the country to have signified his dissent and disapprobation
15

before they had crossed the frontier. But that as they were now within a short distance from
Leh he thought the best plan would be to not only to allow them to come but to treat them
with civility. If they came as friends he would get a bad name by stopping them and if as
enemies he doubted whether they would suffer themselves to be stopped by him. We
departed soon after our repast and left the Meer to converse with his friend. Our road lay
along the plain of Jubboo overspread with houses and enclosures of dry stones or of stones
with mud cement. The Crops were all cut and the grain in the Straw was piled in low cones.
The women without caps with under garments of woollen and wearing a Sheepskin on their
backs with the wool inwards seemed to do almost the whole of the outdoor agricultural
business whilst most of the men seemed to have no other occupation than attending the
thrashing floor lounging or smoking — at least this is the impression made on me from what I
have hitherto seen. Having crossed the River by a bridge to its right bank we encamped. The
distance of this days march has been
[36]
[blank] paces and the direction roughly [blank]
Set)” 24″‘ Much sleet fell during the night & continued till one oclock when Mr Trebeck and I
began our march from [blank] in a northerly direction towards Leh the Meer and Abdool
Luteef having preceded us by a few hours to prepare a house for our reception. The road led
over a sandy ascent on a surface wholly destitute of vegetation between two ranges of low
and barren rocks by which Leh was so concealed that a stranger would not have been led to
suspect the existence of a town in that direction. It then turned a narrow defile by the side of a
long low pile of inscribed Stones to the westward towards two of the largest sepulchral
Towers connected by the longest range of pile [?] we had seen which was upwards of a
thousand paces. From this we reached a second line of stones still longer connecting two
smaller towers on the square sides of which was represented in relief a monstrous
Quadropede with large goggle eyes open mouth the tongue hanging out and one large tooth in
each jaw twisted like a Parrots beak. The fore legs of which the feet were armed with
monstrous claws seemed in the attitude of striking and the hind [legs] supported the body.
Some locks of hair divided surrounded the face and breast of he animal which distantly
resembled a Lion. Some of the Monuments we have seen have been surmounted by an Urn
somewhat resembling a large
37
earthen oil jar others by a conical pillar of well burnt brick. The former had generally a pole
projecting from the summit the latter were crowned by a kind of double Coronet of Copper
joined in the middle and cut in filligree and gilt. The upper one was always the smallest and
its largest circumference upwards whilst the reverse was the case with that below. In the bowl
of the upper one was a crescent of brass or copper-gilt in the concave part of this was lodged
a circular form flatted on the sides and exactly resembling in form and size a cheese and on
the top of the whole was a still smaller figure like a short pear with the stem upwards. All
these ornaments or emblems were gilt. The cheese part of one at Marsilla had a circular knot
of Rock chrystal inserted in its centre like an eye and a small wire projected from each horn
of the Crescent and from the tail of the Pear[?]. The vicinity of every town was decorated
with these monuments of mortality but the urn like buildings were most common and at Sheh
I mistook them at a distance for a Camp. We experienced a driving Sleet with a very cold
wind in our joumey to Leh which was [blank] paces distant from our last nights encampment
direction [blank]
The streets and walls of Leh were lined and covered with Crowds of Men Women and
Children to witness the entry of the F eringees into the City.°
16

[38]
[blank] had kindly ordered a house of his own to be made ready for us. This was two stories
high and was sufficiently capacious to contain our whole party with the merchandize and a
yard extending along two sides of the building commodiously held our Horses. The walls
consisted of large unbumt bricks the outside whitened the inside of the original color of the
earth. The Roof was fonned of rafters or small Trunks of Poplar Trees over which a layer of
Willow-shoots, this was covered by a coating of Straw and this by a bed of earth. The rafters
were only half the breadth of the Apartments and rested upon a square beam of Poplar which
reposed on the cross walls and was supported by two square Pillars of the same wood of
which the capital was composed of two horizontal crutch heads, the lower about 3‘/1 feet and
the upper about five feet both stretching under the beam. The Pillars stood upon a cross wall.
The Doors were of Poplar plank united by a cross bar let into their substance crosswise and
secured by wooden pins. The light was admitted by an open Balcony containing a Window
frame about ten feet in length in four compartments but without curtain or cover and by a
small slit at one end guarded by a thin frame of Poplar. This principal room was 24 feet by 18
and 7 feet high. The floor was of earth beaten. My bed was about 7 feet broad and 10 long.
The Stairs were formed of rough Stones and the Mansion altogether though not elegant was
spacious and though in style not equal to a common English
39
Farmhouse was to us a most comfortable asylum when contrasted with our long residence in
Tents so injured by the weather as to give entrance to every blast as well as to every smart
shower of rain. We rested comfoflably without hearing the rush of torrents or the crash of
avalanches which indeed for the last five or six days have not been either great or frequent.
Sep” 25’“. Abdool Luteef attended with the Custom Master here called Chooghzuth and some
subordinate Officers to weigh our Merchandize in order that the duties might be levied upon
them. This business was performed with civility and apparent fairness. During the whole of
the day a Crowd has surrounded the door and the roof of a house opposite has been covered
by Kashmeerees unmistakable for their Jew like countenances, their dirty woollen clothes and
large muslin Turbands.
Sept. 26. This day was appointed for the Kuloon’s audience of the Meer. As it is customary
for a Stranger to take a present when he pays a Visit in this Country to a man of rank I
furnished the Meer with a Sportsman’s Knife, a Penknife, and a large pair of
Scissors which were received and admired. Instead of giving the general result of the
conversation between the Kuloon and Meer Izzut Oollah Khan I think it preferable to recite
the particulars as taken from the Meer. After mutual compliments of civility and salted Tea
the Kuloon entered upon business by the following enquiry. This is a small country of little
produce. What inducements can a resident of a large and greatly productive country have to
visit it?
[40]
Meer — Our intention is to go to Bokhara to purchase Horses. By the overthrow of the
sovereignty in Kabool [travel] through that country is made dangerous to Merchants. The
country of Tibet is represented as safe and you have the reputation of being a just man. The
coin of every country differs in value and is of limited currency. That of Hindoostan little
known in Bokhara would not preserve its original value there and thus loss would ensue but
from the reports of Merchants the manufactures of England and of India would ensure profit
in that City and we have therefore brought it meaning to employ its proceeds in the purchase
of Horses. It is customary [to bring] into countries which produce little merchandize such
17

articles as are desirable in them from those countries which possess them in superfluity.
Kuloon — I understood from reports during your march that you had a great body of men and
that all the Natives on your route fled at your approach. – This is not tnie. All the Rajas
through whose country we have passed have furnished Porters and sent presents as
indications of friendship. Kuloon — The people here have imputed to you different intentions.
Meer — If you will examine our numbers you will have an opportunity of forming a judgment
for yourself of the probability of our entertaining intentions of conquering countries with
such a force. Besides it has never been the practice or intention of the Sirkar (the British
Indian Government) to take
41
Countries without just cause. This Govt. has had no intention to take countries but has given
countries which produce millions of revenue to several native Princes for instance to the
Nawab of Oude, to Raja Doulut Rai Sindeea to the Geekwar &c. And they have never
attempted to deprive their rich Neighbors of any territory as the Nizam Eelee Khan or Raja
Runjeet Singh. If they were desirous of acquiring territory they would have closed with the
offer of Shooja ool Moolk or more lately with that of Muhammud Azeem Khan when he
tendered Kashmeer to their acceptance. If they had consented to take Kashmeer the whole of
Tibet must have fallen within their power as a matter of course. As they have no lust of
conquest so have they no desire to attack others unprovoked. When the Goorkhas invaded the
domains of Raja Sansar Chand he requested the British Government would assist him to repel
the invaders but they replied that as the Goorkhas had not acted as enemies towards them
they could not wage war against the Gooorkha Govt. But when the Goorkhas did act hostilely
towards the British Govt. the latter punished them in a manner that must have come to your
knowledge. Kuloon Are the Ooroos (the Russians) and the English on terms of friendship?
Meer They are. Some years back Buonaparte
[42]
the Sovereign of the French invaded the Empire of Russia and took Moscow. He was
afterward compelled to retire by the rigorous cold of the climate and by the resistance of the
Russians. Afterwards the English in conjunction with the Russians invaded France and after
many sanguinary battles in which many Lakhs of Troops were engaged Buonaparte was
defeated and he is now held in confinement by the English. Kuloon Are the English in
friendly relations with Kutha (China)? Yes and Metcalfe Sahib (Mr Metcalfe) resides on the
part of the English in some city in China the name of which I have forgotten. Kuloon We are
tributaries of China. What is the name of the Country to which these Firingees belong and
what that of their principal City? Meer Inglistan (England) and London. Kaloon. What fruits
are produced in their Country? Meer — The English raise the fruits of hot Countries in houses
constructed on purpose, roofed with Glass and filled with heated Air. Kuloon I have heard
that contrivances of the same sort are also applied to the same use in Russia. Kuloon. These
English people are said to possess a knowledge of all sorts of workmanship and arts and
make Telescopes, Watches and Magic Lanthoms. The construction of Magic Lanthoms is not
very difficult but the English excel in making Telescopes and Watches and the other
43
valuable works of art. Kuloon. What trade does this Sahib follow? Meer. He is an Hakim or
medical man and possesses great skill in his profession. Here the Meer touched upon the
subject of the Small Pox, the discovery of a new medicine which prevented it ever proving
fatal to those to whom it was properly administered and the benefit its introduction might
produce in this Country. The Kuloon listened with much attention but made no reply to the
18

