Himachal Pradesh State Strategy And Action Plan On Climate Change

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STATE STRATEGY ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH
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Department of Environment, Science & Technology
Government of Himachal Prades

Contents
1 Overview
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
National Missions
Linkages
Objectives- Five Year Plan
Issues & Problems
2 Changes in Climate and Weather Events in India
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
Surface Temperature
Rainfall
Extreme Weather Events
Rise in Sea Levels
Impacts on Himalayan Glaciers
Climate Change Projections for 21“ Century (India)
2.6.1 Impacts on Water Resources
2.6.2 Impacts on Agriculture & Food Production
2.6.3 Impacts on Health
2.6.4 Impacts on Forests
2.6.5 Vulnerability to Extreme Events
2.6.6 Impacts on Costal Areas
3 Climate Change in State’s Context
3.1
3.2
3.3.
3.4
3.5
STATE STRATEGY 8:
State’s Profile
Past & Current Climate Change Trends in Himachal Pradesh
3.2.1 Climatic Patterns
3.2.2 Current Climate Trends in Himachal Pradesh
3.2.3 Glaciers & Snow Fields in Himachal Himalaya
3.2.4 Conclusions
3.2.4.1 Temperature
3.2.4.2 Precipitations
3.2.4.3 Extreme Events
Climate Statistics for Himachal Pradesh- Current & Projections
3.3.1 Rainfall
3.3.2 Temperature
3.3.3 Climate Scenarios
3.3.3.1 Temperature
3.3.3.2 Precipitation
3.3.3.3 Extreme Temperatures
3.3.3.4 Extreme Precipitation
Conclusions
3.4.1 Temperature Variations
3.4.2 RainfallVariations
3.4.3 Extreme Events
Impacts on Key Sectors in Himachal Pradesh & Projections
3.5.1 Agriculture
3.5.2 Forests, Natural Eco-systems & Biodiversity
3.5.3 Water
ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012

3.5.4 Health
3.5.5 Frequency of Droughts
3.5.6 Floods
4- Assessment of Climate Change Vulnerability: Himachal Pradesh
4.1 Climate Change Vulnerability- Literature Review
4.2 Climate Change Vulnerability- Current Scenario & Future Projections
4.2.1 Methodology Adopted for Vulnerability Assessment
4.2.2 Spatial Patterns ofVulnerability
4.2.2.1
4.2.2.2
4.2.2.3
4.2.2.4
Exposure
Sensitivity
Adaptive Capacity
Economic Impacts
4.3 Analysis of Results
4.3.1
4.3.1.1
4.3.1.2
4.3.1.3
4.3.2
4.3.2.1
4.3.2.2
4.3.2.3
4.3.3
Sectoral Analysis w.r.t. Climate Change Vulnerability
Agriculture- Horticulture
Water Resources
Forest & Biodiversity
Climate Change Vulnerability in different Agro Climatic Zones
Exposure
Sensitivity
Adaptive Capacity
Projection of Scenarios 2020 & 2030
5 Adaptation & Mitigation
5.1 Green House Gas Emissions- India
5.2 Green House Gases (GHGs) Emissions lnventory- Himachal Pradesh
5.2.1 Methodology Adopted for Estimation of GHGs Emissions
5.2.2 Key Results
5.2.3 Sector Wise Description of Green House Gas Emissions
5.2.3.1
5.2.3.2
5.2.3.3
5.2.3.4
5.2.3.5
5.2.3.6
Energy
Emissions/ Removals from Hydro Power Generation
Industry
Agriculture
5.2.3.4.1
5.2.3.4.2
5.2.3.4.3
5.2.3.4.4
Enteric Fermentation
Animal Waste/Dung
Rice Cultivation
Agriculture Soils
5.2.3.4.5 Burning of Crop Residues
Land Use, Land Use Change & Forest (LULUCF)
5.2.3.5.1 Carbon Stock Changes
5.2.3.5.2 Land Use Change Matrix
5.2.3.5.3 Assessment of Carbon Stock from Forests
5.2.3.5.4 Soil Carbon Stock
Solid Waste & Waste Water [Industrial]
5.2.3.6.1 Municipal Solid Waste
5.2.3.6.2 Waste Water
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012

6
7
8
9
STATE ST
Gaps in Understanding the Impacts of Climate Change
6.1
6.2
6.3
Actions on Gaps for Projections
Systematic Observations
Building Capacities
Main Entry Points with Eight National Missions
7.1
7.2
Sector wise Description of Ongoing Activities
7.1.1 Himachal Pradesh Solar Energy Programme
7.1.2 Himachal Pradesh Energy Efficiency/Saving Programme
7.1.3 Himachal Pradesh Sustainable Development Programme for Urban 81 Rural
Areas
7.1.4 Sustainable Water Management
7.1.5 Sustainable Development to Save the Himalayan Ecosystem
7.1.6 Programme for Greening of Himachal
7.1.7 Sustainable Agriculture
7.1.8 Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change – Towards Carbon Smart Growth
Sector wise Glimpse of Initiatives Taken
Adaptation and Mitigation Measures for Reducing Sectoral and Regional
Vulnerability
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
Agriculture- Horticulture
Water Resources
Forests
Biodiversity
Ecosystems
Health
Tourism
Urban Planning
Disaster Management
Climate Change Strategy for Himachal Pradesh
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9.
9.10
9.11
9.12
9.13
RATEGY
Approach
Goals & Objectives
List of Prioritized Adaptation & Mitigation Options
9.3.1 Adaptation
9.3.2 Mitigation
9.3.3 Capacity Building
Strategic Framework for Adaptation & Mitigation
Short Term Adaptation Strategies
Recommendations
Cost-benefit Analysis to Assess Environmental, Social & Economic Costs of
Identified Options
Assessment of Adaptive Capacity & Feasibility of Implementing the Options
Response Matrix for Anticipatory Adaptation Options in Himachal Pradesh
Instruments to Supplement Implementation- A Roadmap
State Climate Change Action Plan: Estimated Cost Implications
Cost of Implementation
Institutional Arrangements for Steering Climate Change Strategy 81 Action Plan
81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012


10 The Way Forward
10.1 National Solar Mission
10.1.1 Solar Thermal Power Generation
10.2 National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency in Industry
10.3 National Mission on Sustainable Habitat
10.3.1 Promoting Energy Efficiency in Residential & Commercial Sector
10.3.2 Management of Municipal Solid Waste
10.3.3 Promotion of Urban Public Transport
10.4 National Water Mission
10.4.1 Management of Surface Water Resources
10.4.2 Management & Regulation 0fWater Resources
10.4.3 Up-gradation of Storage Structures for Fresh Water & Drainage System for
Waste Water
10.4.4 Conservation ofWetlands
10.5 National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem
10.6 National Mission for Green India
10.6.1 Enhance Forest Cover & Density
10.6.2 Biodiversity Conservation
10.6.3 Payment for Ecosystem Services
10.7 National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
10.7.1 Increase Efficiency of Irrigation
10.7.2 Dry land Agriculture
10.7.3 Risk Management
10.7.4 Access to Information
10.7.5 Liberalize Agricultural Trade
10.8 National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change
10.8.1 Climate Modelling & Access to Data
10.8.1.1 Enhanced Research on Climate Modelling
10.8.1.2 Promoting Data Access
10.8.1.3 Human Resource Development
11 Review & Reporting
12 References
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – Z012 IV

List of Tables
Table-1 Distribution of Population, Decadal Growth Rate, Sex-Ratio and Population Density
Table-2 Growth in Urban & Rural Population in Himachal Pradesh
Table-3 Literacy Status in Himachal Pradesh
Table-4 Classification based on Climate Pattern
Table-5 Prevalent Seasons in Himachal Pradesh
Table-6 Winter Monsoon & Annual Air Temperature in Himachal Pradesh
Table-7 Increase in Winter Mean Air Temperature in Himachal Pradesh
Table-8 Observed Increase in Winter Air Temperature
Table-9 Altitudinal Variation in Snow Fall Trends
Table-10 Trend Analysis ofAnnual, Winter & Monsoon Precipitation
Table-1 1 District Wise Variation in Annual Rain Fall Trends
Table-12 Observed Mean Temperature (Max. 81 Min.) in District Kangra
Table-13 Observed Decreasing Trend in Rain Fall & Snow Fall at Shimla
Table-14 Altitude Wise Climate Variables in Himachal Pradesh
Table-15 Basin Wise Distribution of Glaciers and Snow Fields in Himachal Himalayas
Table-16 Variation in Rainfall in Himachal Pradesh
Table-17 CatchmentArea Wise Mean 81 Maximum Rainfall
Table-18 Seasonal Variation Max. & Min. Temperature
Table-19 Proxy Variables used at Block Level
Table-20 Vulnerability Index of Himachal Pradesh [Districts at Block Level)
Table-21 Agro Climate Zone Wise Description of Vulnerability Index & Projected Trends
Table-22 GHGs Emissions from different sources in Himachal Pradesh
Table-23 The Strategic Framework forAdaptation & Mitigation
Table-24 Short Term Adaptation Strategies
Table-25 Response Matrix for Anticipatory Adaptation Options in Himachal Pradesh
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012

