Natural Disaster Risk Reduction Portal – HimachaL Pradesh

NIDM- Himachal Pradesh – Natural Disaster Risk Reduction Portal

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Map of Himachal Pradesh
HIMACHAL PRADESH
DISTRICT MAP
1. STATE PROFILE2
1.1 General:-
Himachal Pradesh is predominantly a mountainous State located in North — West India. It shares
an international border with China. The State has highly dissected mountain ranges interspersed
With deep gorges and valleys. It is also characterized with diverse climate that varies from semi
tropical in lower hills, to semi arctic in the cold deserts areas of Spiti and Kinnaur. Altitude
ranges from 350 meters to 6975 meters above mean sea level. It is located between Latitude 300
22.40 N to 330 12.20 N and Longitude 750 45.55 E to 790 04.20 E.
Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Himachal Pradesh

Elevation mater!)
– mgn 6155
– Law 2:2
DISIVICI I.”.’fZ CD_s\n=n
Digital Elevation Model, H.P.
1.2Administrative Units:-
Twelve districts of the State have been divided into 3 Divisions, 52 Subdivisions, 77
Development Blocks and 3243 Panchayats. The PRI’s are in place in all the 12 districts
comprising 12 ZilaParishads, PanchayatSamitis in 77 Development Blocks, and Gram
Panchayats in 3243 Panchayats. One Municipal Corporation in Shimla, 20 Municipal Councils
and 28 Nagar Panchayats, besides 7 Cantonment Boards, represent the Urban Local Bodies
infrastructure in the State.
2

1.3 Geology and Ge0m0rph0logy:-
Himachal Pradesh with its complex geological structures presents a complicated topography with
intricate mosaic of mountains ranges, hills and valleys. Composed of recent Alluvium, Shiwalik
hills are made up of rocks such as sandstone, shale and clay that came into existence during the
Eocene, Miocene and Pliocene period. The central part that extends from Chamba district in the
north to Shirnla district in the south is mainly represented by Jatog group of rocks which
originated in middle Proterozoic period. In the north eastern portion unclassified Granites
borders the central part in between Kullu, eastern Shimla, LahaulSpiti and parts of Kinnaur
district. The eastem greater Himalaya presents the Triassic fonnation which is found in Kaza
tehsil of LahaulSpiti district. The oldest rocks are Granites found at Jeori-Wangtu and Bandel
near Largi in Kullu district. These granites date back to a stage of the crust at a time when India
was located 8000 Km southwest of its present position.

T 1-A Q
Geography of Himachal Pradesh
3

1.4 T0p0graphy:-
Topographically, the state can be divided into three zones:
l. The Shiwaliks or Outer Himalayas: It covers the lower hills of Kangra, Hamirpur, Una,
Bilaspur, lower parts of Mandi, Solan and Sirmour districts. Within this zone, altitude varies
from 350 m to 1500 m.
2. Inner Himalayas or mid-mountains: Altitude varies from 1500 m to 4500 m above mean sea
level and includes areas such as the upper parts of Pachhad and Renuka in Sirmaur district,
Chachiot and Karsog tehsils of Mandi district and upper parts of Churah tehsil of Chamba
district.
3. Alpine zone or the greater Himalayas: Has altitude above 4500 m above mean sea level and
comprises areas of Kinnaur district, Pangi tehsil of Chamba district and area of Lahaul&Spiti
district.
1.5 Climate:-
The climate varies across the state with the
altitude. In the southern low tracks between an °“””“° °'”*‘”°”‘°”‘ N
altitude of 400-900 it is hot sub humid type, ®
between 900-1800111 altitude warm & ’
temperate, between 900-2400m cool &
temperate, cold alpine & glacial above 2400-
4800m altitude. Bilaspur, Kangra, Mandi,
Sirmour, and Una districts experience sub
tropical monsoon, mild and dry winter and hot M»
summer. Shimla district has tropical upland
type climate with mild and dry Winter and short
warm summer. Chamba district experiences,
humid subtropical type climate having mild
winter, long hot summer and moist all season.
Kullu district experience mainly humid
subtropical type of climate with mild winter
moist all season, long hot summer and marine. §fEE.;”Z:J2$:l£ZTf:§£w.
During the period from January to February “mum”-M-“M
heavy snowfall in higher reaches create conditions for low temperature throughout the state
making it unpleasant and series of western disturbances also affect the state.
4