Meers observations. Kuloon. I have heard that the Sovereign of England is a Woman. Meer.
That is as it may happen. I understand that the first born to the reigning King whether male or
female succeeds to the Throne. Kuloon Do the English follow the religion of Eesuee (Christ)
Meer Yes. And I understand that your religion resembles that of the Christians. Kuloon.
Perhaps; by seeing the books of the Christians this point may be determined. Meer. I know
that in one circumstance there is a similarity. You say Kunchogh Sum and the Christians say
there are three persons in one God viz Khoda, Raool [?] Kuddus and Huzrut Eesa. How is it
that you make out the Kunchogh Sum? Kuloon we call one God, another the Book or Word,
and the third the Heart or Understanding, as the Meer conceived for the Interpreter was not
clear and he was at a loss to determine whether the obscureness arose from the later not
understanding the Kuloon or from the
[44]
the Kuloon not understanding the subject. Kuloon – How many Goorkhas are with you? Meer
— Fourteen. Kuloon — Are they Servants? Meer — Yes. They are the servants of the
Govemment by whom many have been entertained since the commencement of the war with
that power. Kuloon — You were here before. How long is that ago? Meer Eight years. Kuloon
— You did not then come to see me. Meer — No. I had not at that time any business that
required it. Kuloon — when did you fonn an acquaintance with Qwajah Shah Neas? Meer At
that time. Kuloon — You are a Moosulman and a Sueyeed [sic]. On your oath as such tell me
what are the intentions of the Sahib? Meer — I have before explained to Abdool Luteef, to
Kagha Tunzeen and just now to you under the same sacred obligation the intentions of the
Sahib and you may moreover at this moment record in writing as from me that from this visit
of this Gentleman no mischief and much good will result to you. The Meer then took leave of
the Kuloon but in the evening forwarded for his inspection a letter from Mohummud Azeem
Khan the then Ruler of Kashmeer to Meer Izzut Oollah in which he stated that the Kazee
Mohummud Hassan would explain fully his sentiments and that whatever should be agreed
upon by them should be binding upon him. The object of the Kazees mission was to tender
Kashmeer to the British Gov” through the Meer to the Resident in Dehlee and though the
contents of the letter went not into particulars
45
yet as its originality was recognized by the seal and it was given for its reference to the
business of the cession mentioned by Meer Izzut Oollah and tended much to tranquillize the
mind of the Kuloon.[this sentence sic].
Sep“ 27m. The Carriers of Lahoul having delivered my property at Leh were desirous to
depart and I rewarded Faqeer Singh the Commissioner from Koolloo, Rama the Kanoongo
and Ram Dhan the conductor of the Cattle from Lahoul with a sum of money that would
considerably exceed their expenses on returning. I had fumished to them and their attendants
Provisions during their whole journey so that with the profits they would derive from the hire
of their Cattle and the customary compliments from the owners of the other Cattle this trip
would prove more lucrative than any in which they had been heretofore engaged.
The Kafila Bashee however found a deficiency in the flour to the amount of near forty
Rupees and of about twenty Bags delivered to the carriers. He had insisted upon them making
good the value of the flour as they had been paid for its conveyance & as it could not have
been lost by any accident in the joumey but must have been taken by the persons to whose
charge it had been given. However considering that to render every person concerned in the
transport of our baggage satisfied with our conduct and so be the more willing to lend their
aid at any future time was of more importance than the value of the money I ordered the sum
refunded
19

[46]
to be restored after a reproof. Thus they all went away perfectly contented. I had purchased as
much wheat flour and P—[illeg.] &c. as I conceived would meet the consumption of our Party
for two months. The original cost was reasonable enough but with the expense of the
transport to Leh the Provision cost me Rs 6.4.5 per Maund. At Leh owing to an increased
importation from various parts and a plentiful home harvest the market price was reduced
unusually and all kinds of Grain were to be had at ten Sers for a Rupee. Considering that the
cost price if charged to the Sipohees would bear hard upon them and the Servants I ordered
the charge to the whole to be at the bazar price that is 4/- per Maund instead of Rs 6.4.5 by
which up to this time the loss is Rs 273.4.
Sep“ 28‘ and 29m occurred without any incident.
Sep” 30’“. Meer Izzut Oollah went to visit Qwajah Shah Neas having previously in reference
to the Small Pox notified his intention to the Kuloon and obtained his concurrence. Kagha
Tunzeen sent for some Chintz and I returned a piece for his acceptance which I had thought
to be handsome. He wished it changed for one with a white ground which could be worn by
him for Chintz with a colored ground was only proper for women and he had lost two wives
and Was now Without one. He expressed his surprize that I had not yet paid a visit to the
Kuloon. That if Merchants from a distance arrived at Leh at night the following day they
waited on the Kuloon and afterwards
47
departed if they were in progress to any other place. Hafiz Fazil in reply observed that we
were strangers and unacquainted with the customs of the Country, that we conceived we
should be informed when it would be agreeable for the Kuloon to receive us and should be
ready the moment we should be apprised thereof. He said that he would signify this to the
Kuloon but being told that it would be proper to wait the return of the Meer he enquired the
motive of his visit to which it was replied that the Qwajah stood in the same relation to the
Meer as the principal Lama did to him. With this answer he appeared to be satisfied.
A letter from the Meer desired me not to hurry [?] the visit [to] the Kuloon and in the evening
he arrived. The Qwajah had informed him that the Kashmeerees pressed the Kuloon to hasten
our departure and endeavored to persuade him that we were capable of purchasing all the
Shawl Wool of Tibet and desirous of so doing by which both Ludagh and Kashmeer would
be ruined. He advised that we should not make any proposition but endeavor so to act as to
induce the Kuloon to make a proposition of intercourse to which object he would most
willingly lend his aid as soon as he should have a suitable opportunity. He had prepared to go
to Leh but leaming the state of things had postponed his visit until he should be sent for by
the Kuloon which he thought would soon happen as he knew that he was laboring
[48]
under extreme anxiety on our account. If he were to go to Leh without this invitation and
communicate with us it would be said that we acted in concert and his influence would be
diminished if not wholly lost, but if sent for by the Kuloon expressly for his advice he could
forward our interest more effectually. The Raja he said had lately received a letter from
Russia written in Nogaeel Toorkee which was not thoroughly understood but this
circumstance added to our arrival had raised so much anxiety in his mind as to have caused
his bulk to have diminished most notably according to common report.
Oct. lst. This moming I sent a few yards of Chintz with white ground to Kagha Tunzeen; he
wished to pay for it but was requested to retain both pieces as trifles which indicated
friendship but not worthy the fom-1 of a money transaction. After making some difficulties he
20

said that the District under his management was on our road to Yarkund and he hoped there
to shew that he was not ungrateful for the civilities he had received from us.
About twelve a Courtier on horseback announced that the Kuloon would be glad to receive us
and deputed him to conduct us to his house. Mr Trebeck, Meer Izzut Oollah and myself on
horseback followed this Master of Ceremonies and were respectfully saluted by spectators of
all ages and of both sexes who lined the streets and filled the windows of the houses by which
we passed. The Kashmeerees who were very numerous made an obeisance of the head
49
saying Salam Aleikum which we acknowledging [sic] by returning the bow and repeating Wa
Aleikum as Salam. The Ludaghees touching their forehead with their right hand called out
Joo which signifies Salutation. We went through several narrow winding passages up to a
door where our conductor dismounted but made signs to me to proceed until I reached
another door close to which was a shed into which my Groom was directed to take my Mule.
On entering the door Music struck up and continued playing till after we had ascended two
flights of Stairs we had reached an Antichamber full of Attendants. Here Kagha Tunzeen
apparently in waiting took my right hand led me into another room and followed by our Party
presented me to the Kuloon who was seated. When I was stepping back to a Chair placed in
front of the Kuloon on a line of felts he desired to shake me by the hand and placing it
between his slightly bowed his head.
The Kuloon with a person whom I understood to be the second Wuzeer and the *Son in law
of the former was seated close to the Wall as I presume on a Bench but which was concealed
by a long table with a wooden front reaching from nearly as high as the Ministers breast to
the floor. I seated myself and enquired after his health after returning an answer he said that
he feared our health might have suffered from the long and fatiguing journey he understood
we had had.
*Kagha Tunzeen is Brother in law to the Kuloon & not son in law as I had understood.
[50]
I replied that our health had not suffered and that our fatigues were repaid by the pleasure of
having an interview and of forming a friendly intercourse with him. Salted Tea was then
presented to us and the Kuloon his Coadjutors and a line of Courtiers seated cross legged on
Felts on the right hand side of the door also partook of the libation which even we now began
to relish. A row of Servants stood between the seated Courtiers and the Wall and betwixt us
and the door was a large body of Attendants but Tea was given to all by one Servant from a
huge ornamented Teapot of the same material but less handsome than that of the Raja of
Geah. The Kuloon asked the names and ages of Mr Trebeck and myself the names of our
Country and King and the distance and direction of the former. Whether I had ever visited
Roum, (Constantinople). On a pause taking place I observed that I regretted to hear the Small
Pox had lately visited his country and destroyed many lives. That I hoped, if it were his wish,
to be able to put him in a way of employing a Medicine which if properly managed would
prevent the Small pox ever destroying life and I conceived that the introduction of it into this
Country would ensure to the Ruler who should first patronize it a reputation more extensive
and more durable than ever appertained to any other individual that had filled that station. He
answered me with great fluency and without the smallest hesitation for a considerable time,
speaking
21