List of Figures
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig
Fig
Fig
Fig
Fig
Fig
Fig
Fig
Fig
Fig
Fig
Fig
Fig
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig
Fig.
Fig.
7
s
9
10
11 (1)
11 (11)
11 (11)
12
13(1)
13(11)
13(111)
14
15(1)
15(11)
15(111)
15[iv)
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
Fig. 28(1)
STATE STRATEGY 8:
Literacy Rates by Gender 82 Male- female Gap in Literacy Rates since 1971
Changing Trends in Sex Ratio in Himachal Pradesh
Drainage Network ofHimachal Pradesh
Agro-climatic Zones of Himachal Pradesh
Biological Richness in Himachal Pradesh
Land Use/ Land Cover in Himachal Pradesh
Soil Classification Map of Himachal Pradesh
Lithology Map of Himachal Pradesh
Vegetation Density Map
District Wise Classification based on Climate Pattern
Total Seasonal Precipitation over Shimla
Total Seasonal Snowfall (Equivalent to mm orwater] over Shimla
Beginning and End ofSnowfall Season at Shimla
110 Years Annual Rainfall in Shimla
Area Affected by Drought (1951-2000]
Highest Temperature Ever Recorded [°C]
Lowest Minimum Temperature Ever Recorded (DC)
Annual Normal Rainfall (cm)
Seasonal Rainfall (cm) – Cold Weather Season- lanuary to February
Post Monsoon Season- October to December
Pre-monsoon Season- March to May
Monsoon Season- Iune to September
Are Affected by Excessive Rainfall [1951-2000)
Catchment Area with Annual
Coefficient of Rainfall Variation- Annual
Coefficient of Rainfall Variation- Southwest Monsoon
Coefficient of Rainfall Variation- Post Monsoon
Coefficient of Rainfall Variation- Winter
Coefficient of Rainfall Variation- Premonsoon
Annual Normal Temperature [°C)
Mean Minimum Temperature (“C] – Ianuary
Annual Minimum Temperature [°C) – April
Mean Minimum Temperature (“C] – ]uly
Mean Minimum Temperature (°C] – October
Mean Max. Temperature (°C) – August
ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012

Fig. 28(ii)
Fig. 28(111)
Fig. 28(iv)
Fig. ES3
Fig. E54
Fig. 29
Fig.30
Fig. 31
Fig.32
Fig. 33
Fig. 34
Fig. 35(1)
Fig. 35(ii)
Fig. 36
Fig. 37
Fig. 38(i)
Fig. 3s[11)
Fig. 38[111)
Fig. 38(iv)
Fig. 38(v)
Fig. 38(vi]
Fig. 38(vii)
Fig. 38(vm)
Fig. 39(i)
Fig.39(ii)
Fig. 39 (111)
Fig. 39(iv)
Fig. 40
Fig. 41
Fig. 42 (i)
Fig. 42 (11)
Fig. 42 (111)
Fig. 42 (iv)
Fig. 4-2 (V)
Fig. 42 (vi)
Mean Max. Temperature (°C) — lune
Mean Max. Temperature (“C) — October
Mean Max. Temperature (°C) — Ianuary
(a) Mean Annual Surface Air Temperature Climatology simulated by three PRECIS (b)
Projected Changes in the Annual Surface AirTemperature in the 20305 w.r.t.197Os.
(a)Summer Monsoon Rainfall Climatology simulated by the three PRECIS
(b) Projected changes in summer monsoon precipitation in the 2030sw.r.t. 1970s.
Trend of Apple Production in Himachal Pradesh between 1980 and 2005.
District-level Mapping ofAdaptive Capacity at Global Level in Himachal Pradesh
District-level Mapping of Climate Sensitivity Index (CSI)
District-level Mapping ofClimate Sensitivity Index [CS1] for India
District-level Mapping of Climate Change Vulnerability [Exposure]
District-level Mapping of Globalization Vulnerability
Annual Mean Min. Temperature at Block Level
Annual Mean Max. Temperature at Block Level
Annual Mean Rainfall at Block Level
Climate Change Exposure at Block Level
Percentage Agriculture Population at Block Level
Percentage Rain-fed Agriculture at Block Level
Percentage Irrigated Area at Block Level
Altitude Distribution at Block Level
Forest Cover at Block level (Percentage of District]
Family Size at Block Level
Percentage Biological Diversity Richness at Block level
Climate Change Sensitivity at Block Level
Economic Capacity at Block Level
Environmental Capacity at Block Level
Physical Capacity at Block Level
Human Capacity at Block Level
Adaptive Capacity at Block Level
Climate Change Vulnerability at Block level
Climate Change Exposure as per Agro-climatic Zones at Block Level
Climate Change Sensitivity as per Agro-climatic Zones at Block Level
Adaptive Capacity as per Agro-climatic Zones at Block Level
Vulnerability Variation as per Agro-climatic Zones at Block Level
Climate Change Exposure at Block Level [2020]
Climate Change Exposure as per Agro-climatic at Block Level (2020)
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 VII

Fig. 42 (vii) Climate Change Vulnerability at Block Level (2020)
Fig. 42 (vm) Vulnerability Variation as per Agro-climatic Zones (2020)
Fig. 42 (ix) Climate Change Exposure at Block Level (2030)
Fig. 42 (x) Climate Change Exposure as per Agro-climatic Zones (2030)
Fig. 42 (xi) Climate Change Vulnerability at Block Level (2030)
Fig. 42 (xii) Vulnerability Variation as per Agro-climatic Zones (2030)
Fig. 42 (xm) Vulnerability Variation as per Climate Classification
Fig. 42 (xiv) Vulnerability Variation as per Climate Classification (2020)
Fig. 43 COZEmissions as per Energy Demand Projections
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012

Abbreviations
ADB
AGiSAC
BEE
BICAT
CAMPA
CAT
CBO
CDD
CEIA
CERC
CLAP
CSI
CV
DEST
DOm
ECBC
EF
EIA
EMAP
EMP
EPS
ER
ET
FSI
GCM
GHG
GHNP
GIS
GLOF
GtC
GWh
HadAM
HadCM
HadRM
HIMUDA
HPSEB
IAEA
IHBT
IITM
IMD
INCCA
STATE STRATEGY 8:
Asian Development Bank
Aryabhatta Geo-informatics & Space Application Centre
Bureau of Energy Efficiency
Basin wise Integrated Catchment Area Treatment
Compensatory Afforestaion Management and Planning Authority
Catchment Area Treatment
Community Based Organisations
Community-Driven Development
Cumulative Environment Impact Assessment
Central Electricity Regulatory Commission
Community Led Assessment, Awareness, Advocacy & Action Programme
Climate Sensitivity Index
Coefficient of Variation
Department of Environment, Science & Technology
Degradable Organic matter
Energy Conservation Building Code
Emission Factor
Environment Impact Assessment
Industry Energy Management Action Programme
Environment Management Plan
Electric Power Survey
Emission Reductions
Evapo—Transpiration
Forest Survey of India
Global Circulation Models
Green House Gas
Great Himalayan National Park
Geographic Information System
Glacier Lake Outbursts Floods
Gigatons of Carbon
GigaWatt per hour
Hadley Atmospheric Model
Hadley Coupled atmosphere-ocean Model
Hadley Regional Climate Model
HP Housing and Urban Development Authority
Himachal Pradesh State Electricity Board
International Atomic Energy Agency
Institute of Himalayan Bio-resource Technology
Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
India Meteorological Department
Indian Network for Climate Change Assessment
ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012

IPCC
ISM
IWDP
KLD
kwh
LISS-III
LULUF
MHWP
MSW
NAPCC
NATCOM
NEERI
NPP
NTFP
PPE
Ppm
GDP
PRECIS
QUMP
RCM
RIDF
SAPCC
SEAC
SEIAA
SEOC
SFR
SLR
SMDI
SRES
SWAT
TFR
TWh
UNEP
UNFCCC
VA
VFDS
WB
WBCIS
WMO
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Indian Summer Monsoon
Integrated Watershed Development Project
Kilo Litres per Day
kilowatt-hour
Linear Imaging Self Scanning Sensor
Land-use, Land-use Change and Forestry
Mid-Himalayan Watershed Project
Municipal Solid Waste
National Action Plan on Climate Change
National Communication
National
Net Primary Productivity
Non Timber Forest Products
Perturbed Physics Ensemble
Parts per million
Gross Domestic Product
Providing Climate Investigation Studies
Quantifying Uncertainty in Model Predictions
Regional Climate Models
Rural Infrastructural Development Fund
State Action Plan on Climate Change
State Environment Appraisal Committee
State Environment Impact Assessment Authority
State Emergency Operation Centre
State Forest Report
Sea Level Rise
Soil Moisture Deficit Index
Special Report on Emission Scenario
Soil & Water Assessment Tool
Total Fertility Rate
TerraWatt per hour
United Nations Environment Programme
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Vulnerability Assessment
Village Forest Development Societies
World Bank
Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme
World Meteorological Organizations
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012