Climate Pattern of Hlmachal Pradesh
Sub-tropical Monsoon (Cwa type) Bilaspur, Kangra, Mandl, Sirmour, Una,
Mild and dry winter, hot summer Hamirpur, Solan, Chamba
Sub-tropical Monsoon (Cwb type) .
Mild and dry winter, moderate hot summer Smmla’ Pam of Chamba
Sub-tropical monsoon (Cfa type) . .
Without dry winter with hot summer Chamba’ Major pans of KuHu’ Mam“
Sub-tropical monsoon (Cfb type)
Without dry winter with moderate hot summer
Humid continental (Dwb type) .
. Kinnaur
Severe and dry winter, warm summer
Humid continental (Dfb type) “haul & Spin
Severe winter moist all seasons, short warm summer
Minor parts of Kullu
Average Annual Rainfall
2008 Z009
1. 811 1
2010
Bllaspur 867.9 . 1079.7
2. Chamba asn 1019.0 1111.5
3. Hamlrpur 1414.6 8 1119.2 1241.1
4. Kangra 1947.9 1ase.o 1619.6
5. Klnnaur 354.1 269.4 1107.8
6. Kullu 1215.3 825.1 1732.5
7. Lahaul 81 Spltl 411.6 706.3 847.1
8. Mandi 1173.8
775.0
1495.4
9. Shimla 1211.4
825.6
1272.3
10. Sirrnour 1432.6
905.9
1896.9
11. Solan 1368.2
862.8
1377.1
12. Una 1437.4
1329.8
1182.3
Hlmachal Pradesh (Average) 1141.0
907.9
1242.8
Source: Meteorological Department, Govt. of India.
1.6 Agriculture:-
As per the state department of Agriculture, Himachal Pradesh is predominately an agricultural
state and provides direct employment to about 71 percent of the total population. The Agriculture
sector contributes nearly 30 percent of the total state domestic product. About 18-20 percent area
is irrigated and rest is rain fed. Food grains production was 1440.66 thousand tonnes in the Year
2007-2008. The production of major crops of the state i.e. maize, rice and wheat for 2007-2008
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was 682.61 thousand tonnes, 121.45 thousand ton and 61.2 thousand tonnes respectively. The
vegetable production for 2007-2008 was 1060.00 thousand tonnes.
1.7 Demography2:-
Population of Himachal Pradesh is 68.56 lakh persons as per the Census report for the year 2011.
89.01% of the total population inhabits 20,604 villages in the rural areas of the State. These
villages are sparsely distributed across the State having population density as low as 1 person per
square kilometer in the remote and tribal area of Lahaul&Spiti, Hamirpur district has largest
population density of 369 persons per square kilometer as against 123 persons per square
kilometer for the whole State. Himachal Pradesh is one of the few states of the country where
gender equality is an integral part of the social ethos as well as the overall development strategy.
Female literacy is well above the national level and women employment is much higher than in
most states of the country.
Description 2011
Population 6,856,509
Population Growth 12.81
Population Density/sq. km 123
Male 3,473,892
Female 3,382,617
Sex Ratio 974
Percentage of total Population 0.57%
Literacy 83 .78
Male Literacy 90.83
Female Literacy 76.60
Total Literate 5,104,506
Male Literate 2,791,542
Female Literate 2,312,964
2. DISASTER RISK PROFILE3
2.1 Vulnerability to Disaster:-
Himachal Pradesh is vulnerable to 25 out of 33 types of hazards identified by the High Powered
Committee (HPC) of Government of India and categorised into 5 sub-groups. Apart from
identified hazards by HPC, the state is also confronting the emerging threats of climate change
and man and animal conflict.
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Water and Climate Related Disasters
l. Floods
2. Hailstorm
3. Cloud Burst
4. Heat Wave and Cold Wave
5. Snow Avalanches
6. Droughts
7. Thunder and Lightning
Geologically Related Disasters:
l. Landslides and Mudflows
2. Earthquakes
3. Dam Failures/ Dam Bursts
Chemical, Industrial and Nuclear:
l. Chemical and Industrial Disasters
Z. Nuclear Disasters
Accident Related Disasters:
l. Forest Fires
2. Urban Fires
3. Major Building Collapse
4. Serial Bomb Blasts
5. Festival related disasters
6. Electrical Disasters and Fires
7. Air, Road and Rail Accidents
8. Boat Capsizing
9. Village Fire
Biologically Related Disasters:
l. Biological Disasters and Epidemics
2. Pest Attacks
3. Cattle Epidemics
4. Food Poisoning
2.2 Potential Hazard Threat to the State
Hazards both natural and manmade are of immediate concern to the State of Hiniachal Pradesh
as it faces the fury of one or the other disaster every year The fragile ecology and geology of the