51
with animation as if interested. But our interpreter Mohsin Baba who spoke the Tibet
language freely but the Persian indifferently and in the Kashmeeree dialect obviously
compressed the Kuloons speech rendering only the substance and that as it seemed to us
imperfectly. Customs he remarked differed much amongst different Nations. The Customs of
Ludagh were of long standing, founded on those of Kutha (China) and Lhassa. He could not
on his own authority adopt new ones, nor could he receive any of novel cast [?], however
apparently advantageous unless they were previously sanctioned by them. I mentioned the
national rewards received [7] by Dr Jenner, the general propagation of the medicine which
had now received universal suffrage, the diffusion of it in Hindoostan and the philanthropic
principle on which it was founded. But finding that conviction was not likely to result or to
lead to the measure of two persons being sent to Almora where they might learn the practice
of vaccination and by Mr Traill’s hospitable and attentive conduct leam also to uproot the
prejudices of the Chinese Tatars I dropped the subject. And indeed during the latter part of
the discussion I was not without apprehension lest the will against the introduction of
novelties might be applied against us as well as against our doctrines and practices.
Meer Izzut asked for an explanation of the picture of a female Whose
[52]
complexion was green and who had red eyes but whose features though somewhat stiff were
handsome, regular and mild. Her upper garments were green also but her Trowsers or
stockings for they were apparently continued from the waist to the ancle were light colored
and the part below the knee was secured to the leg so as to be made to sit tight by filletting.#
She was represented as sitting cross legged in the cup of a flower and one side of her head
was decorated by flowers and leaves. It was said that she was a Fairy but as the interpreter
was a Moosulman who probably possessed neither the curiosity nor the liberality of the Meer
the accuracy of his translation upon a subject that generally calls forth the indignation or the
contempt of the Moslems is open to question. The Kuloon asked if we did not follow the
religion of Eesa (translated with the addition of Huzrut). Being answered in the affirmative I
remarked that circumstances which had fallen under my observation led me to conclude that
there was some affinity between the religions professed in Tibet and Christianity, to which he
said that it was enjoined by his religion to act justly to all men in order that its followers
# Some of our Carriers tied their leggings of woollen with red filleting or garter crossed lozengewise.
Had our English Ancestors the same custom before knit Hose were common and is this what is meant
by cross garters continued after the use of Stockings rendered it unnecessaiy & still practised by the
Highlanders? [This sentence sic]
53
may be happy in the world to come. I stated that to do good to all men was or ought to be one
of the fundamental rules of all religions. That in my possession was a book which professed
to treat in part of the religion of Tibet and contained also some of its forms of prayer as well
as of those prescribed to some classes of Christians. That if he thought the sight of it would
afford him any gratification I would sent it. He expressed considerable desire to see it but
immediately asked if we had any Wine and on being told that we had and that some should be
forwarded to him forthwith he observed that though he did not drink wine he was rather
curious to see that we drank. He enquired if we had also Atar. I said that we had Atar of
Roses and also European Atars of which specimens should be submitted. I then offered to
take leave on which he remarked that business of an urgent nature required his attendance
elsewhere or he should have been happy much more considerably [sic] to have prolonged the
interview but that he was in hopes we should soon meet again.
22

Before leaving the room I shook hands with the Kuloon and his two friends and was led out
of the apartment and to the head of the Stairs by Kagha Tunzeen.
Our present to the Kuloon consisted of superfine scarlet BroadCloth, of green Merino Cloth—-
English white long cloth—-Chintzes of three patterns~a very handsome single
[54]
barreled Gun with apparatus complete in a case An elegant enamelled small Telescope—-a
Kaleidoscope8—-a Razor with ornamented blade. Needles and fine thread in balls. An oil
painted Snuff Box Filled and a large bottle of Hoffmans colored Comfits#. He looked slightly
at the different articles whilst we remained but one of our servants having stayed after our
departure reported that he then examined them separately and expressed his surprize and
satisfaction to his Coufiiers at their beauty. The Kuloon whose name is Tsiva Tundoo appears
to be about sixty years of age. He is thin and of middle size. His countenance is marked by an
expression of shrewdness and his manners as far as may be detennined by the first interview
which is ordinarily more formal than subsequent ones are such as arise from much
intercourse with mankind and were less stiff than those of the Raja of Geah. His outer dress
was a large loose brown colored woollen Coat with an under Garment of Brocade and his
black velvet Cap was Without ornament. During the interview he smoked from a small but
handsome Hooqqa much ornamented but drank tea from a wooden Cup lined with Silver and
differing in nothing from the cups of his courtiers. The second Wuzeer called Noona Kuloon
somewhat younger than the first differs not much in countenance. His outer Coat was of
Brocade, and his Cap
#During the time the Customs Officers were examining our Merchandize a subordinate thinking he was
not observed made a sly snatch at the side of one of the Comfit Bottles and looked exceedingly silly at
finding the Glass of the nature ofwhich he was ignorant offered [not] the completion[‘?] of his wish.
55
was bedecked with a profusion of flowers amongst which the African Marigold was most
conspicuous. The youngest man about 25 years of age wore a Chinese Chintz Gown
decorated with embossed groups of flowers on silk. The Kuloon’s apartment of audience was
of a good size but rather low and had only one large window to the South without glass or
Talc* but over this was drawn lightly a curtain of Pink brocade with small silver flowers. Its
roof was ceiled with compartments composed of triangular pieces of wood disposed in
lozenges and separated by projecting bars painted with green and vermillion. A Row of
wooden pillars supporting the roof ran along the greatest length of the room. Their shafts
were painted with vermillion and the capitals ornamented with flowers, fruit and foliage
carved in low relief in green or gold appropriately and the whole surface varnished. A deep
cornice of foliage intennixed with strange figures ran round the room and one of these
grotesque forms held a handful of flowers over the seat of the Kuloon. Below this and
surrounding the apartment was hung a series of Tatar Bows Arrows and Shields intermixed
with Matchlocks. Immediately above the head of the Kuloon a small canopy consisting of a
mixture of fine woollen cloth and silk on which the Chinese Dragon was represented was
suspended from the roof and
*Mohsin Baba a Kashmeeree had the Windows of his house made of small squares of [illeg.] each
containing a lozenge or square of Talc. Other Kashmeerees had the same frame Work but no Talc.
[56]
surrounded by a hanging flounce of about a foot in depth of variously colored cloth. On the
wall above and behind him was a large square of patchwork apparently of broad cloth in
23

squares resembling a checquer board. A very beautiful Persian Carpet of silk spread on the
floor extended for nearly the whole length of the Room in front of the ministerial bench but
was only about two yards broad. On this sate Kagha Tunzeen and between it and the range [?]
of Felts on which were our seats the plaster floor of a chocolate color appeared as if lately
polished. This kind of floor I before observed in the Apartments of the principal Lama of the
Monastery of Daba. A few painted Chinese Chests with brass Clasps fonned a line on the left
side of the room and round the shafts of the pillars letters [appar. sic] were tied by cords.
Small long red perfumed tapers little thicker than rushes laid along the Ministers bench and
resting against the feet of the pillars were kept burning whilst we were in the room. I dare not
scrutinize too deeply the origin of this custom but am not without suspicion that the perfume
is intended to counteract other odours which in a numerous assembly of persons not delicate
in their food sometimes derange the olfactory Nerves and discompose the features of the
party. At the same time I must observe that the same kind of taper was burnt in some of the
temples I formerly visited.9 A remarkable difference exists between the observances of
decomm of
57
Moosulmans and Tatars in regard to Carpets. A well bred Moosulman takes off his Slippers
when he is about to seat himself upon it; a Tatar keeps his on and considers it improper to
follow the example of the former. The persons in attendance behaved with similar decorum.
On my retum I forwarded a very beautiful cut glass Decanter filled with Noyau“) and
accompanied with a large Goblet of the same pattern with a bottle of Cherry and Raspberry
Ratafia“, Rum Shrub and Gin. Having before noticed the fondness of the Tatars for
spirituous liquors I brought a small quantity of each expressly for presents. To the above were
added two bottles of French Essences, a bottle of Eau de Cologne and an elegant enamelled
French Essence bottle with gold top filled with Atar of Rose of Ghazipoor. The Kuloon as I
leamed from the Servant who took these articles was highly gratified with this present and
poured a little of the Noyau into the palms of the hands of his Courtiers who manifested their
satisfaction with its flavor.
Oct. 2nd. The Kuloon sent a messenger to express his satisfaction with our visit and to infonn
us that he was about to leave Leh for three days. And Kagha Tunzeen borrowed two horses to
accompany him as his Attendants exceeded the number of his horses at this place. We this
day received information privately that an express arrived yesterday from Gurdokh with
advice from the
[53]
Garhpun that a F iringee had entered the District under his jurisdiction from Busehur. That a
body of his Zumeendars armed had opposed his progress although he was accompanied by
seven hundred Attendants. On being questioned as to his motives for entering their territory
he replied that he had brought merchandize for sale, to which they observed that they did not
want and should not purchase any from him, but that if he wished to fight they were ready to
meet him. After this he returned. There is in this report almost as much extolment of personal
valour and exaggeration of numbers as in that of Sir John Falstaff. Mr Gerard had infonned
me when I was as it were a prisoner at Hoshiarpoor that in the beginning of June he purposed
to set out on a geographical tour meaning to trace the Sutroodra [sic] to its source, then to
proceed from the source of the Gurhdokh River to that station and thence to Leh where he
hoped to meet me. At Kooloo a discharged Servant of his said that Mr Gerard did actually
commence his joumey in June, that he had nine personal servants and that forty porters were
employed in the transport of his baggage making in all fifty individuals whom the Ooneas
had converted into seven hundred. In the evening we heard from the same informant that an
24

