Tourism in Himachal Pradesh – Kullu Manali

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2017 A p International Journal of Engineering Research ISSN:2348-4039
& Management Technology
May-2015 Volume 2, Issue-3
IIERIVIT Email: editor@ijermt.org www.ijermt.org
Tourism in Himachal Pradesh: A Study of Kullu Manali
JEENA GUPTA
Research Scholar
Himachal Pradesh University
Mandi, Himachal Pradesh
ABSTRACT:
Tourism is rapidly growing industry in Himachal Pradesh and its impact is extremely varied. On one hand, it is playing an important and certainly positive role in the socio economic and political development in state and on the other hand offering new employment opportunities. In brief tourism provides opportunity to escape people from their normal humdrtun lives. Tourism industry occupies an important place in the economy of Himachal Pradesh. Tourism includes the development of various public utility services like roads, transport services airports, communication network and civil amenities etc. in much better way. Kullu and Manali is one of the beautiful and important tourist destinations from tourism point of view.

The main objective of the study is to know about the facility provided to the tourist and conduct an SWOC analysis to know about the tourism potential in Himachal Pradesh. Kullu and Manali have all facilities for the tourist but there are some problems during tourist’s peak season. Keeping in the view the factor discussed above, the study of growth and development of tourism is essential.
Key word : Tourism, SWOT, Tourist

CONCEPT OF TOURISM:
Tourism is an activity involving mixture of material and physiological factors. These include the availability of accommodation, transportation, tourist attractions and entertainments. The psychological factors takes into account a wide spectrum of attitudes and expectations varying from pure escapism to fulfill of a dream or fantasy , or rest, entertainment, educational and other interests. All are usually
assessed and evaluates by the tourists.

Since the beginning of human history, the urge to move about has been an important human activity. From the earliest historical times, man has cherished the desire to discover the unknown, to explore new and staring places, to seek changes of environment and to undergo new experiences. Thus was a time when man and woman along with their families or tribes roamed about in search and food and shelter in this process, discovered new area to settle down. The search for food and shelter led to new conquests and adventures. The mythologies, espies and histories of various nations contain description of such adventures.

The process of searching has continued through the ages corresponding with different states in the development of technology and the changes in the modes are style of travelling and the facilities available. mean while, new world have been discovered, new areas have been brought under human occupation, new nations have emerged and there have been revolutionary changes in technology as well
as human expectations but the urge of travel has remained unchanged. Over the centuries, the passion for the travelling has become stronger and more popular among the average citizens. New motives have been added to the reasons for people understanding long or short journeys like the curiosity or the urge to the
different people and just to have some adventure, a change from the normal way of life, some relaxation and fun. The word “tourism” is related to “tour” which is derived from Latin word “tornos” means a tool for describing a circle or turners wheel. This is a word of compass or rather a pin at the end of string, used to describe a circle. It is from this word “Tornos” that the nation of a “Round touro” or a package
tour has come, which is very much of the essence of tourism.

TOURISM:
“Tourism denotes the temporary, short term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at these destinations. Much of the movement is international in character and much of it is a leisure activity”.

TOURISM IN INDIAN CONTEXT:
Tourism in India is the largest service industry with a contribution of 6.8% to the national GDP and 7.6% of the total employment in India. In 2013, total Foreign Tourist Arrivals (FTA) in India were 6.96 million and India generated about 645 billion US dollars in 2013 and that is expected to increase to US$375.5 billion by 2018 at a 9.4% annual growth rate. The majority of foreign tourists come from USA and UK.
Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan are the top five states to receive inbound tourists. Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra received the big share of these visitors. Ministry of Tourism is the nodal agency to formulate national policies and programmes for the development and promotion of tourism.

TOURISM IN HIMACHAL:
Nestled in Himalayas, the world’s mightiest mountain range, Himachal Pradesh is blessed with some of the most spectacular and beautiful landscapes, any where it is a travelers paradise, mighty snow peaks, deep gorges, fast flowing rivers, enchanting lakes and flower filled meadows, its high mountain and valleys are linked by winding roads and high passes makes it paradise. Himachal Pradesh rises from the Shivalik Range to the mighty pir-panjal, choor chandhi and kinner Kailas. Himachal Pradesh is situated in the laps of Himalayas. In the north, it has Jammu and Kashmir and Uttaranchal in the south east.