State coupled with large variations in Physio-climate conditions render it vulnerable to vagaries
of nature in one way or the other.
District-wise Hazard Threat in Himachal Pradesh
a) Seismic Hazard (Earthquake):-
The seismic sensitivity of the state of Himachal Pradesh is very high as over the years a large
number of damaging earthquake has struck the state and its adjoining areas. Seismically it lies in
the great Alpine Himalayan belt running from Alps Mountain through Yugoslavia, Turkey, Iran,
Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan and Burma. Due to its location the state experiences
dozens of mild earthquakes every year. Large earthquakes have occurred in all parts of Himachal
Pradesh, the biggest being the Kangra earthquake of 1905. The Himalayan Frontal Thrust, the
Main boundary Thrust, the Krol, the Giri, Jutogh and Nahan thrusts are some of the tectonic
features that are responsible for shaping the present geophysical deposition of the state. The
seismic vulnerability of Himachal Pradesh is primarily attributed to northward movement of
Indian plate and to the major dislocation tectonic features such as MBF, MBT, Punjab thrust and
MCT etc. Besides the longitudinal tectonic feature trending parallel to the Himalayas there are a
large number of transverse fractures, faults that have been responsible for the seismic activity in
the Himalayan region in general and Himachal Pradesh in particular. The Kinnaur earthquake of
1975 was associated with transverse Kauirik fault. In fact about 250 earthquakes with magnitude
4 and 62 earthquake having magnitude of 5 and above have impacted the state so far. It is also
pertinent to note that the state of Himachal Pradesh is not only highly sensitive from the
earthquake point of view but the risk has also grown manifold as the population and
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infrastructure have increased considerately over the last 20 years. Chamba, Kullu, Kangra, Una,
Hamirpur, Mandi and Bilaspur Districts lie in Zone V i.e. very high damage risk zone and the
area falling in this zone may expect earthquake intensity maximum of MSK IX or more. The
remaining districts of Lahaul and Spiti, Kinnaur, Shimla, Solan and Sirmour lie in Zone lV i.e.
the areas in this zone are in high damage risk with expected intensity of MSK VIII or more. The
spatial distribution and district wise history of past seismic events is given as below.
District-wise occurrence of Earthquakes (1800-2008)
No. Dlstrlct Number of earthquakes Percentage of Total
Chamba 186 33.63
Lahaul & Spiti 99 17.90
Kinnaur 93 16.82
Mandi 53 9.58
5 Shimla 49 8.86
6 Kangra 39 7.05
7 Kullu 19 3.44
8 Sirmaur 8 1.45
9 Solan 4 0.72
10 Hamirpur 2 0.36
11 Bilaspur 1 0.18
12 Una 0 0.00
Himachal Pradesh 553 100
Source: Vishwa, B. 5. Chondel & Karanjot Kaur Brar
bwhll-I
Some of the important earthquakes that the state experienced and for which instrumental records
are available are as follows:
> 4rd April 1905 — Kangra (MW 7.8) 33N, 76E, OT: 00:50 UTC About 20,000 people
were killed in the Kangra- Dharamshala region. Damage and casualties also occurred in
adjoining parts of Punjab including in the cities of Amritsar, Lahore, Jalandhar, Ludhiana
and Sialkot.
> 28thFeburary 1906 — Near Kullu (Mw 6.4) 32N, 77E Damage and casualities in the
Bashahr — Shimla hills states.
> llth May 1930 — East of Sultanpur, 6.0 (TS) 11:30:36 UTC, 3l.70N, 77.00E
> 22 June 1945 — Near Padua Kathwa District, J&K (H.P, J&K Border region), 6.0 (TS)
18:00:51 UTC, 32.5999N, 75.90E
> 10th July 1947 — Near Padua, Kathwa District, J &K(H.P, J&K Border region), 6.0 (TS)
10:19:20 UTC, 32.599N, 75.90E
> 12th August 1950 — Near Padua, Kathwa District, J &K(H.P, J&K Border region), 6.0
(TS) (TS) 03:59;06 UTC, 32.599N, 75.90E
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> 12th September 1951 — Chamba — Udhampur Districts (H.P-J&K Border region), 6.0
(TS) 20:41:48 UTC, 33.30N, 76.50E
> 17th June 1955 — LahaulSpiti District (Himachal Pradesh), 6.0 (TS) 10:14:09 UTC,
32.50N, 76.60E
> 17th June 1962 — Chamba-Udhampur Districts (H.P-J&K border region ), 6.0 (TS)
04:39:26:6O UTC, 33.30N, 76.2OE
> 19th January 1975 — SW of Dutung, Himachal Pradesh (Indo-China Border region),
Ms6.8 (NEIC) 08:O2:02:05, 32.455N, 78.430N, 33Kms depth This earthquake struck in
the early afternoon of J aunary 19, 1975. It registered 6.2 on the Richter Scale. It caused
havoc in parts of the Kinnaur, Lahaul and Spiti regions of India, 60 people Were killed in
this sparsely populated region.
> llth November 2004 — Bharmour, Kangra region, Mb 5.1 32.442 N, 76.512 E,
D=34Kms, OT=02:l3:45 UTC A moderate earthquake struck the Kangra Valley and the
Dhauladhar Mountains on llth November, 2004 at 07:43 AM local time. It was felt
strongly in the Kangra-Dharamshala region and event caused minor damage to buildings
in this region. It had a magnitude of Mb=5.l
(Source: www.asc.india.0rg )
The Earthquake Hazard Map of BMTPC, 2006 shows that Himachal Pradesh lies in
one of the highest risk zone areas of the state (Zone IV & V).
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r \ \ \ r \ .-+—
‘ HIMACHAL PRADESH
i Earthquake Hazard Map .
(showing Iaulls. thrusts and
mm earthquakes of magnitude 2 5)

Earthquake Hazard Map of Himachal Pradesh
(Source: BMTPC Atlas of India)
b) Landslides:-
Landslide is the most common hazard in Himachal Pradesh, which causes immense risk to life
and property. Almost every year the state is affected by one or more major landslides affecting
the society in many Ways. Loss of life, damage of houses, roads, means of communication,
agricultural land, are some of the major consequences of landslides. The fragile nature of rocks
forming the mountains, along with the climatic conditions and various anthropogenic activities
has made the state vulnerable to the Landslides. District wise landslide vulnerability in the State
is as follows.
11