Express had come from Undeleh [sic—-?Hanle] to the Kuloon stating that a Firingee Sahib
had arrived at that place and stated his intention to go to Leh, but that he was stopped by
59
the authorities of Undeleh until they should learn whether it was the will of the Kuloon that
he should proceed to Leh or otherwise. An informant said that the messenger had returned
with an answer but that he knew not its purport. Undeleh is said to be 4 days joumey to the
[blank] of Geah. It would seem that Mr Gerard has skirted the northem foot of the Mountains
without repassing the Ghats.
Oct. 5. The Kuloon returned last night and invited Meer Izzut Oollah to partake of an
entertainment in a garden consisting of Poplars and Willows about a Kos distant from the
town. He was in high spirits and good humor played at some game on horseback with a stick
more resembling trap [sic]12 than exercising with the J—-[illeg.]. He had he said a title from
China which he called Ginak and one from Dehli which latter he promised to shew the Meer
along with the letter he received from Russia as he now stated about a year ago. The Meer
took occasion to mention that he presumed the title had been conferred on the Kuloon by
Orangzeb at the time his troops cleared Tibet from the Kalmaks and the Raj a became a
Moosulman. The Kuloon said the Kashmeerees endeavored to poison his mind against us by
telling him that I should ruin both him and them in a short time by giving a double price for
all the Shawl Wool raised in Tibet. Meer Izzut Oollah again assured him that in proportion as
he shewed friendship towards me his interest instead of being injured would be benefited
[60]
by the connection. He rode with the Meer to our door and the impression made on the Meer’s
mind is that his apprehensions are greatly diminished. Amongst other conversation he
enquired whether the Armies of the Emperor of China or those of the English power were
more numerous to which the Meer replied that numerically those of China greatly exceeded
those of the British Government but that in military effect he might estimate a thousand
British Troops as equal to a lakh of Chinese Soldiers. The Meer pointed out the borders of the
British Indian Empire the extent of which excited his astonishment. We have just heard that a
Son of Qwaja Shah Neas 25 years of age has died after twenty four hours illness of the
Cholera in Kashmeer. This bears hardly as the Kuloon had just told the Meer that he should
speak to the Raj a to request the Qwaja would visit Leh. This occurrence would certainly
delay his visit and the adjustment of our business for some days. I have been in daily and
anxious [anticipation?] of hearing from Mr Gerard for the last three days as he might without
difficulty despatch one of his Busehur Servants to Leh without inciting any suspicion and an
explanation from him would enable me to apply to the Kuloon in his behalf if he wishes to
visit to Leh but pending his silence I cannot take any step.
Oct” 6‘h to the l0‘h. Nothing particular has occurred but the Kuloon has sent a present of
flour, wheat salt and 3 Sheep and a Goat. The Meer went to condole with the Qwaja
61
and found him in great mental distress. The Kuloon has sent for him and he will come in a
day to Leh. In pursuance of some forms of religion he cannot partake of the accommodation
of a house which had been provided for him and our tents will be lent to him. It appears that
the Raja had expressed some surprise at our stay and apprehension for its consequenes to
which the Kuloon observed that he must be aware that it was not in his power to furnish
Cattle for the transport of our merchandize to Yarkund in a short time and that our conduct
shewed us to be Merchants of too much importance to be sent away without having received
all the assistance possible. The Qwaja says that the Kashmeerees are waiting for the Yarkund
25

Kafilah to arrive to fumish them with money and that he fears none can be raised by Bills. He
was sent for about 18 months ago by his disciples at Yarkund and money was offered to
defray his expenses but that it did not suit him then to go. I had hoped by reaching Leh in
May to have had sufficient time to send for the remaining merchandize from Furokhabad and
either to have raised money there by Bills on Calcutta or at Leh by the sale of some of our
goods but the delay experienced by the manoeuvres of the Singhs has broken my measures
and placed me in an awkward dilemma. A messenger could not reach Furokhabad in less than
50 days and the Ghaths of Neetee and Kooloo will be
[62]
closed by snow in December, that of Busehur is practicable the whole year but no can”iage
cattle for hire are procurable upon it and by this road as well as by that of Neetee a portion of
the country tributary to China must be passed. The road from Shooj anpoor [?] to Chamba is
impassable for Cattle and its Ghaths are also closed in winter. The lower roads to Kashmeer
are infested by robbers supported by the Moosulman Chieftains in its neighborhood since
Kashmeer has been captured by the Singh or else this would have been the easiest route. But
again delay might again take place in Kashmeer through the operations of the Sikhs. And We
have no accounts of the state of the roads in Kabool that can be depended upon though I am
in daily expectation of receiving letters from Mohummud Azeem Khan and the sons of Meer
Quleeck Ulee Khan. Till these come to hand I can do nothing in reference to the goods at
Furokhabad although they are particularly desirable. I hope to be able to raise money here for
our journey to Yarkund by disposing of some of my merchandize but a much larger sum is
required than I [illeg.] for the hire of a Horse being 50 Rs for the journey. Formerly and for
many years past several Kafilahs from Yarkund reached Leh every year but not one has
arrived during the last seven months which has produced great constemation amongst the
Kashmeeree traders whose wares have
63
accumulated at Leh and they are now preparing to can”y them to Yarkund themselves.
Various reasons have been assigned for the extraordinary interruption to the normal
commerce but the most plausible is the following. Omar Khan the King of F erghana or
Khokan sent an Ambassador annually to Yarkund. The Chinese Custom House Officers
finding that for many years back there was a great diminution of the duties on articles
imported from Khokhan without an apparent scarcity or diminution of the articles themselves
in the market entertained a suspicion of the Ambassador being in the habit of bringing great
numbers of Merchants with their wares as Servants it not being usual to search the baggage of
Ambassadors. On a more minute enquiry they saw such reason for believing their conjectures
founded on fact as to represent the matter to the Govemor who requested the King of
Khokhan to omit the ceremony of sending an Ambassador annually. Omar Khan offended at
the message directed all his subjects to withdraw from Yarkund and the Chinese territory
generally or to abide by such consequences as might befall them. The principal traders from
Yarkund to Leh are persons called Indujanees from the District of that name subject to the
King of Khokhan and it is presumed that they have obeyed the summons of their Sovereign
though no hostilities have been
[64]
heard of. I have had another interview with the Kuloon who treated our party with salted Tea,
a good Broth thickened with Rice, apples, sweet Cakes and sugar figures of men on
horseback, Elephants &c. from Kashmeer, with white and black Grapes the produce of the
vallies [sic] of Ludagh. He was extremely attentive and even kind. My present for it is not
26

customary to approach the Minister empty handed consisted of a Tiara of white Bugles [sic]
for a female headdress, a roll of Virginia Pigtail tobacco, two strings of Rock Pink Pearl
beads, and a Ceylon Amethyst for a Ring, with about half a dozen Knives. He desired to have
the history of the author of the Book I had lent him and I gave it him representing that he and
others had interfered more with the religion of the country than the [illeg.] Government
approved and were ordered to leave it which they did and on their retum to their own Country
made the book he then had. He said that the contents of the work printed in the Tibe[tan]
character were most exact and evinced great labor and ability on the part of the Author. As it
had been strongly reported amongst the Natives that Alexander the Great had visited Leh I
enquired if there were any testimonies of the fact in their books. He answered that he had
seen a book at Lhassa which stated that Alexander had conquered China
65
but he could not refer to any records or monuments that bore evidence of the truth of that
report. He observed that on comparing the Gun I had given him with the Arms that had been
brought to Leh by Kashmeerees and others he found it far superior and a very valuable
present and he wished me to look at some Matchlocks in his possession. These were from
various countries but one rifled with an embossed barrel from Sind was the best. He admired
the Knives especially the Clasp ones and also some well finished fine Scissors. I requested
that he would oblige me with a drawing or a pattern of a Knife and of a Steel for striking fire
that would be approved in this Country and I would cause some hundreds to be made by my
countrymen who were particularly expert in works of this kind and would bring or send them
to Ludagh. This he promised. He had heard he said of my having the portraits of Runjeet
Singh and of Alexander the Great and that I had a convenient apparatus for writing, these he
could wish to see if convenient. Having sent for and shewn them to him I observed that it was
esteemed by us a mark of friendship in the Chiefs of countries we visited to give us their
portraits and I should think the possession of his portrait as a proof of this nature. He said that
it should be prepared on which
[66]
taking off a ring of no great value I begged he would wear it as remembrance of me at the
same time telling him that the stones were only imitations of diamonds. I shewed him the
patterns of merchandize I had brought as samples. He said that Scarlet, Grass Green,
Popinjay and Blue if fine were suited for this market with Orange for the dresses of the
Lamas, Brown Yellows and Greens for Yarkund but he rejected all demi tints and gave a
preference to fine cloths. Chintzes and light [illeg.] of silk and cotton would answer for
Yarkund. He wrote my name in the Tibet character and admired a black hard Pencil and some
French embossed and ornamented green writing Paper which I gave him. I had purchased
some beautiful artificial flowers for the market but have the mortification to find that they
have been left out of the Bale in which they were invoiced. I mentioned them to him as both
his Cap and that of the other Wuzeer were omamented with Marigold &c. He enquired the
nature of the material and seemed to approve of the article. He was however most pleased
with pattems of French silks and brocades and said that one of the former would make a
beautiful curtain. The women of this country have very fine hair which they disperse in
67
small tresses and mix at the end with false hair and wool till it reach the ground. What he said
Would be the effect on the growth of the hair if it were dressed with the contents of the bottle
before him Creme de Noyau. I said that I did not expect any benefit from such an application.
He then enquired if I had any thing used to increase the growth of the hair and recollecting
27