In the south it is downed by Haryana and in the west it has Punjab. The state consist of 12 districts and having population about 65 lakhs. The total area of the state is 55673 sq. kms. Tourism industry occupies an important place in the economy of Himachal Pradesh. Tourism industry is emerging as one of the major earning sector of this state economy. The government of HP has given the main priority to tourism industry because there are not proper variables for other production industries. Tourism includes the development of various public utility services like roads,  transport services airports, communication network and civil amenities etc. The state government having already banned setting up of polluting industries, along national highways and roads of tourist importance, the department is likely to select such industrial project which are eco-friendly.

The tribal tourism is likely to be on promotion of Buddhist tourism as several world known monasteries like the Buddhist monastery is located in the tribal belt. The archaeological survey of India is among the chief agencies associated with toruism and playing a very crucial and important role in preservation of India’s rich and varied past and maintenance of old monuments as well as their exposure to the motivating force of tourism.

Tourism industry in Himachal has wide scope of flourish and provides a new direction to the economy of the state. Tourism is only next to hydro electric power potential in the state with positive scope in maintaining its unpolluted atmosphere. Himachal offers a combination of natural bounty especially in the 30 wild life sanctuaries, 2 national parks, 4 natural parks and 3 game reserves. Himachal Pradesh cultural
heritage is its most enduring legacy and this is evident in the charmer the destination exercises on those who discover her enhancement. Himachal Pradesh is a land of ancient mores of rich tradition of cultural heritage that is today its chief tourist’s attractions. Here amid the splendor of her landscape, is exotic destination where the past is only just round the corner, perfectly preserved in beautiful, monuments
places forts temples.