Landslide hazard in
Himachal Pradesh
-Severe In vary high
– High
Moderate to low
G Unlikely
I3 Snow covered areas
Landslide Hazard in Himachal Pradesh
Landslide Vulnerable areas In Himachal Pradesh (District area in square kilometres)
Bllaspur
216 842 83 1
1142
Chamba
2120
3829
351
6370
Hamlrpur
0
851
204
1100
Kangra
123
3698
1233
5611
Klnnaur
868
4956
498
6322
Kullu
1820
3513
65
5401
Lahaul 8| Spltl
127
11637
1825
13591
Mandi
968
1978
826
3870
Shlmla
893
3345
767
5019
Slrrnaur
95
1805
614
2742
555
1118
157
1910
Una
2
678
517
1508
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Triggering of landslides is both a natural and anthropogenic phenomena. As in other parts of
Himalayas the landslide activity in Himachal Pradesh also varies with altitude, geology and
topography. Various geophysical factors such as steepness of slopes, saturation by heavy rains,
melting snow and ice, rock vibrations, excess load from embankments, fills, waste & debris
dumps change in water content, frost, change in vegetable cover and toe cutting by rivers and
streams are some of the other natural factors influencing the occurrence of landslides. The
vulnerability of course has increased many times in the recent past due to various developmental
activities. Deforestation, unscientific road construction, terracing, water intensive agricultural
practices, and encroachment on steep hill slopes are some of the anthropogenic factors that have
contributed towards increased intensity and frequency of landslides. Jhakri, Pangi, Powari, Urni,
Sholdan, Nichar, KhadraDhank, Thangi, Barua are some of the most common landslide that has
affected the NH-22 in Satluj valley.
Experts point out that unscientific land use and unplanned expansion of urban areas is also
overloading and destabilising the slopes in the towns and cities such as Shimla. Overloaded
slopes may initially cause only minor landslides, but at later stage could trigger larger landslides.
The state capital Shimla is also sinking at several places due to digging of slopes for construction
and infrastructure development. First major landslide occurred in Shimla in February 1971 when
a large northem portion of the Ridge slumped down threatening the safety of reservoirs below.
Since then many areas of the town have become prone to landslides and situation worsens during
rainy season when vulnerable roads are washed away at many places.
Major Landslides that caused heavy damage in the past
First Last
During the flood, of 1988, 1993 and 1995, 250, 350
and 475 m of the road was washed away.
During the flood of 1988, 1993 and 1995, 200, 500
and 300 m of the road was washed away.
During the flood of 1988, 1993 and 1995,100, 150
and 600 m of the road was washed away.
NH-Z2 1988 1995
NH Z2 km Z92 293 1988 1995
NH-Z2 km 307 l 1988 1995
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Flash floods, particularly in narrow river gorges are also responsible for triggering the major
landslides in Himachal Pradesh. Some of the flash floods triggered landslides are as follows:
Major Landslides due to flash floods
Road (NH-22) stretch of about 1/2 km was completely damaged and slide debris
Jhakarl i 1993 blocked the river Sutlej. Traffic restored after two months.
c) Fl00ds:-
Floods are another form of natural disaster the State experiences every year. South west
Monsoonal rainfall during the months of J1me to August is the dominant cause for triggering
floods when rainfall happens to be in excess i.e. 125% or more than the normal. Fig 2.5 shows
the percentage frequency of excessive rainfall and successive years of excessive rainfall during
the period from 1951 to 1999. During this period the Chamba district in the north westem part of
the state had received highest amount of rainfall expressed as percentage of the nonnal with
more numbers of successive years of excessive rainfall. Table 2.11 gives the district wise
excessive rainfall years and highest annual rainfall expressed as percentage of nonnal and Table
2.12 gives successive years of excessive rainfall. Fig 2.6 is the map of flood prone areas as
prepared by Dr D.D Shanna of H.P University Shimla.
14

Years of Excessive Rainfall
1. Bilaspur 1973, 94, 96, 98
213.1 cm in 19:-as (114 %)
Z‘ chamba 77, 79, ss, 92, 93, 94
1953, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 51, 64, 76, ‘ 2683 cm in 1977 (198 96)
3. Hamlrpur 1955, 61, 70, 90
| 210.5 cm in 1990 (144%)
Kangra 1976
I 233.4 cm in 1976 (125 %)
Ul
. Mandi 1954, 55, 63, 66, 67, 88, 90, 97
| 336.4 cm1988 (215 %)
Sirmaur 1959, 61, 62, 63, 64, 88
I 288.8 cm in 1963(215%)
. UII3 1955, 88
\|
| 237.0 cm in 19sa (195%)
Data Source: Indian Meteorological Department (IMD)
Successive Years of Excessive Rainfall (District-wise)
1. Chamba 1953-54-55-S6-57-58-59-60-61, 1976-77, 1992-93-94.
z. Mandl | 1954-55.1965-s1
3. Slrmaur | 1961-sz-sa-s4
Data Source: Indian Meteorological Department (IMD)
15

Himachal Pradesh
Flood Disaster Map

LEGEND R .¢;%§§,%“°
~(e
“ Major Rivets with their Tributaries
D River Basin Boundary
Z Road \Vuh Station
\/ Flood Pmne Area
Sou‘n¢’Mnpul’n1cdnnI‘Mup|uv\dn1byR:nnae tn,-ulna, D-lm\.|:\nlP|’ld<shmdl»t¢M§u!\\-y mos.
d) Flash Fl00d:-
Flash flood is the most frequent and damaging floods that occur With little or no Waming causing
immense loss to life and property Flash Flo d
. 0 s usually takes place when rapidly rising and
flowing surge of Water reaching full peak with” f ‘
lI1 ew minutes is generated as a result of
excess rainfall or failure of impoundment. The major causes that are responsible for floods and
flash floods in the state of Himachal Pradesh are
0 Cloudburst in upper catchments of the river.
Q Excessive rainfall in the catchments.
¢ Melting and Bursting of glaciers due to global warming.
16