some French Pomatum I told him that at our next meeting I would bring something used for
this purpose.
I have observed that the Custom-House Officers had examined and weighed our merchandize
and had brought an account of the amount of the duties nothing being charged but [what] Was
represented by us as articles for sale but on being asked for a receipt for the money had gone
away saying it was not customary.
l lth. This moming Abdool Luteef came for the amount of the duties which was given to him
the account being made out in the following manner. The weight of a hundred and twenty
Muhmood Shahee Rupees makes one Munwuttee and for seventy Munwuttees amounting to
2 maunds and 25 Sers a duty of thirteen Rupees was levied. My merchandize when weighed
amounted to eleven hundred and three Munwuttees for which I paid Two Hundred and Five
Rupees. The payment of this duty has caused us to be acknowledged by the Authorities of
Leh as Merchants and I consider all farther
[63]
doubt upon this point removed by this transaction. Yesterday Chubbes, as they here call
Traders from Lhassa brought many Yaks laden with Tea and this morning Mohsin Baba the
Kashmeeree requested pennission to see any Corals and Pearls we might have. As ready
exchange into cash I had brought red Coral for the Ludagh market and crooked Pearls and
light or Almond colored Coral for Yarkund. It appeared that he had been sent by the Kuloon
and I apprehend that he wished to purchase and resell to the Chubbes rather than to allow
them to apply to us which it is probable when they shall hear of us they will do. I remarked
that the larger the Coral the more it attracted his attention and that he preferred the middle
sized Pearls either to large or small ones. On enquiring the price he was told that I Wished to
do business in the large way and in such a manner as to render it advantageous to Traders to
deal with me in future. That I knew that more than these prices were asked and obtained for
these articles that is three times more than they had cost in Calcutta. That I would shew him
the Invoice price and be satisfied with two & a half that is Fifty per cent as a compensation
for interest, difference in the value of Rupees, servants wages, carriage & loss on other
articles and Cent per Cent as profit. He admitted that the principle was fair but preferred on
the
69
whole to choose and agree upon a price for though he entertained not the slightest doubt as to
the truth of my accounts as we had not had any dealings he knew not at what hand or rate my
purchases were made. The Meer wished me to put these prices at once upon the articles that
there might be room for diminution as he conceived these people would be more gratified by
effecting this by bargaining than if the diminution proposed were to be made in the first
instance and not departed from. I wished to establish a principle to be acted upon in future
and would have reduced the returns to 1 and ‘A profit at which a valuation of the Coral had
been made by Uhmud Joo. Mohsin promised to call again.
O0‘. 26*. In the hope of having to insert the accomplishment of some commercial
arrangement with the authorities of this country I have thus long neglected my joumal
however the incidents within the period of omission have been neither numerous nor
particularly interesting. The Kwajah Shah Neas had been invited by the Kuloon to come into
the immediate neighbourhood but the former aware of the fears of the latter lest the Small
Pox should be introduced by him from Sheh preferred remaining in a Tent until all
reasonable ground for apprehension of infection existing should have passed. I sent him mine
which however are almost rotten from being exposed to the whole of the last rainy season.
28

[70]
As a trifling acknowledgement of the very valuable service he has rendered to me in my
attempt to introduce British Commerce I offered to the Shah some specimens of British
manufactures as Broad Cloth for a dress purchased by me expressly for gifts, green Cotton
Velvet particularly valuable from its being the produce of a vegetable and its color, a piece of
green Chintz, Snuff Box filled with the Prince Regents mixture, Spectacles, Penknife, Boots
and two Behar[?] Turbands. The use of Silk Velvet (as being the excrement of a wonn) is
interdicted to Moosulmans during the time of prayer but that of CottonVelvet is not
objectionable. This is the first specimen that been seen and from what I leam I think it likely
to be in great demand in Moosulman Countries. The Qwajah spoke of his loss with feeling
but with resignation. As he had other Sons in Kashmeer he had requested that some medicine
the efficacy of which had been greatly extolled by Meer Izzut Oollah might be given to him
for transmission and this had been indulged as largely as my much diminished stock would
admit. I found the Qwajah possessed of strong understanding cultivated more highly than I
expected in a Peerzada and of a friendly, benevolent and apparently liberal disposition.
A Kafilah of about 25 Horses has arrived from Yarkund and has brought Shawl Wool, Felts,
Tea and China
71
Silk-goods but no Yamboos or Ingots of Silver which latter circumstance has much
disappointed the expectations of the Traders of Leh. The Kafila Bashee reports that other
Kafilahs were preparing to come when he left Yarkund. No hostilities had taken place
between Omar Khan the King of Khokhan and the Chinese nor was there any stop to
commercial communications. The interruption to the Kafilahs coming from Yarkund arose
from the market of Yarkund not having had a quick demand for the Brocades and white
Cloths &c. purchased by the last Kafilahs at Leh and from the Traders having taken them to
Bokhara to which the report of Tea being dear at the latter place was an additional
inducement to carry that article to that Capital rather than to Leh where it was said to be
cheap. All the Horses were Geldings except two and there did not seem to be any difference
in their condition. They were all very low and the points of their Shoulders and upper parts of
the ribs were galled from the bad constructions of the pack saddle the inconvenient pressure
of which produced galling on prominent parts when the fat of the animals is absorbed.
The Horses are of two breeds differing more in size and strength than in form as they are both
ugly and of coarse proportions but remarkable for the great depth and length of the Chest and
the great strength of their fore legs. The smaller kind are of the Kirghiz and the larger of the
Kosak breeds. Both are
[72]
more fit for burthens of merchandize than for the saddle. Mares are not used because when
mixed with Geldings or Horses they are troublesome. Eewees[?] Mahummud a Merchant of
Tooran but who has bought in the Punjab a large investment of Cloth has purchased the
whole lot of the Kafilah Horses at 50 Rs a head, two have died but the rest though poor will
recover. He feeds them with Luceme Hay, Wheat Straw & whole Barley. They will require
six weeks to be recruited but he thinks that he shall by means of these Animals be sufficiently
early in the market to repay him for his speculation. The Qwajah has sent me some small lead
Canisters of fine Tea, two pair of felt Boots, four large felt Blankets and two Melons which
he has received from his friends at Yarkund. The Melons are large green and yellow, slightly
corded. One contains green pulp and is of the kind called Sucrée in France, the other
approaches to the Musk variety. Both are well flavored and have been well preserved
considering they have been carried on horseback during a joun-iey of six weeks. The Melons
29

pulled in Autumn are said to keep good through the whole winter. Although inferior to a
good Apple yet as it is said they grow freely in the open Air at Yarkund I will send the seeds
to Britain as they may grow in the Garden of the Cottager and afford him a variety that has
not yet reached his table. The quantity of Tea now ac-
73
cumulated in Leh is large as that brought by the Chubbe amounted to five hundred Maunds.
All Tea from Lhassa to Leh is carried by the peasantry belonging to the fonner up to the
frontier of the latter from one station to another. The peasantry of Leh then bring it forwards
without expense to the Merchant.
It also enters the Country of Ludakh free of duty. The Chubbe has not been able to sell his
Tea as no Yamboos have arrived from Yarkund and he does not receive Rupees in payment.
The Kashmeeree Merchants apprehensive that I am desirous of purchasing Shawl wool have
set forth the ill consequences that may on this account befall the income of the Kuloon in the
strongest colors. And by representing that we can take it off by the road of Neetee diirect
from the Country of Gurdokh without its passing through his hands have considerably excited
his fears. To the Raja they have stated that our designs are not commercial but that they are of
this complection [sic] merely for the purpose of seeing the Country and subsequently of
taking it. Their most active advocate is an Officer called Lompa whose business I have not
learnt .It was recommended that all articles of food should be with-held from us and for one
day nothing could be procured in the Bazar but the following day the order was retracted and
no further difficulty ensued. I have most carefully avoided giving ground for their harbouring
suspicion in regard
[74]
to purchase of Shawl Wool neither having made any enquiry respecting this article nor
countenanced it in others. The Kuloon much alarmed vacillates in his opinions he has not yet
dared to visit Qwajah Shah Neas for fear of the Small-Pox which he has not had and amongst
all adults that contract this disease in the natural way die. But he has sent Kagha Tunzeen and
the second or Noona Wuzeer at different times to the Qwaj ah to learn his sentiments and to
receive re-assurance of confidence from him when his belief in our motives and objects has
been shaken. Kagha Tunzeen sent for Meer Izzut Oollah Khan and informed him that reports
were propagated in opposition to our having mercantile operations in view. Much discussion
and the Kagha appeared convinced of our objects being commercial only.
On the 21 st the Kuloon, the Noona Kuloon, the Kuloon’s Son in law Kagha and another
Officer who was not known to us proceeded with Mohsin Baba and Abdool Luteef to the
Tents of Qwajah Shah Neas and requested his attendance at a house in the Neighborhood
where a dinner was prepared in honor of him. After the repast the Kuloon represented that he
had received cautionary letters from Gurdokh respecting the Europeans now at Leh that a
Kuloon from Lhassa had come to Gurdokh to enquire into the cause of the visits of
Europeans
75
to that country having been so frequent of late years. That the Malik of Kashmeer had
cautioned him against the designs of the Europeans and reminded him of the offence he
might give to Raja Runjeet Singh by countenancing their projects and promised soon to come
to his assistance, and that Ahmud Shah the Malik of Balti had written to him for information
regarding the designs of the Europeans. By advice from Gurdokh as well as from Peetee he
had learnt that an European with forty attendants had reached the latter place by the Busehur
road but that the Authorities of Peetee having refused to permit [him] to advance into the
30