TOURISM IN KULLU DISTRICT:
Kullu valley spreads out its charm on either side of river Beas. The valley runs north to south of this river
and is 80kms. Long and about Zkms at its broadest. The valley is also famous for its exquisitely woven
colorful handmade shawls and Kullu caps.
Kullu was made into a separate district in the year 1963. The district has 3 tehsils namely, Kullu, Banjar
and Nermand and 2 sub-tehsils Ani and Sainj. The district has a total of 172 villages all of which are
inhabited. There are four towns in the district namely, Banjar, Bhuntar, Kullu and Manali. The district has
a density of population of 55 persons per sq km as against 93 persons in the state. The main population
consists of Hindu followed by Buddhist and fractions of Sikh and Christian religions. The predominant
class consists of Rajputs, Brahmins, and then scheduled castes.
PLACES TO VISIT IN KULLU-MANALI:
Bijli Mahadev Shrine, Raghunathji Temple, Vaishno Devi Temple,Camping Sight: Katrain , Naggar ,
Kasol , Manikaran, Malana ,Bajaura, Larji ,Banjar, Manali, Nehru Kund,Solang Valley, Kothi , Rahala
Water Falls, Rohtang Pass , Arjun Gufa (Cave) ,Jagatsukh.
SOME OF THE LESSER KNOWN PLACES IN KULLU- MANALI:
INNER AND OUTER SERAJ: Accessible from Kullu and Shimla by road. The Jalori and Basil passes
stand as markers between the Inner and Outer Seraj regions of Kullu. Outer Seraj faces Shimla district
and reaches out to touch the river Sutlej and Inner Seraj tums towards Kullu. Anni near Sutlej provides
the access point to Outer Seraj from Shimla.
JALORI PASS (3134 m): The Jalori Pass which links Inner and Outer SERAJ is 76 km from Kullu. Its
crest offers views of the area. The new pass is a man made one and was carved out of the mountain range
in the early part of the Twentieth century. This is about 150 m lower than the old Jalori Pass. Surrounded
by forests, this area is home to the Himalayan brown bear and certain varieties of pheasant – including the
Mona and Tarpon. The Shangri Rich Temple is close-by, and 5 km from the Pass is the jewel like Sloes
Lake.
SHOJA (2692 m): Shoja in Inner Seraj is close to the Jalori Pass. An unspoilt location overlooking
meadows and tall snow-capped ranges, Shoji is 69 km from Kullu via Aut. The Raghupur Fort and
Dough Thatch, a grassy meadow very close to Shoja is worth visiting.
AUT: Aut on the Mandi-Manali highway is the entry point to the Kullu Valley where the road enters the
Mandi – Largi gorge. Aut, the entire reservoir of the Pandoh Dam and Largi are excellent for angling. The
rapids between Shamshi and Aut are splendid for river running. There are rest houses at Aut and Largi.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE:
Tourists leave their impact on the socio-cultural life of host communities. The few studies which focus on
the consequences of the impacts in mountain regions are restricted to individual areas, rather than
presenting a generalized description or analysis. Either inadvertently or intentionally and to differing
degrees t0urist’s leaves their imprint not only on the physical and cultural landscape, but also on the
social and cultural life of the inhabitants of many of the world’s communities they visit.
Charles (2001) discusses in detail the role of development and tourism on drug trade with special
reference to Himachal Pradesh, mainly Manali. He reports that, tourism naturally tums an important
industry for income generation to the local people. He further discuss that due to lack of management
skills the local people either lease out their land to outsiders or built their own hotels. The exposure of
people to the luxuries that money can buy has lead them to adopt ways that are not legal one of the
lucrative method, a few local people have adopted is catering to tourist demand for drugs of their choice.
He also reported that in remote areas local people have begun to cultivate cannabis; which is bought by
middleman and sold to dealers in certain pockets.
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Hardin (2005) discussed the value of sports tourism and provided a lot of information to the readers
through cohesive discussion of literature on motivation and needs of sports tourism. He added that sports
tourism is an excellent source for in depth exploration of the emerging field of tourism.
Hooker (2010) observation on the undesirable social and environmental impact of tourism has led some
researcher to speculate on the concept of a carrying capacity for tourists destinations but later it was
realised that carrying capacity is one of these concepts that differ exact definition. In fact, it is very hard
to determine what the true carrying capacity of an area until it has been made to highlight some of the
factor which influences Darjeeling town activity to expend with respect to tourism along with its ability
to sustain it.
Doohgun Hwang (2012) examined that community based action as a positive impact of tourism
development is examined and connected to a community’s capacity to protect itself from outside threats
by negotiating the quality of tourism development. He said that tourism development is an interaction
between outsides developer and local residents that ultimately builds a sustainable dialogue for growth of
tourism. In five communities, the partnerships established between local community residents and outside
tourism developers began with initial resistance for resident and led to the following sequence of