¢ Sudden breach or failure of manmade or natural barriers.
0 Change of river course.
0 Landslides triggered due to slope failure or tectonic movements leading to LDOF
phenomena.
Over 40 incidents of flash flood and cloudbursts occurred in Himachal Pradesh in the last 12
years and over 35 were feared dead. In August 1994, the Manimahesh cloudburst and flash flood
Washed away almost the entire length of Chamba-Bharmour road (62 km), over 50 people feared
dead, and 2000 injured. The estimated loss was over 450 crore of Rupees. 1997 again saw a
heavy flash flood in Maglad in Rampur tehsil of Shimla district. Some of the major flash floods
reported in the State are as follows:
Major Flash Floods in Himachal Pradesh
July 2000 Séflul Rm” Kullu’ Mam” 140 dead, 400 shifted, 12400 sq km. Affected
Kmnaur, Rampur
l August 2001 l Chamba l 16 dead, 3010 sq km affected
July 2003 l Gadsa valley — Kullu 35 dead
‘ August 2004 Satlu| nver, Kmnaur, Sh|mla, 3500 people and 56 villages evacuated
‘ Kullu, Bnlaspur
l June 2005 [ Parchu lake, Kinnaur, Rampur \ 5 bridges damaged, 50 houses submerged
17

e) Glacial Lake Outburst Fl00ds:-
This phenomenon constituting a sudden discharge of a huge volume of Water from such glacial
lakes is known as Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs). The frequency of such events is
increasing in the HKH region since the second half of the 20th century (UNEP, 2003) due to the
combined effects of climate change and deforestation. Satellite observation of the mountain top
lakes in the region have revealed a steady increase in the size and volume of many of these
glacial lakes at high altitudes, enhancing the possibility of a devastating outburst flood affecting
sizeable populations and damaging precious socio-economic infrastructure and development
assets in the Himalayan belt. Over the years, countries in the region have built many high-value
economic and infrastructure assets and the emerging threat from GLOFs has serious implications
for their future development pathway.
f) Avalanches:-
Snow avalanches are the sudden slide of large mass of snow down a mountain. There are several
factors, which can affect the occurrence of avalanche, including local weather, slope,
atmospheric temperature, vegetation; terrain and general snow pack conditions. Different
combinations of these factors can create low, moderate and extreme weather conditions. Most
avalanches are very dangerous and cause huge loss of life and property. The temperature
variation and wind speed are directly propofiional to avalanches. As per the Snow & Avalanches
study established on an average 30 persons are killed every year due to this disaster in the
Himalaya.
Areas normally prone to Avalanches include
0 Region above 3500m elevation
0 Slopes with inclination 30-45°
Q Convex slopes.
0 Slopes covered with grasses.
Higher reaches of Himachal Mountains receives
considerable precipitation in the form of snowfall. The
north westem sector particularly receives maximum
snowfall. In winter season the snowfall varies from 2 to
130cm in pre monsoon season, from l-42cm and in post
monsoon from 2 to 39cm. Annual amount of snowfall
varies from 25 to 204cm and number of snowfall days
from 6 to 77. Avalanches are common phenomena in the
district of Kinnaur, Chamba&Kullu. ln the past the only M t
place where avalanches have caused destruction in Kangra E 1 \
District is the Bara Banghal area situated at an elevation of ‘
18

8500feet above the sea level. The village which was located at the base of steep slopes and on
the banks of Ravi River was destroyed many times by the avalanches in the past.
Damage caused by Avalanches in past
l March 1978 l Lahaul and Spiti 30 people killed
March 1919 | Lahaul and Spiti 237 people killed
1988 | Shimla l Lahaul-Spiti, Kinnaur and Solan districts blocked
March 1991 | HP state affected l Road blockage for 40 days
September 1995 | HP state affected l Flood caused by melting of snow brought by avalanche
l September 2001 | HP state affected l Devastated flood caused huge amount of damage
g) Forest Fire:-
Forest fire is a major cause of degradation of forest. With increasing population pressure, the
forest cover of the country is deteriorating at an alarming rate. The forests of the Himachal
Pradesh are more prone to forest fire compared to forests in other parts of India due to various
biotic and geographic reasons. In Himachal Pradesh the recorded forest area is l0, 46900
hectares, of which around 9, 74800 hectares cropped area is fire prone. In Shimla district around
69% of the total area have a history of forest fires and in districts of Chamba, LahaulSpiti and
Kinnaur it is 44.9% of the total area experience forest fires in summer and 20% area is prone to
frequent fires.
About 90 % of forest fires are due to intentional or unintentional human interventions. In state
like Himachal, forest fires also have a close link with livelihood. People residing within forests
or nearby areas are dependent on forests for their source of income and for day to day fuel
requirements. At times they ignite forests for collection of forest produce or for improving the
productivity. Some fires are caused due to poor knowledge and the negligence of the people.
19

Throwing burning cigarettes and cooking food in the forest are such causes of forest fire
Remaining 10 % of forest fires are due to natural processes such as lightning, increase 1n
temperature during summer etc.
FOREST FIRE (2008-1 2)