interior he had returned. And information was sent to him from Undeleh that thirty Strangers
had lately come there, that on being questioned as to who they were and their business they
replied that they were Sikhs and they were come to purchase Wool but that on being told they
might begin to purchase, they could only muster the sum of Forty Rupees and went away.
That under all these circumstances he wished for the counsel of his old friend.
The Qwajah replied that the Kuloon’s conduct was wholly within his own power being as he
was an independent Chief. That he the Qwajah saw not what ground Runjeet Singh or the
Malik of Kashmeer had to interfere in his concems unless he meant to acknowledge himself a
Tributary to the Sikh Chief and if so he
[76]
thought advice superfluous. That he considered the interference of the authorities of Gurdokh
just as uncalled for and as impertinent as that of Runjeeet Singh or his Servant. On the
appearance of the Sikhs he could form no conclusion but he thought a refusal to the English
Gentleman was as unfriendly as it was ill judged, however he would confine his sentiments to
the matter in which he had accidentally, though at the request of the Kuloon become a kind of
party. When the Kuloon had before by letter applied to him for his advice on the subject of
permitting the Europeans to visit Leh he had recommended him to receive them and to treat
them as friends. He had received them it was true but as yet he had not learnt that he had
given them any proofs of friendship and he had so far neglected to follow that advice he had
shewn himself anxious to obtain.
It had been imputed to him the Qwajah that he had sent for the Europeans that they might
take his Country. The imputation was as untrue as absurd. The Kuloon must recollect that
when Moohummud Azeem Khan had actually completed his preparations for the invasion of
Ludakh he the Qwajah had gone to him and through his personal influence had prevailed
upon him to abandon his design.
It was not likely that he should act with such inconsistency
77
as to avert an invasion of Ludakh at one time and to invite it at another. But the absurdity of
the reports was obvious. He was a person of no political importance. He had no connections
with the British Govt. nor could any reasoning of his be supposed of consequence enough to
influence their Councils. They acted from their own views of things which from their results
seemed to be founded in wisdom and prudence. He knew not nor was known to any
Englishman save the two individuals at Leh and this as the Kulooon Was aware in a very
cursory manner. He had heard that the British Govemment was a mighty Power that had
overspread almost the whole of the fomier Mogool Empire in India and that the vigor of their
rule was only equalled by its justice. That they had lately punished the Goorkhas by taking
away part of their conquests and that by this acquisition they had actually become Leh’s
Neighbors through occupying Busehur where he understood a portion of their Army was also
stationed. This circumstance he conceived ought to have considerable weight in influencing
the Kuloons decisions and in bestowing upon them a conciliating and friendly character
That in his the Qwajahs view of probable events other changes might take place which might
bring the British even still nearer than they now were. However availing [?] these
considerations he conceived that the benefits Ludakh would secure from an increased
commercial communication
[73]
with the subjects of so great a Government ought in common prudence to induce the Kuloon
to encourage the intercourse by acts of friendship. The Kuloon recognised him as an old
31

friend; he was now about to leave his country but he wished not to depart without giving him
a solid testimonial of his friendship through recommending to him a line of conduct which
might prove as creditable to his judgment as beneficial to his interests.
Meer Izzut Oollah was then called in and desired by the Kuloon to state the nature and extent
of my wishes or expectations in regard to him; to which he answered that they were as
follows, viz
First Free liberty to trade with Ludakh and through it to other countries
Secondly. That in consideration of the great distance whence British property was brought
there should be some remission of duties upon it.
Thirdly. That a House should be hired in Leh to be occupied as a British Factory.
Fourthly. That the good offices of the Kuloon were required to be exerted with the
Authorities of Gurdokh to open the Neetee Ghat to British Commerce.
The three first points were specially discussed and agreed to. On the subject of Gurdokh the
Kuloon observed that he had no power there and he much doubted whether the local
authorities had the power to decide upon a point of so much importance as that
79
intended to be agitated. It was remarked that his friendly aid alone was desired, which would
be suitably acknowledged whatever might be the result of the discussion. He promised to
write but this was declined as insufficient, he then proposed to direct Ahmud Khan his Agent
to employ his interest. This was also objected [to] and it was proposed that some person in his
confidence as Kagha Tunzeen or Mohsin Baba should accompany me to Gurdokh. Kagha
Tunzeen remarked that though the British might not act with hostility towards Gurdokh so
many Europeans might enter the Province as by their influence might annihilate the power of
the present Government and gain possession without force. It was observed in reply that if
this objection were made by the Gurdokh Authorities it might be met by limitation of
numbers. It being also agreed that a suitable person on the part of the Kuloon should go along
with me to Gurdokh the Meer desired to know whether he was to consider himself authorised
to report to me the points discussed as agreed upon to which the Kuloon replied that he would
lay the whole matter before the Raja the next day and inform the Meer of his decision. It
being thoroughly known that the whole business of the Govemment is in the hand of the
Kuloon and that the Raja is a mere Cypher Izzut Oollah remarked that under [the]
circumstances [it seemed] to him that no progress had been really made if he were not
permitted by the Kuloon to inform me that the points
[80]
discussed had been finally settled. A pause occurring here Qwajah Shah Neas desired the
Meer to withdraw. He then told the Kuloon that he was sorry to see an indecision in his
sentiments which he had not expected but that in the same spirit of friendship towards him by
which he had hitherto been actuated he would set before him in few words the danger to
which an undecided conduct would expose his interests. If you do not said the Qwajah avail
yourself in a friendly and decided manner of the opportunity now offered to you of receiving
the benefits of British Commerce it is the intention of the Sahib to proceed to Balti. Ahmud
Khan the Chief of that Country will receive him with open Arms. You know full well that
Balti was the ancient line by which Commerce was carried on from the eastern part of the
Country with Yarkund and Budukshan and you may readily foresee the consequences of its
revival. You will have the mortification to see Kafilahs pass through your Country to enrich
your Neighbor and Rival without being able to prevent them except by an appeal to arms of
which the event is uncertain. By degrees you will see your present prosperous trade decline
32

and slide into another Channel. The Kuloon did not permit the Kwaj ah to proceed further but
seizing the skirt of his Robe desired the Meer might be called in again.
He then requested the Qwajah to come to
81
Leh that he might have the benefit of his farther advice in finally settling the business. This
was agreed to and the meeting broke up.
We have been called upon to pay rent for the House we occupy which has been settled at
fifteen Rupees per Month. I had heard from Ahmud Khan at Gurdokh that the Country of
Ludakh had once been rescued from the power of an invading Horde of Tatars by the
interference of the Mogool Sovereign of Hindoostan and the following are the particulars.
During the reign of Arungzeb the Kalmaks invaded the principality of Ludakh and
dispossessed the Raja of his country who flying to Kashmeer implored the assistance of its
Soobadar Ibrahim Khan the son of the public spirited Alee Murdan Khan. The Rajas
application was forwarded to the Emperor who directed that aid should be afforded provided
the Raja would become a Moosulman which he immediately did taking the name of Akbut
Mahmood and doing homage to Arungzeb for his dominions. Under the command of Ibrahim
and Fidaee Khan the imperial forces entered Ludakh and gave battle to the Kalmaks.
The engagement lasted several hours and night parted the combatants without any decided
advantage having been gained on either side The hostile forces encamped in sight of each
other with a determination to renew the fight on the following day, but accident ordered it
otherwise. In the night it was customary to illuminate
[82]
a large space round the tents of the principal imperial Officers with a species of fire work,
which by the kind of light it diffused was called Mahtabee or Moonshine. The object of this
light was to prevent thieves or assassins entering the tents unperceived. When the Kalmaks
beheld the unusual object of the sky illuminated in a very dark night over the enemy’s camp
struck with astonishment and terror they abandoned their own and fled precipitately,
exclaiming that it was impossible for them to contend against an Antagonist who by the force
of his enchantments could change night into day. The Mogools replaced the Raja on his seat
and the Emperor to confirm the Chief in his new faith and attachment ordered a tract of land
in Lahore worth seven thousand Rupees a year to be granted to him in Jagheer. The converted
Raja built and endowed a Mosque at Leh and soon after died. His Son and Successor fell off
from the faith of Islam and returned to that of his ancestors, Which being reported to the
Emperor he deputed an Officer to proceed to Leh and enquire into the fact. Infonnation of his
approach being carried to the apostate Raja he attempted to avert the threatened danger by an
apparent conformity to the worship prescribed by the Koran. But as the interval to the period
of the expected arrival of the Moslem Inquisitor was too short to admit of his becoming
thoroughly acquainted with all the ordinances prescribed to the
83
disciples of Moohummud his instructor recommended him generally to follow the example of
the Imam and imitate all he should see him do appearing also to repeat prayers. During the
first part of the service the Scrutineer observed no difference between the conduct of the Raja
and the demeanor of the most attentive and devout Moosulman, but when after certain
prayers the Minister stood up to say the Kootbah, and the congregation remained in the
attitude of prayer the Raja imitating the movements of the Imam placed himself in an erect
position and thus betrayed his ignorance of Mohummedan forms. The discovery of the
deception was immediately made known to Arungzeb who learning that the Mosque was kept
33