Overview 1
Climate is the long-term average weather. The typical weather (e.g. temperature, rain and snowfall,
wind) on any given day tends to be most controlled by the cycle ofthe seasons from spring through
summer, autumn and winter. Other factors, with longer time scales, can cause systematic changes to
the climate.
Climate Change has undoubtedly emerged as an issue of global concern. Climate Change has a
potential to completely and adversely affect the way of human life. The terms ‘global warming’ and
‘climate change’ are often used interchangeably, but there is a difference. ‘Global warming‘ is the
gradual increase of the earth’s average surface temperature due to greenhouse gases in the
atmosphere, whereas the ‘climate change’ is a broader term. It refers to long-term changes in climate,
including changes in average temperature and rainfall due to global warming. Climate change
phenomenon which is much more complex is the result of activities that alters the composition of
atmosphere, due to undesirable and unwanted over exploitation ofour natural resources.
Climate change refers to a statistically significant variation in either the mean state of the climate or in
its variability, which is attributed directly or indirectly to anthropogenic activities that alter the
composition of global atmosphere and which are in addition to natural climatic variability observed
over comparable time periods.
0 _
Panoramic View ofWest Rongbuk Glacier during an analysis of Everest between 1921 and
Z009 taken in 1921 (top) by Major E.O. Wheeler and in 2009 [bottom] by David Breashears.
Climate change is the result of changes in our weather patterns because of an increase in the earth’s
average temperature. This is caused by increases in greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere.
These gases soak up the heat from the sun but instead of the heat leaving the earth’s atmosphere,
some ofit is trapped, makingthe earth warmer.
Greenhouse gases have always been a natural part ofthe atmosphere. They absorb and re-radiate the
sun’s warmth and maintain the earth’s temperature at a level necessary to support life. The problem
we now face is that the human actions are increasing the amount of the gases that trap heat. This is an
enhanced greenhouse effect, which is contributing to the warming ofearth’s surface.
STATE STRATEGY 8: ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 1

Climate change emerged on the political agenda in the mid-1980s with the increasing scientific
evidence ofhuman interference in the global climate system and with growing public concern about
the environment. The United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP] and the World
Meteorological Organizations [WMO) established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC) in 1988 to provide policy makers with authoritative scientific information. In its first report in
1990, the IPCC concluded that the growing accumulation of human made green house gases in the
atmosphere would “enhance the green-house effect, resulting in an additional warming ofthe earth’s
surface” by the next century, unless measures were adopted to limit emissions.
Climate change is a global problem that requires an internationally co-ordinated solution. 189
countries are Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change [UNFCCC).
Although the Kyoto Protocol [1997] to the UNFCCC was signed by over 170 countries requiring
developed countries to reduce their emissions by 5.2% below 1990 levels in the period 2008-2012 as
an essential first step towards stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, but the
consensus is still eluding the international fraternity.
There will always be some uncertainty surrounding the prediction of changes in such a complex
system as the world’s climate. Nevertheless, the IPCC’s conclusion that it is at least 90% certain that
temperatures will continue to rise, with average global surface temperature projected to increase by
between 1.4 and 5.8°C above 1990 levels by 2100 is a matter of concern. This increase will be
accompanied by rising sea levels, more intense precipitation events in some countries, increased risk
ofdrought in others, and adverse effects on agriculture, health and water resources.
Our country is faced with the challenge ofmaintaining its rapid economic growth while dealing with
the associated environmental issues besides the global threat ofclimate change. This threat emanates
from accumulated greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere anthropogenically generated
through intensive industrial growth and high consumption lifestyles in developed countries. While
engaged with the international community to collectively and cooperatively deal with this threat, our
country is carving out strategies and making efforts to adapt to climate change and further enhance
the ecological sustainability of country‘s development. Himachal Pradesh too is following the same
approach to combat the looming threat of climate change which is very significant in the context of
fragile Himalayan eco-systems. It is imperative that the relative position of our State warrants that we
play a proactive role in the national framework. The State Government is very much conscious of
importance ofits strategic location in the Himalayan Region. Its ecological fragility and sensitivity and
has ushered realization towards its immense responsibility for downstream populace besides for its
own future generations. The State has repeatedly through actions has expressed its resolve to protect
and enhance its natural resources and to follow the path ofsustainable development in all sectors.
Climate change may alter the distribution and quality of natural resources ofHimachal Pradesh and
adversely affect the livelihoods ofits people. With its economy closely tied to its natural resource base
and climate-sensitive sectors such as Agriculture, Horticulture, Irrigation & Public Health, Power and
Forestry etc; the State may face a major threat on account ofthe projected changes in climate.
The state’s development path is based on its unique resource endowments, the overriding priority of
economic and social development and poverty eradication, and its adherence to its legacy that places
a high value on the environmentand the maintenance ofecological balance.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 2

In charting out a developmental pathway which is ecologically sustainable, I-Iimachal Pradesh has
wider spectrum of choices because it is at an early stage of development. The vision is to create a
prosperous, but not wasteful society; an economy that is self- sustaining in terms of its ability to
unleash the creative energies ofits people and is mindful ofits responsibilities to both present and
future generations. The state’s approach is based on a global vision of Mahatama Gandhi, ‘the earth
has enough resources to meetpe0pIe’s needs, butwillneverhave enough to satisjj/pe0pIe’sgreed’.
Maintaining a high growth rate is essential for enhancing the living standards ofvast majority of our
people and reducing their vulnerability to the impacts of climate change. In order to achieve a
sustainable development path that simultaneously advances economic, social and environmental
objectives, the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC] has been prepared guided by
followingprinciples:
– Protecting the poor and vulnerable sections ofsociety through an inclusive and sustainable
development strategy, sensitive to climate change.
– Achieving national growth objectives through a qualitative change in direction that enhances
ecological sustainability, leading to further mitigation ofgreenhouse gas emissions.
– Devising efficient and cost—effective strategies for end-use Demand Side Management.
– Deploying appropriate technologies for both adaptation and mitigation of greenhouse gases
emissions extensivelyas well as at an accelerated pace.
— Engineering new and innovative forms of market, regulatory and voluntary mechanisms to
promote sustainable development.
– Effecting implementation ofprogrammes through unique linkages, including with civil society
and local government institutions and through public-private-partnership.
– Welcoming international cooperation for research, development, sharing and transfer of
technologies enabled by additional funding and a global IPR regime that facilitates technology
transfer to developing countries underthe UNFCCC.
National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) is a consolidated account ofthe country’s position
on climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts. In line with the government’s adopted policy of
shared but differentiated responsibility, the plan focuses ofefficiency targets through well prioritized
and established eight national missions which forms the core ofthe plan and dictate the direction of
further action.
The National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC] identifies measures that promote our
development objectives while also yielding co-benefits for addressing climate change effectively. It
outlines a number of steps to simultaneously advance India’s development and climate change
related objectives on adaptation and mitigation.
Eight National Missions underthe National Action Plan on Climate Change [NAPCC] are as follows:
~ National Solar Mission.
~ National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency.
– Mission on Sustainable Habitat.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 3