behaviour: town meeting, formal organisation of residents, petitioning, public demonstration, and legal
action. By examining collective action narratives in the five study communities, a fiamework for
sustainable rural tourism development is built to understand relationship between tourism impacts and
community identity.
RESEARCH GAP:
From the review of various authors tourism and its impact it may be concluded that main goal in
developing tourism is to maximize the positive impacts while minimizing negative impact to the host
community. The social impact of tourism may improve public utilities such as pavements, lighting,
packing letter control, landscaping and even water and sewage system. Tourism may also encourage
improvements in public transport infrastmcture benefiting both tourist and residents. There are three
important categories of impact, economic, social and environment/physical.
NEED OF STUDY:
Tourism is rapidly growing industry in Himachal Pradesh and its impact is extremely varied. On one
hand, it is playing an important and certainly positive role in the socio economic and political
development in state and on the other hand offering new employment opportunities.
Kullu and Manali is one of the beautiful and important tourist destinations fiom tourism point of view.
Kullu and Manali has all facilities for the tourist but there are some problems during tourist’s peak
season. Keeping in the view the factor discussed above, the study of growth and development of tourism
is essential.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY:
Beside great tourism potential Himachal Pradesh is faced with many problems like (l) limited transport
facilities(2) high cost of accommodation, goods etc. it is not possible to carry out the detailed research on
tourism development at different places in H.P. therefore the study has been restricted only to Kullu and
Manali tourist destinations.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:
l. To evaluate various facilities to the tourist in Kullu-Manali.
2. To conduct SWOC analysis of tourism in the development of Kullu- Manali.
HYPOTHESIS:
The following hypothesis has been developed for the purpose of testing:
1. Null hypothesis: HQ there is no adequate infrastructure facilities for the promotion of the tourism in
the state.
2. Alternate hypothesis: H1 there is an adequate infrastructure facility for the promotion of the tourism
in the state.
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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:
In this the procedure of sampling selection, methodology of data collection and analysis of data has been
discussed. The study has been conducted to evaluate the growth and development of tourism in Kullu and
Manali, in the light of objectives set for the information has been collected from various tourists. The
tourist includes both domestic and foreigners. The data required for the study is collected from both
primary and secondary data.
1) Primary data
To study the tourist’s general background, their views regarding various facilities, price charged for
various facilities and to make assessment of the tourism potential in Kullu and Manali, the primary data
for the study has been collected with the help of interviews, personal observation and questionnaires.
2) Secondary data:
To study the growth and nature of tourism, historical background and economic situation secondary data
have been used. To make study more authentic various sources have been consulted. Mainly the data has
been collected through sources.
l. Book and journals
2. H.P. Tourism dept.
3. Research reports
4. News paper
SAMPLE SIZE AND SAMPLE DESIGN:
The population for the sample is the tourists visited district Kullu, during 2014-15. The sample size of
100 tourists is taken. Keeping in view the large flow of tourists to Himachal Pradesh, only Kullu and
Manali has been selected for present study.
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS:
The data collected fiom different resources will be classified and arranged in tables in one or more forms
according to the requirement of analysis. For the analysis of results, the following techniques will be
applied:
a) Mathematical tools
b) Statistical tools
a) Mathematical tools
In the present study mathematical tool viz., percentage will be used to analyze the collected data.
b) Statistical tools
In the present research work as far as statistical tools are concerned, mean, correlation, chi-square,
skewness, standard deviation, ANOVA, t test, Likert scale shall be applied as and where it fits to the data.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION:
In context of the objectives of the study, the data collected through questionnaires have been analyzed
and interpreted in the present paper. In the present paper the theme of the study is to evaluate the
perception of tourists with regards to tourism in Himachal Pradesh and especially in Kullu and Manali.
Himachal Pradesh is very rich from tourism point of view with all the basic resources necessary for
promoting tourism activities. Kullu and Manali have been main attractions for the tourists. Both domestic
and foreign tourists come here. Kullu and Manali valley has variety of tourism potential for different
type of tourists.
As a consequence of the wide spectrum and scope of networks for tourist attractions in different fonns it