in good order, that Moosulmans were settled in Ludakh and were allowed to practise all the
ceremonies of their religion unmolested directed that the Raj a should be punished for his
apostasy by the loss of the Jagheer granted to his father but that he should be allowed
peaceably to pursue his own religion and be considered as under the protection of the
imperial power. The Mosque and its appointments have ever since been maintained by an
appropriation of a certain proportion of the tax imposed on every load of merchandise
imported into Leh and the Raj a is nominally a dependant upon the Throne of Dehli. From the
time of Arungzeb to the present time annual gifts have been sent to the possessor
[34]
of Kashmeer as representative of the Sovereign of Dehli.
Memorandum respecting Rhubarb I 3
“All the Rhubarb of Commerce is brought from the Chinese town Sini or Selim“ by the
Bucharians. It grows on the neighbouring chain of lofty Mountains which stretches to the
Lake Koko Nor, near the source of the River Chorico between 35° and 40° North Lat.” Dun:
Ed: Disp: An 1816. Page 232 &3 Art: Rh cum:
This information is given on the Authority of Professor Pallas, but with whatever deference
the testimony of this great Man may in general be regarded it would appear from the evidence
of Merchants who have lived at Yarkund and of those who have resided at “Sini” that in these
particulars he has been misinformed. That the Rhubarb plant is of most extensive growth is
obvious from the accounts of Marco Polo, Du Halde, De Guignes and the Authors of les
Lettres Edifiantes, and I may venture to observe, that it was met with by me on the Garhwhal
Mountains near Joshee Muth, and in various parts of the road from that place to Gurtope or
Gurhdokh in the Country of Chanthan called by me by the Hindoostanee appellation of Oon
des or the Country of Wool in the year 1812. In 1820 specimens of the roots of Rhubarb with
fresh leaves attached dug up two days before at the sourthern foot of the northernmost
Mountains of Kangra were brought for my inspection by the orders of Raj a Sunsar Chund, at
Shoojanpur Teera his present residence. On the Pass of Rutanku [Rohtang], at Tandee the
Capital of Lahoul, at Lubrung and on several other Mountains
85
I also found Rhubarb and traced it into the country of Ludakh. The roots of this plant in this
joumey were smaller than those I formerly saw on the Mountains of Neetee and in Chanthan.
But all the roots seen in both j oumeys that were of a considerable size were rotten in the core
or centre, the sides alone being sound and fit for medical purposes. And if the purgative
quality of the sound parts was not impaired by its contact with the diseased core, the drug
itself, if suitably dried and prepared, would have appeared very inferior to that imported into
Britain from Russia and Turkey. But from course trials made on both I think a larger dose of
the Himachal Rhubarb is required to produce a complete evacuation of the intestines than that
of Russia. I have examined much Rhubarb in the Shops of Druggists in many of the principal
Cities in India but have never found any pieces as good as those which are usually brought
into Britain from Russia and Turkey. And from their shape and their being covered with the
skin as cut up without being rasped as well as from their color I am led to believe that the
China rhubarb does not come into Hindoostan in any considerable quantity by land and that
the whole of the Rhubarb I have seen in the Druggists shops has been the produce of the
Himaleh, Tibet and Mountains of Afghanistan. I have met with it growing in such abundance
that two men have dug up in two hours more roots than three men could can’y but none of the
large ones were wholly free from rottenness.
34

Perhaps the existence of the same disease in the Rhubarb that grows in the Russian
Mountains may have induced the Empress Catherine 2d
[36]
to depute Mr Sievers, Apothecary to that part of the Russian frontier adjoining the border of
China from which Rhubarb is brought, for the purpose of procuring that variety of the plant,
which yields the Drug most fit for medical use or as it was entitled “the true Rhubarb
plant[”]. But this Gentleman, though he “travelled for several years in the countries
contiguous to that whence Rhu[barb] is brought” was not successful in his efforts to obtain
the plant itself or even to determine its botanical characters. He “is of opinion that the
botanical characters of the plant which fumishes it, are still unknown, excepting that it is said
not to grow to a great size and to have round leaves, which are toothed on the edges with
almost spinous points.” Dun:Ed: Disp.
Considering that the trade in Rhubarb is open to all the Chinese, who may wish to engage in
it, and referring to the venal character of this race and the great quantity of the article, it is
somewhat extraordinary that success should not have followed an offer of reward to any
Trader who should have brought to the Commissioner, a Rhubarb Roor with the Root-stalk,
Leaves and parts of fructification attached, and this expedient was so very obvious that one
can scarcely suppose it to have been overlooked, or neglected. Mr Sievers thought that the
Rhubarb of Commerce is produced by a variety of this plant not known to Europeans but the
grounds of this opinion are perhaps not wholly conclusive. In the course of my joumeys I
have seen Rhubarb plants of which the leaves were deeply indented with sharpish points;
others less
87
but still considerably indented with points less sharp; some with edges slightly scolloped and
the extremities of the ribs blunt or rounded; and others again, nearly circular, allowance being
made for the plaiting produced by the ribs. The varieties of Rhubarb acknowledged by
Botanists are the palmated, undulated and compact. Those seen by me might perhaps be
called digitated, palmated, undulated and compact. But though at first sight the differences
might appear to constitute distinct varieties, I doubt whether they be permanent, or accidental,
and on the latter supposition, arising from difference in elevation, aspect, soil, quality and
quantity of moisture, as I have seen these varieties differing greatly amongst themselves as to
size, color and luxuriance in different localities. I entertain this doubt with less difficulty from
having observed the powerful influence of these circumstances in modifying the appearance
of other plants with which I was better acquainted and of which the difference in a valley and
on a mountain, about a thousand feet higher with an horizontal distance of only two miles,
was so striking as much to surprise me and would probably have excited surprise in any other
observer than a botanist experienced in the effects of highly contrasted localities on the same
species of vegetable. If the varieties seen by me were really permanent it may be matter of
doubt whether the fitness of the root for medical purposes, depend upon a specific variety of
plant or upon locality and climate
[83]
for as before remarked, I have never yet met with any large root of any of the varieties
mentioned that has not been affected with rottenness at its centre.
Rhubarb said to be fit for commerce is reported by a very intelligent Merchant of Yarkund to
be produced largely on the northem face of the Chain of Mountains, which separates the
Chinese Country of Khotan* from the Lhassan Province of Changthan, and not more than
fourteen days journey from Leh, the place at which I now write. But as direct communication
35

between these Countries is forbidden by the Chinese, the Rhubarb of Khotan cannot reach
this City except by the circuitous route of Yarkund and in fact this Drug is brought here in a
very small quantity for medical use by its inhabitants alone, as no Merchant trades in it for
farther transport.
Prof. Pallas is supponed in his statement of Rhubarb being found at Sini or in the snowy
Mountains (Suechan) by Du Halde who says “qui s’etendent depuis Leang-telion jusqu’a
San-telion, et a Sining-telion.” The “Bucharians”, Prof. Pallas asserts “belong to the town of
Selin (the Sinin of the Jesuits Map) which is situated to the south-west of Koko-nor or the
blue lake towards Tibet &c. The River upon which the
* [Here Moorcroft leaves a blank space for a footnote that he has omitted to write]
89
town stands and from whence it derives its name is the rapid Selingol, formed by the junction
of two mountain streams and which discharges itself into the Khalthungol or as it is called by
the Chinese the Khoange or Khongo”. Reise. Note 397. Marsden’s Marco Polo. The Selin of
Pallas, Sining-tcheon of Du Halde, Sinin of the Jesuits Map and Sining of Marco Polo is the
modem Siling. My informant Kunn Joo, who acts as a Broker to Mohsin Ulee, the British
Factor at Leh”, resided three years at Siling and during this time never saw any Rhubarb
exposed for sale in the Bazar of that town to the best of his recollection nor any pass through
it in its way to any other Country. There are fifteen mercantile Houses of Kashmeerees in
Siling* which trade with Lhassa but no Bokharans reside there nor do any visit this town as
Merchants. Chubbas or Lhassan Merchants now at Leh corroborate Kurm Joos repon by
asseiting that fine Rhubarb constitutes no part of the merchandise sent from Siling to Lhassa
and also that no Bokharans live in Siling or carry on commerce with it. The assertions of
Prof. Pallas on these points are questioned not out of a spirit of criticism but to shew that no
Rhubarb of the right kind finds its way from China by Siling and Lhassa as might have been
presumed had they remained without examination. If M. Pallas had stated
*Note. In a point likely to concern Kurm Joos interest however remotely I would not rely on his
evidence nor presume to place it in opposition to such respectable authority as that ofM. Pallas, but as
it is in no degree affected, as he has resided at Siling and as his testimony is strengthened both in this
and other points by other individuals equally uninterested in the question but acquainted with the
Commerce of Siling I cannot but consider it as worthy ofbeing credited.
[90]
generally that the best Rhubarb came to Russia from the interior of China, the position would
not have been open to doubt; Mullah Paitab a Native of Khojund, who from his youth to the
age of sixty has been engaged in Commerce betwixt Russia, Oosbeck and Chinese Toorkistan
Ludakh, and the Punjab, reports that the Rhubarb of Commerce is raised in the Chinese
Districts of Langanjoo or Lanshoo and Soochoo. The latter is not greatly distant from the
Country in which Siling is situated Whence it is probable that this District as well as many
others may contribute to the large quantity annually exported. Nor is it improbable that by
suitable arrangements, in the course of time, Rhubarb of quality fitted for medical use might
through the intervention of the Kashmeerees residing at Siling, be brought by the route of
Lhassa to Hindoostan.
The Caravan, which annually leaves the Districts before mentioned is said to amount to
betwixt three and four thousand Camels loaded principally with Tea Rhubarb and silken
stuffs, figured and flowered with Damask work, the ground and omaments being of the same
color, but the pieces of various colors as scarlet, crimson, rose, light blue, dark blue and
purple the latter of which is said to be preferred in the Russian markets. These Silks are called
Tauar [appar sic] and Linzee. Yamboos or lngots of Silver constitute a part of the charge of
36