~ National Water Mission.
– National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem.
– National Mission fora “Green India”.
~ National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture.
1 National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change.
ln dealing with the challenges of climate change, there is a need to simultaneously act on several
fronts in a focused manner. The National Action Plan hinges on the development and use of new
technologies. The implementation of the Plan would be through appropriate institutional
mechanisms suited for effective delivery of each Mission’s objectives and include public private
partnerships and civil society action. The focus is on promoting understanding of climate science,
adaptation, mitigation, energy efficiency and natural resource conservation.
1.1 National Missions
The Eight National Missions which form the core of the National Action Plan represents multi-
pronged, long term and integrated strategies for achieving key goals in the context ofclimate change.
1.1.1 National Solar Mission
National Solar Mission is aimed to significantly increase the share of solar energy in the total
energy mix while recognizing the need to expand the scope of other renewable and non-fossil
options such as nuclear energy, wind energyand biomass.
1.1.2 National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency
The Energy Conservation Act, 2001 provides a legal mandate for the implementation of energy
efficiency measures through the institutional mechanism of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency
[BEE] in the Central Government and designated agencies in each State.
1.1.3 National Mission on Sustainable Habitats
The National Mission on Sustainable Habitats is aimed to make habitat sustainable through
improvements in energy efficiency in buildings, management of solid waste and modal shift to
public transport.
In addition, the Mission will address the need to adapt to future climate change by improving the
resilience ofinfrastructure, community based disaster management, and measures for improving
the warning system for extreme weather events. Capacity building is going to be an important
component ofthis Mission.
1.1.4 National Water Mission
The National Water Mission would ensure integrated water resource management helping to
conserve water, minimize wastage and ensure more equitable distribution within States. The
Mission will take into account the provisions of the National Water Policy and develop a
framework to optimize water use by increasing water use efficiency by 20% through regulatory
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 4

mechanisms with differential entitlements and pricing. It will also seek to ensure that a
considerable share ofthe water needs ofurban areas is met through recycling ofwaste water and
rain water harvesting systems.
The National Water Policy would be revisited in consultation with States to ensure preparation of
basin level management strategies to deal with variability in rainfall and river flows due to climate
change. This will include enhanced storage both above and below ground, rainwater harvesting,
coupled with equitable and efficient management structures.
The mission will seek to develop new regulatory structures, combined with appropriate
entitlements and pricing. It will seek to optimize the efficiency of existing irrigation systems,
including rehabilitation of systems that have been run down and also expand irrigation, where
feasible, with a special effort to increase storage capacity. Incentive structures will be designed to
promote water-neutral of water-positive technologies, reaching of underground water sources
and adoption oflarge scale irrigation programmes which rely on sprinklers, drip irrigation and
ridge and furrowirrigation.
1.1.5 National Mission on Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem
The mission for sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem is aimed to evolve management measures
for sustaining and safeguarding the Himalayan glaciers and mountain eco-systems. Himalayas,
being the source of key perennial rivers, the Mission would, inter-alia, seek to understand,
weather and the extent to which, the Himalayan glaciers are in recession and how the problem
could be addressed.
An observational and monitoring network for the Himalayan environment will also be established
to assess freshwater resources and health of the ecosystems. Cooperation with neighbouring
countries will be sought to make the network comprehensive in its coverage.
The Himalayan ecosystem has 51 million people who practice hill agriculture and whose
vulnerability is expected to increase on account of climate change. The community based
management ofthese ecosystems will be promoted with incentives to community organizations
and panchayats for protection and enhancement of forested lands. In mountainous regions, the
aim will be to maintain two-thirds ofthe areas under forest cover in order to prevent erosion and
land degradation and ensure the stability ofthe fragile eco-system.
1.1.6 National Mission for a Green India
The National Mission is aimed to enhance eco-system services including carbon sink is called
Green India. Forests play and indispensable role in the preservation of ecological balance and
maintenance of biodiversity. Forests also constitute one of the most effective carbon sinks.
The Mission on Green India is being taken up on degraded forest land through direct action by
communities, organized through ]oint Forest Management Committees and guided by the State
Department ofForests.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 5

1.1.7 National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
The Mission would devise strategies to make Indian agriculture more resilient to climate change.
It would identify and develop new varieties of crops and especially thermal resistant crops and
alternative cropping patterns, capable of withstanding extremes of weather, long dry spells,
flooding, and variable moisture availability.
Agriculture will need to be progressively adapted to projected climate change and our agricultural
research systems must be oriented to monitor and evaluate climate change and recommend
changes in agricultural practices accordingly.
1.1.8 National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change
To enlist the global community in research and technology development and collaboration
through mechanisms including open source platforms, a Strategic Knowledge Mission would help
to identify the challenges of, and the responses to, climate change. It would ensure funding of high
qualityand focused research into various aspects ofclimate change.
1 2 Linkages
The interlinkages amongst different missions are described below:
STATE STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH a 2012
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6

The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4]
concluded from direct observations of changes in temperature, sea level rise, and snow cover in the
northern hemisphere during 1850 to the present, that the warming of the earth’s climate system is
unequivocal. The global atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has increased from a pre-
industrial value of about 280 ppm to 379 ppm in 2005. Multi model averages show that the
temperature increases during 2090-2099 relative to 1980-1999 may range from 1.1 to 6.4°C and sea
level rise from 0.18 to 0.59 meters. These could lead to impacts on freshwater availability, oceanic
acidification, food production, flooding of coastal areas and increased burden of vector borne and
water borne diseases associated with extreme weather events.
India’s development agenda focuses on the need for rapid economic growth as an essential
precondition to poverty eradication and improved standards of living. Meeting this agenda, which
will also reduce climate related vulnerability, requires large scale investment of resources in
infrastructure, technology and access to energy. Developing countries may lack the necessary
financial and technological resources needed for this and thus have very low coping capacity to meet
threats from climate change. Only rapid and sustained development can generate the required
financial, technological and human resources. ln view of the large uncertainties concerning the
spatial and temporal magnitude of climate change impacts, it is not desirable to design strategies
exclusively for responding to climate change. Rather, the need is to identify and prioritize strategies
that promote development goals while also serving specific climate change objectives.
It is imperative to identify measures that promote our development objectives, while also yielding co-
benefits for addressing climate change effects. Cost effective energy efficiency and energy
conservation measures are of particular importance in this connection. Similarly, development of
clean energy technologies, through primarily designed to promote energy security, can also generate
large benefits in terms ofreducing carbon emissions. Different health related local pollution controls
measures can also generate significant co-benefits in terms ofreduced greenhouse gas emissions.
It also describes India’s willingness and desire, as a responsible member ofthe global community, to
do all that is possible for pragmatic and practical solutions for all, in accordance with the principle of
common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. The purpose ofthis document
is also to create awareness among representatives of the public at large, different agencies of the
government, scientists, industry-in short, and the community as a whole — on the threat posed by
climate change and the proposed steps to counter it.
1.3 Five Year Plans
The Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-O8 to 2011-12) had aimed at achieving faster and more inclusive
growth. Rapid GDP growth, targeted at 9.0 percent per annum, was regarded necessary for two
reasons: first, to generate the income and employment opportunities thatwere needed for improving
living standards for the bulk of the population; and second, to generate the resources need for
financing social sector programmes, aimed at reducing poverty at enabling inclusiveness. During the
Eleventh Five Year Plan the country perused its development agenda considering environmental
protection at the core of all policy formulation. The Eleventh Five Year Plan laid emphasis on
environmental sustainability while pursuing development planning at all levels. A number of
schemes on pollution abatement, conservation of biodiversity and habitat management were
implemented. However, in the Twelfth Five Year Plan [2012-17] it has been feltthatthe country needs
more focussed efforts not only to preserve and maintain natural resources but also to provide
equitable access to those who are denied ofthis currently.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 7

The Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-17) lays adequate emphasis on environment, forestry & wildlife.
Twelve monitorable targets have set for Twelfth Plan, these include three targets in the areas of
Environment & Climate Change, four targets in Forestry and three targets under Wildlife, Eco-
tourism & Animal Husbandry, and two under Eco-systems and Biodiversity for ushering in
inclusiveness and growth.
1.4- Issues & Problems
Deforestation, landslides, land degradation,
desertification and Glacier Lake Outbursts Floods
(GLOF) are some of the common but critical
environmental issues in the Himalayan regions. The
major challenges currently faced by the Himalayan ” _
environment are the escalation of such issues through
atmospheric as well as man-induced interferences.
Himalayan ecosystems sustain a wide range of ”
significant natural resources that play a critical role in — – – ‘ ‘
the ecological and economic processes of the earth, thus Chirgflvn after ¢1°ud burst 0″ 11 AuguSt1997.
it is very important that these systems are properly t°t?“1°a“5almeS 124
analyzed and taken care.
Himalayan eco-systems are predominantly sensitive to climate changes. Himachal Pradesh although
a small Himalayan State, is nevertheless playing a very crucial role in sustaining the livelihoods of
downstream areas. The conservation, sustenance of these ecologically fragile regions is a biggest
challenge faced being faced at the moment which can get further aggravated due to financial
constraints and limited resources.
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STATE STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH e 2012 8