is obvious that the tourist inflow and the economy of the state due to tourism has influenced. To
determine the potential of the state in terms of accommodation facilities and the services provided, an
attempt has been further made to find out the occupancy potential of the state in terms of number of the
hotels and guest houses and there bedding capacity. The occupancy pattern and bedding capacity along
with the total tourist inflow would help in determining whether the facilities provided for the tourists
visiting the state are adequate or not.
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CLASSIFICATION OF TOURIST’S OPINION REGARDING VARIOUS FACILITIES
Ver
y Satisfie
Satis d
Facilities
No Dis.
Comme Satisfie
nt d
Very
Dis.
Satisfie
d
Tot
I
3
Mean
S.D
X2
P
value
73
(73)
Accommodati 15
9 2
1
100
3.84
1.00
182
<o.o5
on (15)
9 69
Transport (69)
(9) (2)
13 4
(1)
5
100
3.56
1.14
152.
6
<o.o5
(9)
14
(14)
Food 61
(13) (4)
20 4
(Z0)
(5)
1
100
3.48
1.32
116.
7
<o.o5
(61)
56
Entertainment 4) (56)
(4)
22 7
(Z2)
(1)
1
100
3.39
1.36
93.3
<o.o5
18
(18)
27
(27)
Parking
Facility
(7)
26
(24) (26)
24
(1)
5
100
3.10
1.41
16.5
<o.o5
27 38
Shopping
15 9
(5)
11
100
3.51
1.38
30.0
<o.o5
(Z7) (33) (15) (9) (11)
SOURCE: Data collected through questionnaires
VIEWS REGARDING VARIOUS FACILITIES:
Tourists are very much interested in the facilities they received. 1n our survey we have
attention mainly on these 6 facilities.
ACCOMMODATION
Table shows the responses of the tourists regarding accommodation facilities availed by them during their
visit, it shows that 73% respondents are satisfied with accommodation facilities, 15% are very satisfied,
9% has no comments,2% are dissatisfied and 1% are very dissatisfied. The mean score of this is 3.84.S.D
is 1.00, X2 value (182) is also very high at 5% level of significance, as a result it can be concluded that
majority of tourists like accommodation facility.
focused our
TRANSPORT:
Table shows the responses of the tourists regarding transport facilities availed by them during their visit,
it shows that 69% respondents are satisfied with transport facilities, 9% are very satisfied,13% has no
con1ments,4% are dissatisfied and 5% are very dissatisfied. The mean score of this is 3.46 with S.D 1.14.
X2 Value (152.6) is also very high at 5% level of significance, as a result null hypothesis is rejected.
Food
Table shows the responses of the tourists regarding food facilities availed by them during their visit. 1t
shows that 61% respondents are satisfied with food-facilities, 14% are very satisfied, 20% has no
con1ments,4% are dissatisfied and 1% are very dissatisfied. The mean score of this is 3.48 with S.D 1.32.
X2 value (1 16.7) is also very high at 5% level of significance, as a result it can be concluded that majority
of tourists like food facility.
ENTERTAINMENT:
Table shows the responses of the tourists regarding entertainment facilities availed by them during their
visit. 1t shows that 56% respondents are satisfied with entertainment facilities, 14% are very
satisfied,22% has no comments,7% are dissatisfied and 1% are very dissatisfied. The mean score of this is
3.39 with S.D is 1.36, X2 value (93.3) is also very high at 5% level of significance, as a result it can be
concluded that majority of tourists like entertainment facility.
PARKING:
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Table shows the responses of the tourists regarding parking facilities availed by them during their visit. It
shows that 18% respondents are satisfied with parking facilities, 27% are very satisfied, 24% has no
comments, 26% are dissatisfied and 5% are very dissatisfied. The mean score of this is 3.10 with SD is
1.41. X2 value (16.5) is greater than table value at 5% level of significance, as a result it can be concluded
that majority of tourists have been found dissatisfied with the parking facilities.
SHOPPING:
Table shows the responses of the tourists regarding shopping facilities availed by them during their visit.
It shows that 27% respondents are satisfied with shopping facilities, 38% are very satisfied, 15% has no
comments, 9% are dissatisfied and 11% are very dissatisfied. The mean score of this is 3.51 with S.D
1.38. X2 Value (30) is grater than the table value at 5% level of significance, which rejects the null
hypothesis.
HIMACHAL TOURISM-A SWOT ANALYSIS
An analysis of strengths weaknesses opportunities threats (SWOT):
1. STRENGTHS:
1) One of the rare places in the world offering five distinct seasons, thus having potential to attract
tourists inflow round the year.
2) Political and social stability.
3) Recognized as a peaceful and hospitable state.
4) Salubrious climate.
5) Pollution free environment.
6) Offers a rare conglomerate of eco-tourism, pilgrimage, adventure, culture, heritage, leisure wilderness
etc.
7) Fairly good infrastructure.
8) Rich history and heritage that has something to offer to all. Its Buddhist monasteries, which are
thousand years old, ancient emplaces, churches and cemeteries.
2. WEAKNESSES:
1) Negligible air and rail link in the state.
2) Inadequate flow of foreign tourist.
3) Non-disbursal of tourists round the year, putting severe strains on civic infrastructure dLu”ing the peak
season.
4) Lack of trained tourist guides at important tourist place and historical tourists sites.
5) Saturation at the established tourist’s destinations.
6) No new major tourist destination has come up recently.