20

Table 2.17 Forest Flres Affected area during the Last 4 Years
Chll Hanln. Others Total –
!
Drought is a long period with no or much less rainfall than normal for a given area.
Meteorologically drought is defined as situation When the annual rainfall over any area is less
than 75% of the normal. It is termed as moderate if rainfall deficit is between 25 to 50 % and
severe if it is more than 50%. Area where frequency of drought is above 20% of the years
examined is classified as drought area and areas having drought conditions for more than 40% of
the years represent chronically drought affected area.
cr-an
|~

Areas affected by drought (1951-2000)
Table 2.19 and 2.20 give the years of successive drought and years of severe drought in the state
of HP when rainfall was less than 50%. Taking into consideration the above historical data and
above criteria the areas falling in the districts of Kangra and Una between the years 1951-99
could only be termed as drought area. There is not a single districtin the state which qualifies to
be called as chronologically drought affected area. However during the period Of 49 years (1951-
99) almost all the districts have suffered drought like situation Figure 2.8 shows the percentage
of drought and years of successive drought for various districts with actual rainfall expressed as
percentage of normal rainfall given in brackets against each district. Incident of wide spread
drought was observed in the year 1972 and 2011.In the year 2011 in total 46.64 lakh human
population and 0.88 lakh ha. cropped area Was affected. The Water storage capacity in the
reservoirs in Himachal Pradesh was 13,774 TMC. Out of this, only 1,188 TMC water was in
storage in 2001 as against 1,689 TMC the previous year.
Years of Successive Drought
I 1 1 1 9 1
1. Bilaspur 1974-75-76, 1992-93
Z. Kangra 1962-63-64
3. Mandi 1982-83
1 4. 1 Sirmaur 1 19as-a7
1 s. 1 Una 1 1912-73_14-15,91-s2-sa
Source: Indian Meteorological Department (IMD)
Years of Severe Drought
9 I11” 1 9 9 9 9 1
1 1. 1 Bilaspur(37 %) 1 1975
2. 1 Hamirpur(45 %) 1 1974
1
1 3. 1 Mandi(44%) 1993
1 4. 1 Sirmaur(48%, 41%) 1979,1926
1 5. 1 Una (43%,4o%) 1 1975,1921
Source: Indian Meteorological Department (IMD)
i) Road Accident-
Amongst the man induced disasters the road accidents are major killer. Road accidents involve
all kinds of vehicles leading to death and injuries. The topography of the state of HP is such that
accidents can happen anywhere without any warning. The table below indicates the magnitude of
the problem in the state.
22

2003-04
2004-05
Year-wise Road Accidents In Hlmachal Pradesh
2,794
2,758
843
920
4,293
4,674
3.195
3,423
2005-06
2,868
861
4,755
2,868
2006-07
2007-08
2,737
2,953
929
921
4,886
5,272
2,917
3,756
2008-09
2,840
898
4,837
3,583
2009-10
3,023
1,173
5,630
3,705
2010-11
3,104
1,105
5,350
3,810
Source: Statistical Outline of Himachal Pmdesh 2010-11
Road Accidents District wise (2011-11)
254 42 331
Bllaspur
Chamba
270
Hamlrpur
265
Kangra
1,076
Kinnaur
67
Kullu
Lahaul & Spltl
368
30
Mandi
660
Shlmla
Slrmour
Solan
Una
The causes for road accidents could be many but statistics shows that 70% of road accidents arise
from driver failure. The other plausible factors contributing to disaster are:
i) Lack of Vehicle Maintenance
ii) Poor visibility due to Fog or Smog
m) Poor or untrained driving
iv) Lack of emergency services like trauma centers
v) Absence of stable geological strata leading to sinking of roads
vi) Night time driving
vii) Over speeding and Overtaking at curves
vm) Non-use of horns
ix) Use of Mobiles and Headphones while driving
x) Use of alcohol
23
801
324
678
480

j) Temple Stampedes:-
The State of Himachal has large number of Hindu temples as pilgrimage centres. According to
some estimates there are more than 2000 temples in the State. Some of the temples in the State
like JawalaMukhi&Baijnath in Kangra, Chintpumi in Una, BijliMahadev in Kullu, Tama in
Mandi, Renukaji in Sirmour, Laxmi Narayan in Chamba, Bhima Kali in Sarahan Shimla attract
large number of visitors and tourists every year. Stampedes are common during religious
gatherings. Himachal Pradesh being a land of God’s the people observe large number of
festivals when mass gathering forms dense moving crowd.
On August 3, 2008 the Naina Devi temple experienced worst ever tragedy when 146 devotees,
including 30 children and 38 women were crushed to death and 50 injured in Stampede triggered
by a rumour of landslide. The tragedy took place in the holy month of Sawan and as per media
reports there were about 3000 devotees present at the time of catastrophe. Rumours of landslide
and rolling down of boulders from a nearby hill top spread fear among the devotees who had
gathered in large number in the shrine to offer prayers during Navaratra festival. As a result of
the rumour the Stampede occurred and the people died when they were crushed, trapped and
forced over the side of nearby Nallah by the movement of a large panicking crowd. The primary
factor leading to a stampede is pressure which is multiple of speed variance and density. In order
to stop or prevent such mishaps in future the following measures are proposed to be taken:
i) Ensure that the available infrastructure such as roads, corridors, entrances and exits are
adequate for the gathering expected to assemble at religious places and there are no bottlenecks
and compression points.
ii) Every temple where large gathering is expected will have a crowd management plan.
m) Contingency plans for evacuation will be developed on priority.
k) Man and Animal C0nflict:-
Though the damages & loss caused by wild animals is not yet included in the list of disasters
identified in the relief manual yet the issue has now become very serious for the last couple of
years. During public consultation the farmers identified the wild animal and monkeys as the
dominant threat for their livelihood. The attacks of wild animals and monkeys are considered to
be much more damaging as it happens regularly without any warning. The data for the period
from 2009-2012 suggest that the wild animals attack on human and animals were as high as 2789
in which 21 people even lost their lives. The compensation and relief worth Rs. 145, 33,031
during the same period was also provided to the affected families. Minimising or preventing
damage to crops by resolving man and animal conflict is emerging a major challenge. According
to media reports there are about 3.5 lakh monkeys in the state affecting the fanning community
in about 2600 Panchayats. Annually damage to the crops has been estimated to the tune of Rs
500 crores. In order to tackle the menace the Govt. has planned to spend Rs 10 crores during the
budget year 2011-2012.
24