Himalayan eco—systems are predominantly sensitive to climate changes. Himachal Pradesh although
a small Himalayan State, is nevertheless playing a very crucial role in sustaining the livelihoods of
downstream areas. The conservation, sustenance of these ecologically fragile regions is a biggest
challenge faced being faced at the moment which can get further aggravated due to financial
constraints and limited resources. Therefore, it can be safely stated that climate change will manifest
most in Himachal Pradesh. The commonly observed events and likely ones in the State are as follows:
– State is likely to face warming, erratic rainfall and rainfall changes, floods.
– Change in precipitation pattern.
– There is likely to be a shift in snow line, agriculture /horticulture line; certain areas may open
up with some good livelihood openings.
– Significant impacts on agriculture production, water resources, forests, natural wetlands.
– Health risks are likely to increase in the State. Instances as malaria, water borne disease,
jaundice etc. may break along river bed predominantly.
– Impacts likely to adversely affect large percentage of population depending on natural
resources.
The predicted potential impacts of climate change on Himachal Pradesh are both positive and
negative. While many ofthe impacts would be disruptive and potentially very costly, none are likely to
be on at par with the worst impacts elsewhere in the Country. Examples of the projected impacts
based on scenarios generally within the range predicted in the IPCC Assessment Reports and other
research findings broadly include:
– Changes in precipitation [rain and snow fall] with the average water levels in rivers, lakes less
than normal with serious drought like conditions, and in rainy seasons flooding being more
frequent, areas currently subject to flooding would suffer flooding ofgreater severity and for
more duration; areas currently flood-free would suffer from occasional floods and flash floods.
Lesser spring, summer rainfall causing regular water shortages, especially in the mid hills
would be affecting both people and the ecosystems. There would be less recharge ofreservoirs
during the summer; water shortages would occur regularly and would be longer than at
present. The change in rainfall patterns may further cause regular water deficits, leading to
accelerated soil erosion and loss offertility and biodiversity.
Rising river water levels due to rapid glacier melt and more storm events and storm surge,
particularly on the Satluj, Beas and Ravi rivers and their tributaries with storms of a greater
severity are at risk from rising water levels, including related landslides, erosion, flooding and
environmental changes with severe threat to infrastructures.
– Riverbed areas subject to human industrial development would be at risk, and could suffer
loss ofinfrastructure. Human use of the river bed is quite intensive, and low lying areas of all
valleys are highly developed with different key industries (mainly energy), and tourism,
residential development along the river are under potential threat. Protective options include
abandonment of land, stronger planning controls, and fiscal disincentives for river side
development.
– Short-term increased agricultural production with new crops becoming viable in certain
regions and agricultural production costs reduced if prolonged summer droughts do not
become a problem. Grass growth could enjoy beneficial effects with a good increase with
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 9

higher temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns. Increase in man-animal conflicts in the
event ofdecreasing quality offorest cover/area.
New grassland and livestock management systems would be possible, with a longer grazing
season and the prospect of growing additional forage crops [e.g. maize, fodder beet). There
would be little or no increase in cereal yields, but increases in other crops are possible, and the
area for growth ofmany arable crops would migrate northwards. A number ofnew crops [e.g.
sunflower best option] maybecome viable in our area as well.
Some existing forestry species may suffer badly (e.g. where availability of water and nitrogen
are limiting factors], with others becoming more productive (higher temperatures and
increased CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere supporting higher rates of photosynthesis
and hence higher growth rates].
Issues associated to Glaciers and Snow fields over Himachal Himalayas: Five major perennial
rivers of Northern India passes through Himachal Himalayas, which have their origin in the
glaciated terrains either in the State or outside. These are Beas, Satluj, Yamuna, Ravi, and
Chenab rivers. The rivers like Chenab, Ravi and Beas originate from Himachal Pradesh,
whereas, the other two have their origin outside the State. In order to understand the
dynamics ofthe glaciers, which are considered to be the direct indicators ofclimate change, it
is important to have the systematic study of these Himalayan glaciers. Since the glaciers are
located in the higher regions, where it is not possible to map them by any conventional
method; therefore, the space technology has proved to be very useful for mapping these
Himalayan glaciers and estimating its potential for water as well as hydro power projects
developmentin the State.
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An over view w.r.t. damages due to Droughts, Flash Floods, and widespread Rains in Himachal Pradesh:
Due to climatic extreme events Himachal Pradesh economy has faced many losses from time to tim
both in terms oflives and infrastructural damages such as:
Year 2005-06 [Rabi Season]: The damage due to drought conditions in Himachal Pradesh has bee
assessed to the tune of Rs. 366 crore which include loss ofagri—horti crops, IPH infrastructure, an
animal husbandry.
Year 2002-O3 [Kharif Season]: The estimated damage due to drought conditions in Himach
Pradeshwas Rs.707.21crore.
Year 2000-01 (Rabi Season]: The estimated damage was Rs. 360.85 crore.
Year 1999 The damage due to widespread rains, flash floods and drought were beyond imaginations
about 2.423 lac ha area under agriculture and 0.447 lac ha area under horticulture (total monetary
loss estimated to Rs. 23,487.00 crore]was affected due to extreme events besides physical losses
estimated to Rs. 19,151.67 lacs were observed
Year 1998: The total loss [physical and crops) was assessed foran amountofRs. 33,226.79
Year 1997: The estimated damage was Rs. 79, 865.19 lacs.
Year 1996: The estimated damage was Rs. 47,677.28 lacs
Year 1995: The estimatedloss was about Rs. 50,599.82 lacs.
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STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 10

Climate Change — Issues of Concern
The economy of the State is dependent on sectors like the hydel power generation, horticulture,
agriculture, forestry and tourism etc. and these sectors are _ .
assumed to be under threat in the present scenario of -0 _\- \
changing climate. Any change in these sectors due to -‘,2 ». J, . ,‘~” ‘ .
climate change, in every likelihood, will not only going to _~ ‘ J ~ 1/
affect the livelihood prospects in the agrarian economies P‘ ~, -~ ‘
of mountain regions, but also everyone living below in the , ” ;_ ~’
plains. The major issues of concern due to the emerging
threat of climate change in Himachal Pradesh are: _-‘Q’ R,.,.1i,.,T,e,.d in Himflayan G|acie,,
– Agrarian economy of 90% rural population and
theirlivelihood. ,,.
~ Dependence on rains for agrarian activities.
– Sustainability of hydro economy as dependency on
snow and glaciers.
~ Water sources for drinking andirrigation.
– Rural livelihood dependency on forest for fuel wood, fodder and non wood products etc.
– The role ofmedicinalherbsin economy.
– Climate induced and other natural hazards threatin the state.
lndicators of Climate Change in Himachal Pradesh
– Rise in temperature in the NW Himalayan Region by
about 1.6°C in the last century.
– Warming rate of Shimla was higher during the period
1991-2002 as compared to earlier decades.
– About 17% decrease in rainfall in Shimla was
observed from 1996 onwards. _ ‘
~ The decreasing trend in seasonal snowfall in Shimla is
very conspicuous since 1990 and it was lowest in
2009.
– Monsoon discharge in Beas River has shown a
significant decrease.
– Winter discharge in River Chenab has shown a
significant increase.
– Satluj showing an increasing trend in winter and
spring discharge.
– Quality of apple has been affected and the apple line
has shifted upwards.
– Area under apple is being diverted to vegetable due to
rising temperature.
– Incidence ofpestand disease are more severe.
– Pine forestinvadingheights.
– Kikar, Tali [Shisham], Deodar, Ban trees are on decline.
Water fowls, Ducks, Birds, House sparrows, Vultures
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 11

Agro-Horticulture Sector
Erratic and changing weather pattern has affected on the sustainability of marginal agriculture and
horticulture in the State where average holding size is 1.07 ha
and about 70% of the population depends upon these two
sectors fortheir livelihood. Over 92% ofthe holdings in the State
are classified as small or marginal and dependence on rain in
some areas is very high. Thus, when viewed along with other
specificities such as infrastructure, rugged topography,limited
land for cultivation, limited livelihood choices, low productivity
of land, and vulnerability to natural disaster renders the state to
be highly vulnerable to the phenomena ofclimate change.
– Rabi crops more affected due to erratic rainfall.
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– Diversion from apple to vegetables especially in the Lower Kullu valley.
– Increase in annual production ofvegetables from 25,000 tonne in 3,000 ha area in 1951-52 to
1,269 thousands tonne in 65,000 ha area in 2010-11.
– The rise in temp has affected the apple production especially located on the lower altitude
– Apple production in cold desert areas has suddenly improved.
* Change in average winter temperature has led to early flowering in Rhododendron
Glacier Status in I-Iimachal Pradesh
– An overall reduction in glacier area from 2,077 sq. km. to 1,628 sq. km. from 1962-200 11n Chenab
Parbati &Baspa Basins,H.P.
– An overall deglaciation of 21% of total area in these basins.
– About 10% deglaciation is observed in Spiti Basin during 2001-2007.
– Prominent glaciers as studied by GSI in Himachal Pradesh shows:
– Chota Sigri 6.81 m/y retreat during 1962-95.
– Bara Sigri 29.78 m/y during 1906-1957.
– Trilokinath as 17.86 m/y ZOO1 2007
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STATE STRATEGY 8: ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012