7) Lack of adequate parking places at important tourist places.
8) Poor marketing of state abroad and inadequate marketing within the country.
3. OPPORTUNITIES:
1) Strong potential for activity based tourism such as white water rafting, Para-gliding, trekking,
mountaineering; water sports mountain biking, Car Rallies etc.
2) A strong base for heritage tourism to attract persons from all walks of society and religious beliefs.
3) To develop an ideal destination for natural lovers for promoting eco-tourism.
4) Create synergy between heritage and pilgrimage tourism.
5) Development of wetlands of the state to attract nature lovers especially bird watchers.
6) Promote the state as an Open University and learning centre in mythology, anthropology and
ornithology etc.
7) Position it as an ideal destination for the film industry.
4. THREATS:
1) Tremendous strain leading to collapse, at times of civic amenities at leading destination during the
season.
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2) Haphazard growth and construction threatening the environment, especially at the leading tourist
destinations.
3) An alarming growth of concrete structure creating a disharmony with the local environment.
4) Unscrupulous commercialization of tourism could erode the social and cultural values.
5) Aggressive competition amongst the leading tourist state and strong promotion of tourism by other
states.
CONCLUSION:
l. The young, educated and married people from the different parts of the country and world prefer to
visit the Kullu-Manali for the purpose of pleasure and climatic changes. The married couples also like
visit this place for honeymoon.
Z. Lack of sufficient accommodation, high tariffs and locations of accommodation are the problems faced
by the tourists during their stay in the state.
3. Both domestic and foreign tourists have reported high transportation charges and improper timing of
departure and arrival of vehicles are main transport problems faced by them in the state.
4. As per the shopping tourists pointed out that high price is charged to them as compare to local
customers. And there is also lack of branded products.
5. It has been found that Kullu district still has large untapped tourism potential.
SUGGESTIONS:
In Himachal Pradesh tourism is being considered as an important vehicle of economic development. The
state govt. should developed appropriate policy in respect to the class of the tourists to be encouraged and
motivated to visit the state, to achieve the objective of rapid economic development. Even having such
great potential, tourism industry is not growing as a faster rate. The following suggestions will prove
useful to promote the tourism in the state.
l. The government should identify the new tourist’s destinations and a proper and comprehensive plan
should be drawn to develop these destinations, which should provide all infrastructure and super
structure facilities to the tourists. The plah should also concentrate upon to improve the accessibility as
well the tourist marketing strategies.
2. Since budget is an important factor for strengthening and improvement of tourism structure in the
state, therefore it has been suggested that in order to compete with the tourism oriented state in the
contrary government should increase the budget of tourism of tourism department for increasing the
flow of tourists and publicizing the state nationally and internationally.
3. Majority of sample tourists complained about roads. The condition of roads in several places is very
poor. The condition of roads should be improved.
4. The state govt. should make efforts to provide comprehensive training so the youth engaged in
organizing adventure sports like Para gliding. Skiing, camping, angling Water sports, climbing,
trekking mountaineering etc. so, that they are able to take these activities on commercial basis and
facilities available are of international standards.
5. Apples and orchard tourism is also an area of focus in many district of Kullu, Shimla, Kinnaur and
parts of Manali district. The tradition farm houses could be converted into home stead’s where in the
tourist could enjoy the beauty right from apple blossom to harvesting.
6. Local art and culture need to be promoted to patronize and promote local folk culture and crafis to
provide a closer glimpse for the visiting tourists.
7. Himachal also has many undiscovered spots with unspoiled charm that are worth to visit for spending
a quite rewarding holidays amidst the spender of nature away from crowds. The state govt. should
make special efforts to developed unexplored destinations with the assistance of central govt. and
participation of private sectors to provide all necessary facilities of tourists interest so as to shift some
crowds from particular tourist place.
Wide publicity about the fair and festivals at national level should be given so that large number of tourist
is attracted. The state govt should accord with high priority for provision of way side amenities like
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cafeterias, parks, information centre, public convenience through the private sector as well as through
public and private sector participation.
If all these suggestions are taken into account, no doubt, the tourism industry could earn the maximum
returns to the state and could be beneficial for overall development of Himachal Pradesh.
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