3. INSTITUTIONAL SETUP2
The State Government has adopted the Disaster Management Act 2005 as enacted by the Govt.
of India for providing effective mechanism for Disaster Management in the State of Himachal
Pradesh.
3.1 State Disaster Management Authority:—
As per clause b of sub-section (2) of Section 14 of the Disaster Management Act 2005, the
Himachal Pradesh Disaster Management Authority under the chairperson of the Honourable
Chief minister was constituted on lst June 2007 with the following persons as member of the
HPDMA:
l. Honourable Chief Minister Chairperson
2. Hon’ble Revenue Minister Member
3. Chief Secretary Chief Executive Officer
4. Principal Secy.(Rev) Member
5. Principal Secy. (Home) Member
6. Principal Secy. (PWD) Member
7. Principal Secy. (Health) Member
8. Director General Police Member
9. Secretary/Add.Secy. (Rev.) Member Secy.
The State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA) has the mandate to lay down the state
policies and approval of State Disaster Management Plan, with the assistance of SEC.
Roles and Responsibilities:
l. Lay down the State disaster management policy
2. Approve the State Plan in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the National Authority.
3. Lay down guidelines to be followed by the departments of the State Government for the
purpose of coordination and integration measures for prevention of disasters and mitigation in
their development plans and projects and provide necessary technical assistance.
4. Coordinate the implementation of State Plan at State and District level.
5. Recommend provision of fi.1nds for mitigation and preparedness measures.
6. Review the development plans of different departments of the State and ensure that prevention
and mitigation measures like earthquake resistance structures are built at least for life line
structures.
7. Review the measures being taken for mitigation, capacity building and preparedness by the
departments of the State Government and issue such guidelines as may be necessary.
25

State Disaster Management
Relief Commissioner /
FC Revenue i
Nodal Department
State Emergency
Operation Centre (SEOC)
SEOC In charge (Special
/Additional / Deputy
Secretary Revenue)
Supporting Staff
District Emergency
Operation Centre
Sub Divisional
Emergency Opera
Centre (EOC)
tion
Tehsil/sub-The/Block
Emergency Operation
Centre (CR)
Authority (SDMA)
State Level Committee
State Executive
(SLC) (SDRF)
Committee (SEC)
District Disaster
Management Authority
(Chairman- DC) / R0
Incident Commander
(ADC/ADM)
Sub Divisional Disaster
Management
Committeel Incident
Response Team
SDM
Tehsil/ Sub Tehsil
/Block/IRT Disaster
Manageme
nt
Committee
Panchayat leve
(lRT)-
I/Villa
Disaster Respons
Committ
26
EB
E
ge
District DM
Technical /Advisory
Committee(s)

3.2 District Disaster Management Auth0rity:-
The District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA) will act as the district planning;
coordinating and monitoring body in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the State
Authority.
As per Section 25 of the DM Act 05, DDMA for every district in the State of Himachal Pradesh
has also been constituted, consisting of the following members:
S.No. Olfidals Designation
1. Deputy Commissioner Chairperson
2. Superintendent of Police Member
3. Chief Medical Officer Member
4. Superintending engineer (PWD) Member
5. Superintending Engineer (i & PH) Member
6. Superintending Engineer (MPP & P) Member
7. Chairperson of the Zila Parishad Member
3.3 District Disaster Management Advisory C0mmittee(s):-
District level Disaster Management Advisory Committee(s) will be appointed by the District
Disaster Management Authority to take advice on various subject specific fields within the
overall context of disaster management. The committee will comprise disaster management
experts, which may be from government departments, research institutes and NGO’s.
3.4 District Emergency Operation Centres:-
The District Emergency Operation Centres will be the hub of all the activities related to disaster
response in the District. It will coordinate and communicate upward and down ward with regard
to emergency response.
3.5 Tehsil/sub Tehsil/Block Disaster Management C0mmittee:-
Subject to the directions of the District Authority, the Tehsil/Sub Tehsil/block disaster
management committee will be responsible for the development and implementation of block
level disaster management plans.
27