1 Jr ‘1
Temporal Monitoring
115’

According to experts, glaciers in the Himalaya . _ 4–
have been reported to be in the retreating phase
and in future, this can result in water scarcity for
the people living in the mountain region and in
downstream area who depend on glaciers and
snow as a source of fresh water. Retreating
glaciers, depleting snow cover and Glacial Lake
Outburst Floods (GLOFs] are of immediate
concern in the mountain environment as GLOFs
can have a devastating impact on the hydro
power, water sources, people, livestock, forests,
farms and infrastructure. Decreases in snow
accumulation and glacial retreat might lead to
acute water shortages in the future.
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Forests
Forests in Himachal Pradesh are an important ecological and natural resource and have been aptly
termed as “Green Pearl” in the Himalaya. About 26% ofthe State’s geographical area is the repository
of3,295 species out ofwhich 95% are endemic to the
state and 5% (150) species are exotic, most of the
people in rural areas in the State depend directly or
indirectly on forests for their livelihood and use
significant quantity of forest goods and services like
non-wood forest products, ecotourism, fodder,
timber etc.
The immediate repercussions of climate change on
the forests are visible in the form of shifting of tree
line to higher altitudes and movement of pine
species to higher altitudes. Available data on
climate suggested that by 2100, under the most
probable scenario, temperature of the state is likely to increase by 3°C and precipitation will decrease
by 20% and in that situation the effects will be more visible and alarming also.
STATE STRATEGY&ACTlON PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH ‘ 2012 13

Effects of Climate Change
No. of fire Areas Affected
incidences [In Hectares]
Year
1995 1669 5714-3
2000 1900 36887
2001-02 301 S719
2002.03 202 4204 Invasion of pine into oak/deodar due to climate change
affecting fodder availability for livestock & people’s
2002-04 sso 9890 _ _
livelihood
2007-08 550 8393
Biodiversity
– Himachal Pradesh being a mountain State is rich in floral and faunal biodiversity. The tribal and
remote areas of the state have good medicinal and aromatic floral resources which plays a
majorintheirlivelihoods.
– With the changing climate, many species are either facing the problem of extinction or
declining because of rising temperature affecting health, well being and livelihood of the
people who rely on such resources.
– We are committed to preserve this Himalayan reserve as it provides us with biological
resources and basic goods like food, fibre, medicine, timber, fuel wood etc.
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Water Resources
Brahm Kamal Flower [Flower of High Alpine Zone]
Climate Change induced weather extremes such as unprecedented drought, frequent floods, cloud
bursts, erratic and changing pattern of rain
and snowfall, higher temperature and milder
and late winters have affected the availability
of natural resources in general and the water in
particular. Over the years, the water
availability in all towns of the State has
declined and majority of them are facing
scarcity situation. The traditional water
sources are either on the verge ofextinction or
have dried. Any change in the behaviour of
water resources will have adverse impact on
the overall economy of the State.
Satluj
Beas
Chenab
Ravi
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– Khatris are no more functional. – Dried traditional sources of water.
– Micro – hydel are under threat. – Decreasing snowfall patterns.
– Decreasing river discharge. – Perennial streams have become seasonal
– Affects the riverine ecology.
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STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH e 2012

Changes in Climate and Weather Events in India 2
Certain observations in climate parameters have been observed as far as climate change from the
Indian perspective is concerned. There are some changes observed in climate parameters in India as
well. According to India’s initial National Communication, 2004 [NATCOM 1) to UNFCCC some ofthe
observed changes are as under:
2.1 Surface Temperature
At the national level, increase of ~ 0.4°C has been observed in surface air temperatures over the past
century. A warming trend has been observed along the west coast, in Central India, the interior
peninsula, and north-eastern India. However, cooling trends have been observed in north-west India
and parts ofsouth India.
2.2 Rainfall
While the observed monsoon rainfall at the All-lndia level does not show any significant trend,
regional monsoon variations have been recorded. A trend ofincreasing monsoon seasonal rainfall has
been found along the west coast, northern Andhra Pradesh, and north-western India (+10% to + 12%
ofthe normal over the last 100 years) while a trend ofdecreasing monsoon seasonal rainfall has been
observed over eastern Madhya Pradesh, north-eastern India, and some parts of Gujarat and Kerala (-
6% to – 8% ofthe normal over the last 100 years].
2.3 Extreme Weather Events
Instrument records over the past 130 years do not indicate any marked long-term trend in the
frequencies of large-scale droughts and floods. Trends are, however, observed in multi-decadal
periods of more frequent droughts, followed by less severe droughts. There has been an overall
increasing trend in severe storm incidence along the coast at the rate of0.011 events per year. While
the States ofWest Bengal and Gujarat have reported increasing trends, a decline has been observed in
Orissa. Goswami et al, while analyzing daily rainfall data sets, have shown (i) a rising trend in the
frequency of heavy rain events, and (ii) a significant decrease in the frequency of moderate events
over Central India from 195 1 to 2000.
2.4- Rise in Sea Levels
Using the records of coastal tide gauges in the northern part oflndian Ocean for more than 4-0 years,
Unnikrishnan and Shankar have estimated, that sea level rise was between 1.06-1.75 mm per year.
These rates are consistent with 1-2 mm peryear global sea level rise estimates ofIPCC.
2.5 Impacts on Himalayan Glaciers
The Himalaya possess one ofthe largest reserve ofsnow and ice and form a major source ofwater for
the perennial rivers such as the Indus, the Ganga, and the Brahmaputra. Glacial melt may impact their
long-term lean-season flows, with adverse impacts on the economy in terms ofwater availability and
hydropower generation.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 17