this Caravan. Although I may have disturbed the statement of M. Pallas as to the town
whence the Rhubarb is dispatched I am yet unable to say precisely at what other point
91
the Traders assemble, but the Caravan sets out generally about the end of August, the Camels
being then in good condition from having browsed without working during the whole of the
Summer. Before this time the journey could not be undertaken with convenience on account
of the swollen state of the Rivers from the melted Snows of the Mountains and of great
numbers of a kind of fly which during the hot season attacks Camels and annoys them
dreadfully when loaded*. The Caravan on first setting out, or soon afterwards, divides into
two parts of which one taking a noithem direction, goes to Taeetee, presumed to be Kiachta,
a Russian frontier Mart on the left bank of the River Silinginsk, Tula? Marco Polo. [appar.
sic]. The other by Kambool,°° Toorfan, Kara-shuhr, (Black City) Ooroomchee, Baee, Syrum
and Aksoo, proceeds to Yarkund, which city it reaches in December, or January, the averaged
time for performing the journey being about four months.
At Aksoo the Caravan is met by Tooranee Merchants called Tashkundee, Namanga,
Kokhunee and Mulgulanee from the towns at which they usually reside. These purchase
much of the merchandise take it to Eela and if they do not dispose of it there convey it
intact[?] to the interior of Russia.
D” Kamul, Terfon, Harashan, Aksu, Yarkand ofM Polo
* Whilst my party was crossing the I-Iimachul in the hot and rainy season that variety ofBot fly called
Oestrus Dorsales, deposited its Eggs in the skin of the back of several of our Horses to their great
annoyance.
Perhaps it availed itselfof this Nidus from the scarcity ofNeat Cattle in these Mountains as this variety
is found always to prefer them in Europe for this purpose and though I have seen the Pupae of other
flies in the backs of Horses I have never before met with this variety thus situated.“
[92]
From Yarkund the Caravan goes by Kashgar and Indejan in Khokan to Bokhara but other
Tooranee Merchants in various parts of this journey buy many Camel loads of the
Merchandise and carry it also to Russia by different routes. The Chinese Traders who
conducted it from the interior of their country accompany it no farther than Yarkund and
Kashgar being forbidden to pass beyond the frontier of the Chinese Empire, by the orders of
their Government. At Bokhara Nogaee” Merchants and also Merchants from Meshed,
Isfahan and Shiraz are competitors for the Merchandise of the Caravan, but as the former
possess very large Capitals and give liberal prices they procure the pre-emption, and the latter
seldom obtain any other articles, than those rejected by the Nogaees through their over-
abundance, or inferiority. With a Caravan of which the Cattle are furnished by Kosaks the
Nogaees cross the Desert that intervenes between Bokhara and the Russian frontier on which
latter border Merchants from Orenburg usually await their arrival and barter against the Tea,
Rhubarb and Silks of China such articles of Russian manufacture as suit the markets of
Oosbuk and Chinese Toorkistan, the purchase bieng seldom made with Coin. If the Persian
Merchants have reason to think that the market of Astrakhan will be profitable they traverse
the country of Oorgunj and the Caspian to that City otherwise crossing Persia to Baghdad
they convey their Wares to such Marts in the Turkish Empire as are likely to afford them the
more profitable vend.
37

End notes by the transcriber (see also transcriber ’s notes on the text in separate document).
1 H.H. Wilson, editor of Moorcroft’s published Travels, remarks in a fn. that according to info received by
2 Martin Mere, six miles from Ortmskirk where Moorcroft was brought up, is today a protected wetland and
nature centre. For its history see Hale, W.G. and Audrey Coney: Martin Mere: Laneashire ’s Lost Lake
https://booksgoogle.co.in/books’?id=LPNTHGngfW8C&pg=PA94&lpg=PA94&dq=martin+Meer&source=bl&
ots=F 2sp7glcE-&sig=TXX-JrklMp9N_tiD1snMEoqlHTY&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjZ-
ZiK05rNAhUBoZQKl-1X9rAwoQ6AE1HzAB#v=onepage&q&f=false. Accessed 09.06.2016. From this preview
it emerges that Scarisbrick was the name of the local manorial proprietors.
3 Wilson elides all the discussion of grains into a single phrase: Siberian barley. (1bid., 226, see also p. 204). ./au
(Moorcroft’s jou) is the Hindustani word for barley.
4 Najaf Ali doesn’t, as far as my recollection goes, feature by name in the published Travels, though at this point
Wilson does enumerate Mir lzzat Ullah’s son among the party visiting the Raja of Gia. But see SIMON
DIGBY:TRAVELS IN LADAKH 1820-21; THE ACCOUNT OF MOORCROFT‘S PERSIAN MUNSHI, HAJJI
SAYYID ‘ALI, OF HIS TRAVELS. London, Asian Aflalrs, vol 29, 299-301. A partial translation ofNajaf A1i’s
Persian text is among the late Simon Digby’s papers, which are at the time ofwriting being sorted and
catalogued in SOAS. From Digby’s account he may not actually have been Mir Izzat Ullah’s son, but his
nephew or younger brother~-certainly a close associate of the Mir.
5 Gale is defined in the 1959 edn. of Chambers’s Twentieth Century Dictionary (second meaning) as bog myrtle,
which is a low plant with fragrant leaves found in the Scottish Highlands. Moorcroft seems to use the term
generically to mean a low shrub. The plant he is describing is surely seabuckthorn (Hippophae) (which is not at
all like bog—myrtle).
6 The much-quoted description of the crowds in Wilson‘s edition of the Travels may be taken from another
source, e.g. a letter from Moorcroft to one of his many correspondents, but doesn’t appear in the Joumal. It runs
as follows:
…in the groups were mingled the good-humoured faces of the Ladakhi, and the sullen and designing
countenances of the Kashmiris, the high bonnets of Yarkand, and the bare heads of the Lamas, with the
long lappets and astonished looks ofthe women. (Ibid., 246)
This has tended to be used to disparage the Kashmiris; or altematively to show Moorcroft as prejudiced against
them, and talking in stereotypes.
7 See note 17 below.
8 If Wikipedia is to be believed, the kaleidoscope was invented and patented only in 1817, so it’s interesting to
find Moorcroft distributing these objects only three years later, in 1820, in remotest trans-Himalaya.
9 Wilson omits some of Moorcroft’s descriptive details, and adds others, no doubt from a letter. (lbz’d., 249—5l)
‘0 Noyau is defined by Wiktionary as ‘A French liqueur made at Poissy in north central France from brandy and
flavoured with almonds and the pits ofapricots since the early nineteenth century.’ An appropriate offering for
Ladakhis.
H ‘Ratafia is a term used for two types of sweet alcoholic beverage, either a fortified wine or a f1’uit—baseCl
beverage.’ More details at https://en.wikipcdia.org/’wiki Ratafia
12 Chambers’s Twentieth Century Dictionary (1959 edn.) tells me that trap-ball is ‘an old game played with a
trap, bat and ball‘. Perhaps this is what Moorcroft is referring to.
15 Why rhubarb? 1’ve often wondered on coming across frequent mention of the plant in Moorcroft’s writings.
From the present ‘Memorandum’ I infer that its root was used for medicinal purposes, as a purgative; and that it
was an important article of trade. Wikipedia informs me that
Rhubarb root has been used for medical purposes by the Chinese for thousands of years, and appears in The
I)ivine Farmer’s lIerb—RooI C/u.\”.\’i(‘ which is thought to have been compiled about 2,700 years ago…..
During Islamic times, it was imported along the Silk Road, reaching Europe in the 14th century through the
ports of Aleppo and Smyrna, where it became known as “Turkish rhubarb”. Later, when the usual route lay
through Russia, “Russian rhubarb” became the familiar term.
For centuries, the plant has grown wild along the banks of the River Volga, The cost of transportation
across Asia made rhubarb expensive in medieval Europe. It was several times the price of other valuable
herbs and spices such as cinnamon, opium, and saffron. The merchant explorer Marco Polo therefore
searched for the place where the plant was grown and harvested, discovering that it was cultivated in the
mountains ofliangut province. The value of rhubarb can be seen in Ruy Gonzales de Clavijo’s report of his
embassy in l403—05 to Timur in Samarkand: “The best of all merchandise coming to Samarkand was from
China: especially silks, satins, musk, rubies, diamonds, pearls, and rhubarb…”
htlps://www.wikiwand.com/en/Rhubarb. Accessed 29.05.2016.
38

‘4 l’m not 100 per cent cenain about the transcription of some of the unfamiliar geographical names in this
section. I’m also not familiar with Moorcroft’s method of abbreviating his references, so they too might require
double-checking from the original.
15 ‘British Factor at Leh’?? This is news to me, Did the British in fact employ a ‘native’ Factor to look after their
interests at Leh before Moorcroft’s visit? What interests? I’m really puzzled by this phrase casually thrown out
15 ‘The Oestridae are a family offlies variously known as bot flies, warble flies,heel flies, gadflies, and
similar names. Their larvae are internal parasites of mammals, some species growing in the host’s flesh and
others within the gut.‘ More on Wikipedia at https://enwikipedia.org/wiki/Botfly
17 According to Wikipedia, the Nogais were a nomadic ethnic group living in Turkey, the Caucasus and around
the Black Sea. There is no hint in the two relevant Wikipedia entries of their also being a prosperous trading
community, as Moorcroft’s account, based no doubt on inputs from traders coming from Yarkand, implies. See
https://cn.wikipcdia.org/wiki/Nogais and https://cn.wikipcdia.org/wiki/Nogai_llordc
39