3.6 Gram Panchayat/Village Disaster Response C0mmittee:-
Response committees will be constituted to be the first responders under the Chairpersonship of
Panchayat Pradhan. The secretary of Panchayat will be secretary of the committee and local
Patwaris and ward members shall be its members.
3.7 Technical C0mmittee(s):-
Under sub-section (1) of Section 21 of the Disaster Management Act, 2005, the SEC has
constituted a sub-committee to look into the issue of amendment to the TCP Act and building
bye-laws of Urban Local Bodies.
3.8 The State Emergency Operations Centre:-
SEOC is an offsite facility which will be functioning from the HP Secretariat which actually is
an augmented control room having communication facilities and space to accommodate the
various ESFs emergency supports functions. It Will be manned by various line departments of
Govemment and other agencies, Whose services are essentially required during incident
response. It will allow all agencies and departments to share information, make decisions,
activate plans, deploy IRTs, perform and log all necessary response and relief activities and
make the EOC effective.
28

4. INITIATIVES
4.1 Act/Rules
> Guidelines on Constitution and Administration of the State Disaster Response Fund and National
Disaster Response Fund.
Qp://hpsdn’1a.nic,in/N otifications/GuidelinesForNDRFSDRF 1 0021 1%
> Standard Operating Procedure for Responding To Natural Disasters 2010.
h_tt_p://hpsdma.nic.in/Notifications/SOPNDM20101$
> Notification of SDRF
http2//hpsdma.nic.in/Notifications/SDRF.%20N0tificati0n.pdf
> DM Act 2005, Rules & Notifications
fip://hpsdma.nic.in/Notifications/Disaster%20Management%20Act%2OFinal%20Draft%5B 1 %5
Dpdf
> Advisory Committee HPSDMA
Qp://hpsdma.nic.in/Notifications/Advisorv_Committee_HPSDMAlg
> DM Rules, 201 l in English
fipz//hpsdmalnic.in/Notifications/DMAct201 le.pdf
> DM Rules, 201 1 in Hindi
h¢tt_p://hpsdmanic.in/Notifications/DMAct201 lhgfl
> DM Act, 2005
Qp://hpsdrna.nic.in/Notifications/DMAct2005qfl
> DM Act in Hindi
hltp://hpsdma.nic.infNotifications/DMActHindi.@
> SDMA Notification
Qp://hpsdma.nic.in/Notifications/SDMANotificationqfl”
> SEC Notification
Q10://hpsdrna.nic.in/Notifications/SECNotification.;@‘
> DDMA Notification
hip://hpsdma.nic,in/Notifications/DDMANotification.|@
> Ministry of Home Affairs Notification, 2008
Qp://hpsdma.nic.in/Notifications/DMNo5174$‘
> Ministry of Home Affairs Notification, 2007
@p://hpsdmanic.in/Notifications/DMNo722.1fl
> Ministry of Home Affairs Notification, 2006
Q11I//hpsdma.nic.in/Notifications/DMANotification.pfi
29

4.2 PLANS
> Himachal Pradesh State Disaster Management Plan,20l2 (FINAL)
http://hpsdma.nic.in/DisasterManagement/HPSDMPfinalindex.pdf#pagemode=b0okmarks
> District Disaster Management Plan for Kinnaur,20l2 (FINAL)
http://hpsdma.nic.in/DisasterManagement/KNRDDMPfinal.pdf#pagemode=b00kmarks
> District Disaster Management Plan for Mandi,2012 (FINAL)
http://hpsdma.nic.in/DisasterManagement/DDMPMandifinal.pdf
> District Disaster Management Plan for Kangra (FINAL)
http://hpsdma.nic.in/DisasterManagement/DDMPKangra.pdf#pagemode=b0okmarks
> City Disaster Management Plan for MC Shimla, 2012 (FINAL)
http://hpsdma.nic.in/DisasterManagement/CDMP MCShimla.pdf#pagemode=b00kmarks
> District Disaster Management Plan for Shimla (FINAL)
http://hpsdma.nic.in/DisasterManagement/DDMP_SHIMLA.pdf#pa2emode=b0okmarks
> DDMP Lahaul&Spiti, 2012 (FINAL)
http://hpsdmanic.in/DisasterManagement/DDMALahual%20_Spiti.pdf#pagem0de=b0okmarks
> District Disaster Management Plan for Kullu (DRAFT)
http://hpsdma.nic.in/DisasterManagement/DDMP_Kullu.pdf
> District Disaster Management Plan for Hamirpur (DRAFT)
http://hpsdmanic.in/DisasterManagement/DDMP%20_’Hamirpur.pdf
> District Disaster Management Plan for Una (DRAFT)
http://hpsdma.nic.in/DisasterManagement/DDMPUna.pdf
4.3 POLICY
> Himachal Pradesh State Policy on Disaster Management 201 1
http1//www.hpsdma.nic.in/SDMP%20English%20for%20Website.pdf
> National Policy on Disaster Management 2009.
http1//hpsdma.nic.in/Notifications/NdmP01icv2009.pdf
> National Policy on Disaster Management 2009(In Hindi).
http1//hpsdma.nic.in/Notifications/NPDM1501l0Hindi.pdf
> HP State Policy on DM – English
http://hpsdma.nic.in/SDMP%20En21ish%20f0r%20Website.pdf
> HP State Policy on DM – Hindi
30

http1//hpsdma.nic.in/SDMP%20Hindi%20f0r%20Website.pdf
References:-
1http://WWW.mapsofindia.com/maps/himachalpradesh/himachalpradesh.htm#
zhttp://www.censusindia.g0v.in/201 1-prov-results/pr0v_data_pr0ducts_himachal.htm1
3http://hpsdma.nic.in/DisasterManagement/HPSDMPfinalindex.pdf#pagem0de=b0okmarks
31