The available monitoring data on Himalayan glaciers indicates that while recession of some glaciers
has occurred in some Himalayan regions in recent years, the trend is not consistent across the entire
mountain chain. It is accordingly, too early to establish long-term trends, or their causation, in respect
ofwhich there are several hypotheses.
LOSS IN GLACIER AREA: 1962 – 2001
1_. _ , !.
v“-
.
J ‘_‘ _ “‘|l{“_i_\ nnsrn uasnn
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– /A.,:__._V _
l\<I ‘ _ ll :1- . if ,- – I -.g.. -.f.. V Glaciers are well distributed by size, type, altitude and debris cover. Area in 1962 and 2001 [LISS- III] observed as 173 and 140 sq. km., respectively. Overall 19 % loss in glacierarea. 2.6 Climate Change Projections for 21“ Century (India) Based on modeling and other studies the following changes due to increase in atmospheric GHG concentrations arising from increased global anthropogenic emissions have been projected: ~ Annual mean surface temperature rise by the end of century, ranging from 3 to 5°C under A2 scenario and 2.5 to 4°C under B2 scenario of IPCC with warming more pronounced in the Northern Parts of India, from simulations done by Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology [IITM], Pune. 1 Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) is a manifestation of complex interactions between land, ocean and atmosphere. The simulation ofISM’s mean pattern as well as variability on inter- annual and intra-seasonal scales has been a challenging ongoing problem. The simulations by IITM, Pune, have indicated that summer monsoon intensity may increase beginning from 2040 and by 10% by 2100 underA2 scenario ofIPCC. ~ Changes in frequency and/or magnitude of extreme temperature and precipitation events. Some results show that fine-scale snow albedo influence the response of both hot and cold events and that peak increase in extreme hot events are amplified by surface moisture feedbacks. 2.6.1 Impacts on Water Resources A decline in run-offby more than two-thirds is also anticipated for the Sabarmati and Luni basins. STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 18 2.6.2 Impacts onAgriculture & Food Production Food production in India is sensitive to climate changes such as variability in monsoon rainfall and temperature changes within a season. Studies by Indian Agricultural Research Institute [lARl) and others indicate greater expected loss in the Rabi crop. Every 1°C rise in temperature reduces wheat production by 4-5 Million Tonnes. Small changes in temperature and rainfall have significant effects on the quality of fruits, vegetables, tea, coffee, aromatic and medicinal plants, and basmati rice. Pathogens and insect populations are strongly dependent upon temperature and humidity, and changes in these parameters may change their population dynamics. Other impacts on agricultural and related sectors include lower yields from dairy cattle and decline in fish breeding, migration, and harvests. Global reports indicate a loss of 10-40% in crop production by 2100. 2.6.3 Impacts on Health Changes in climate may alter the distribution ofimportant vector species [for example, malarial mos- quitoes) and may increase the spread of such diseases to new areas. Ifthere is an increase of3.8°C in temperature and a 7% increase in relative humidity the transmission windows i.e., months during which mosquitoes are active, will be open for all 12 months in 9 states in India. The transmission windows in jammu and Kashmir and in Rajasthan may increase by 3-5 months. However, in Orissa and some southern states, a further increase in temperature is likely to shorten the transmission window by 2-3 months. 2.6.4 Impacts on Forests Based on future climate projections of Regional Climate Model ofthe Hadley Centre (HadRM3) using A2 and B2 scenarios and the BIOME4 vegetation response model, Ravindranath et. al. It show that 77% and 68% of the forest areas in the country are likely to experience shift in forest types, respectively under the two scenarios, by the end of the century, with consequent changes in forests produce, and, in turn, livelihoods based on those products. Correspondingly, the associated biodiversity is likely to be adversely impacted. India’s NATCOM l projects an increase in the area under xeric scrublands and xeric woodlands in central India at the cost of dry savannah in these regions. 2.6.5 Vulnerability to Extreme Events Heavily populated regions such as coastal areas are exposed to climatic events, such as cyclones, floods, and drought and large declines in sown areas in arid and semi-arid Zones occur during climate extremes. Large areas in Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, and Maharashtra and comparatively small areas in Karnataka, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, West Bengal, and Uttar Pradesh are frequented by drought. About 4-O million hectares of land is flood-prone, including most of the river basins in the north and the north-eastern belt, affecting about 30 million people on an average each year. Such vulnerable regions may be particularly impacted by climate change 2.6.6 Impacts on Costal Areas A mean Sea Level Rise [SLR] of15-38 cm is projected along India’s coast bythe mid 21“ century and of 46-59 cm by 2100. India’s NATCOM I assessed the vulnerability ofcoastal districts based on physical exposure to SLR, social exposure based on population affected, and economic impacts. In addition, a projected increase in the intensity oftropical cyclones poses a threat to the heavily populated coastal zones in the country (NATCOM, 2004). STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 19 Climate Change in State’s Context 3 Climate change is any long term significant change in the ‘average weather’ temperature, precipitation and wind patterns that a given region experiences, which includes processes such as solar radiation, green house gas concentration and the effects of human activity. Recent climate change attributed to human activity, and the debate has shifted to how to reduce impact of human activity (Mitigation), and adapt to change that is already in the system (Adaptation). Conceptually, Adaptation, in context of climate change is defined as the measures taken to minimize the adverse impacts of climate change, e.g. switching to crops that can withstand higher temperatures is adaptation, relocating the communities from sea shore to some other places to cope with the rising sealevel. And, Mitigation in context of climate change is defined as measures to reduce the emissions ofgreen house gases that cause climate change in the first place, e.g. by switching to renewable sources of energy such as solar energy or wind energy, or nuclear energy instead ofburning fossil fuel in thermal power stations. For drawing adaptation and mitigation options for State of Himachal Pradesh it is very important to first understand the following critical and core concepts: – State’s Profile – Past& Current Climate Change Trends in Himachal Pradesh ~ Climatic Patterns ofHimachal Pradesh – Current Climate Trends in Himachal Pradesh – Climate Statistics for Himachal Pradesh- CurrentScenario & Projections – Precipitation [Rain & Snow Fall) – Temperature – Climate Scenarios – Precipitation (Rain & Snow Fall) – Temperature – Extreme Precipitation (Rain 81 Snow Fall) – Extreme Temperature – Impacts on Key Sectors in Himachal Pradesh & Projections – Issues and Problems: Climate Change – AssessmentofClimate Change Vulnerability ofHimachal Pradesh – Past, Current and Projections: Exposure Level, Sensitivity andAdaptive Capacity – Description ofVulnerability Index and Projected Trends ~ Sectoral Analysis with respect to Climate Change Vulnerability – Status ofGreen House Gas Emissions Inventory atSectoral Level & Future EnergyNeed Projections – Gap Analysis And after observing above exercise one can safely look into the main entry points leading to description of main priority adaptation and mitigation measures reducing Sectoral and Regional Vulnerability. STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 20 3.1 State’s Profile Himachal is situated in the western Himalayas. Covering an area of 55,673 kilometers (34,594 miles], Himachal Pradesh is a mountainous state with elevation ranging from about 350 meters (1,148 ft.) to 6,000 meters (19,685 ft.) above the Mean Sea Level. Area—wise, Hamirpur is the smallest district ofthe Pradesh which covers an area of 1,1 18 sq. kilometers (2.01%) and Lahaul 81 Spiti has the largest area of 13,835 sq. kilometres (24.85%). The population ofHimachal Pradesh is 68,56,509 as per the Census of India, 2011 [Table-1). In terms of population it accounts for only 0.57% of total country’s population. The ; population of the State increased by 17.53% between the – – Q – ‘\ years 1991-2001 andfurtherdecreasedby 12.81%in 2011. . v Table-1: Distribution of Population, Decadal Growth Rate, Sex-Ratio and Population Density State/District Populati on Percentage Decadal Gmwth Sex- Ratio Population 201 1 Rate of Population Density per sq. (Number of Females km- per 1000 Males) Persons 1991-Z001 Z001-2011 2001 Z011 2001 2011 Himachal Pradesh Chamba Kangra La hul & S pili Kullu Mandi I-Iamirpur Una Bil aspur Solan Sirmaur Shimla Kinnaur 68,56,509 5,18,844 15,07,223 31,528 4,37,474 9,99,518 4,54,293 5,21,057 3,82,056 5,76,670 5,30,164 8,13,384 84,298 17.54 17.19 14.05 6.17 26.17 16.1 11.8 18.51 15.4 30.94 20.78 17.02 9.91 12.81 12.58 12.55 -5.1 14.65 10.89 10.08 16.24 12.05 15.21 15.51 12.55 7.61 968 959 1025 802 927 1013 1099 997 990 852 901 896 857 974 989 1013 916 950 1012 1096 977 981 884 915 916 818 109 71 233 2 69 228 369 291 292 259 162 141 12 123 80 263 2 79 253 406 338 327 298 188 159 13 Note:For calculation ofsex ratio total of males and others asmals used Somce: Series-3 Provisional Population Totals Paper- 1 of Census 201 1 Urban & Rural Population of Himachal Pradesh in 2011 with Percentage Growth Population of Himachal Pradesh has experienced a gradual increase from one Census year to the next one with the exception of 1901 to 1911 where it declined slightly. Total population of this State has increased from 19,20,294 in 1901 Census to 68,56,509 in 2011 Census. STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 21 Table-2: Growth in Urban & Rural Population in Himachal Pradesh State/District Population 2011 Percentage Deaidal Growth (Persons) 2001-2011 Himachal Pradesh Chamba Kangra La hul & S piti Kullu Mandi l-lamirpur Una Bilaspur Solan Sirmaur Shimla Kinnaur Total 68,56,509 5,18,844 15,07,223 31,528 4,37,474 9,99,518 4,54,293 5,21,057 3,82,056 5,76,670 5,30,164 8,13,384 84,298 Rural 61,67,805 4,82,653 14,20,864 31,528 3,96,216 9,36,894 4,22,880 4,76,140 3,56,930 4,74,592 4,72,926 6,11,884 84,298 Urban 6,88,704 36,191 86,3 59 0 41,258 62,624 31,413 44,917 25,126 1,02,078 57,238 2,01,500 0 Total 12.81 12.58 12.56 -5.10 14.65 10.89 10.08 16.24 12.08 15.21 15.61 12.58 7.61 Rural 12.50 13.21 12.17 -5.10 12.87 11.49 10.56 16.46 11.91 15.93 15.09 10.20 7.61 Urban 15 .64 4.77 19 .47 35 .47 2.69 4.00 13 .93 14.46 11.93 20 .07 20 .49 The sex ratio (i.e. the number of females per thousand males] of population was recorded as 968 to 974. The urban population has increased @ 10.04% in 2011 in comparison of 2001 when it was @ 9.80%; however the rural population has declined in the State by 0.30% and number of towns has also increased in the State (Table-2]. It is noted from the census data that although the urban population is increasing at a faster pace in the State but yet the majority of population lives in rural areas ofthe State and is dependent on agriculture- horticulture and state’s natural resources. Most of the agri-horti practices are of subsistence type and dependent on prevailing climatic conditions for yield. The literacy of the State has increased to 83.78 % in 2011 in comparison to 76.50% in 2001 and 63.94%in 1991(Table-3]. Table-3: Literacy Status in l-limachal Pradesh State/ District Literacy Rate (Persons) 2001 Literacy Rate (Persons) 2011 l-limachal Pradesh Chamba Kangra La hul 8: S piti Kullu Mandi Hamirpur Una Bil aspur Solan Sirmaur Shimla Kinnaur STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 Total 76.48 62.91 80.08 73.10 72.90 75.24 82.46 80.37 77.76 76.57 70.39 79.12 75.20 Rural 75.08 60.63 79.70 73.10 71.55 74.08 81.90 80.19 76.97 73.94 68.29 75.19 75.20 Urban 88. 95 89.50 86.62 87.99 90.51 89.34 82.14 89.08 87.97 87.80 91.75 Total 8378 7319 8649 7724 8014 8281 8901 8723 8567 8502 7998 84.5 5 8077 Rural 82.91 71.63 86.54 77.24 79.12 82.14 88.67 87.24 85.21 83.53 78.54 81.45 80.77 Urban 91.39 92.90 85.67 89.75 92.62 93.48 87.19 92.06 91.86 91.51 93.76 22 Literacy rates of males in the state remained highest as compared to total literacy rates and female literacy rates since 1971 to the present Census year of 2011 (Fig. 1]. While literacy rates of females remained lower to both male and total literacy rates during this period the matter of a satisfaction is that the male-female gap in literacy rates is decreasing 1981 onwards, though it has increased during 1971- 1981. Himachal Pradesh has a Total Fertility Rate [TFR) of 1.9 which is one of the lowest in India, and below the TFR of 2.1 required to maintain a stable population. Overall sex ratio in Himachal Pradesh from 1981 Census to the present Census year has been eratic as it increased a little from 1981 to 1991 but decreased slightly in 2001. It increased once again in 2011. The child sex ratio remained a matter of concern from 1981 to 2001, as it nose dived from 971 in 1981 to 896 in 2001, though in the current of Census, 2011 it has shown a marignal increase as it stands at 906. (Fig. 2] The drainage system in the State is well developed and forms the part of the Indus and the Ganges River Basins of India. The major rivers which either originate or pass through Himachal are the Satluj, Ravi, Beas, Chenab and Yamuna. Besides these, there are number of small rivers like Baspa, Parvati, and Spiti etc. which contributes to the major river systems of Himachal Pradesh (Fig. 3). These rivers are perennial and are fed by snow and rainfall. They are protected by an extensive cover of natural vegetation. I Ll! Pn in /1 >
to
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Fig.1: Literacy Rates by Gender & Male- female Gap in Literacy Rates
since 1971
no 1) – -p I –
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Fig. 2: Changing Trends in Sex Ratio in Himachal Pradesh
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Fig. 3: Drainage Network of Himachal Pradesh
STATE STRATEGY 8: ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012
23

The State comprises of four different Agro-climatic Zones (Fig. 4).
1. SHIVALIK HILL ZONE: Climate Sub Tropical, consists of
foothills and valley areafrom 350 to 650 meters above mean sea
level, It occupies about35% ofthe geographical area and about
40% ofthe cultivated area ofthe State. The major cropsgrown in
this Zone are Wheat, Maize, Paddy, Gram, Sugarcane, Mustard,
Potato, Vegetables etc.
2. MID HILL ZONE: This zone extendsfrom 651 meters to 1,800
meters above mean sea level. Having mild temperate climate. It
occupies about 32% of the total geographical area and about
37% of the cultivated area of the State, the major crops are
Wheat, Maize, Barley, Block Gram, Beans, Paddy etc. This zone
has very good potential for the cultivation of cash crops like 0])‘-
Season Vegetables, Ginger and production of quality seeds of
temperate vegetables like Couliflowerand rootcrops.
3. HIGH HILL ZONE: It liesfrom 1,801 to 2,200 meters above sea
level with humid temperate climate and alpine pastures. This
zone covers about35% ofthegeographical areas and about21%
ofthe cultivated area ofthe State. The commonlygrown crops are
Wheat, Barley, Lesser Millets Pseudo-cereals (Buckwheat and
Amaranthus), Maize and Potato etc. The area is ideally suited for
the production ofquality seed Potato and temperate Vegetables.
Thiszonepossessesgoodpastures and meadows.
4. COLD DRY ZONE: It Comprises ofLahaul-Spiti and Kinnaur
Districts and Pangi Tehsil ofChamba District lying about 2,200
meters above mean sea level. It occupies about 8% of the
geographical and 2% ofthe total cultivated area ofthe State. The
major crops grown are Wheat, Barley, Pseudo-cereals like Buck
wheat and Amaranthus. It is ideally suitedfor the production of
quality Seed Potato, temperate and European type ofVegetables
and theirSeeds, Seed Potato, Peas as green and seed purposes.
{ii
Q- -_.
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— Q
Fig. 4: Agro-climatic Zones of Himachal Pradesh
Rising into the hills, we find a mosaic of Western Himalayan broadleaf forests and Himalayan
subtropical pine forests. Various deciduous and evergreen oaks are found in these broadleaf forests,
while Chir pine is a dominant species in the pine forests. Western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests
grow near tree line, with species that include East Himalayan Fir, West Himalayan Spruce, Deodar
,
\./-3.
./ ‘
I
I
(State tree), and Blue pine (Fig. 5). The state has about
.3 ‘ _ _ J.
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Fig. 5: Biological Richness in Himachal Pradesh
26.37% forest cover of total area which has great bearing
on presentand future climate scenario.
In the uppermost elevations, we find western Himalayan
alpine shrub and meadows in the northeast and
northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows in
the northwest. Trees are sturdy with a vast network of
roots. Alders, birches, rhododendrons and moist alpine
shrubs are there as the regional vegetation. The
rhododendrons can be seen along the hillsides around
Shimla from March to May. The shrublands and meadows
give way to rockand ice around the highest peaks
STATE STRATEGY&ACTl0N PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH ~ Z012 24

Himachal Pradesh is a well known habitat to a variety of wild life. There are around 1,200 bird and
359 animal species in the state. This includes the Leopard, Snow Leopard (State Animal), Ghoral,
Musk Deer and Western
Tragopan. It has 2 National
Parks and 33 Wildlife
Sanctuaries — the largest v. ‘
number in the Himalayan ‘ ” _
region. The Great Himalayan – – _ \
National Park (GHNP) in _
Kullu district was ~’ _‘
established to conserve the – ‘ ‘
flora and fauna of the main ‘
\ ” ‘ ‘
Himalayan range, while the ‘ __
Pin Valley National Park was ( _
established to conserve the Q ‘ 0 Q ‘.
flora and fauna of the cold \ \ A
0 \ ‘ .
desert.
I
land cover pattern available
in Himachal Pradesh. Based
upon the satellite data 0 , h w
analysis, the predominant ‘ -_ .‘
land use/land cover ‘ ,.
categories available in the “l _
State are mainly the forest 1 “’*._’3$_’ _ O – “‘° ‘*-
which is ever green or semi ¢”‘<’* ” ‘ 1 :’ ‘- green in nature, forest “’ ‘ ” _ plantation, agriculture, land -_ Q __ 1 __ – __ __ with/without scrub etc. 1 __ 1 1.—_ 8 -3 – Q 1 Q Fig. 6: Land Use/ Land Cover in Himachal Pradesh Fig. 6 depicts the land use/ \ s ‘ . . ’ \ p Q 0 ’ V T 0’ I, The soils of Himachal Pradesh can be divided into nine groups on the basis of their development and physio-chemical properties (Fig. 7). These groups are alluvial soils, brown hill soils, brown earths, brown porous soils, grey wooded or podozolic soils, grey brown podzolic soils, plansolic soils, humus and iron podzols and alpine humus mountain skeletal soils. The soils of Himachal Pradesh can be divided into nine groups on the basis of their development and physio-chemical properties. These groups are alluvial soils, brown hill soils, brown earths, brown porous soils, Grey wooded or podozolic soils, greybrown podzolic soils, plansolic soils, humus and iron podzols and alpine humus mountain skeletal soils. As far as lithological variations in the State are concerned, it is characterized by highly diversified geological formations ranging from Pre Cambrians to Holocene or Recent (Fig. 8). The low lying areas of the State comprising mainly of Kangra, Hamirpur, Una, Sirmour, parts of Mandi are characterized of Shivalik and the Tertiary group of rocks where as the Northern and North western and North eastern parts of the State are comprised of meta sediments. STATE STRATEGY&ACTlON PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH ~ Z012 25 _ ¢>
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3.2 Past & Current Climate Change Trends in Himachal Pradesh
3.2.1 Climatic Patterns
The term climate is mainly determined by two variables viz. temperature and precipitation. The
climate ofthe state varies from place to place depending on the altitude. It varies from hot and sub-
humid tropical [450-900 m) in the southern low tracts, warm and temperate [900-1,800 m), cool and
temperate (1,900-2,400 m) and cold alpine and
glacial (2,400-4,800 m) in the northern and
eastern high mountain ranges.
0‘ >.\-D ‘V
The state is broadly divided into three physio- *
geographical regions, viz. Outer Himalaya, the z
Lesser Himalaya and the Greater Himalaya or the \ __‘__
Alpines. The Outer Himalaya includes the districts
of Bilaspur, Hamirpur, Kangra, Una and the lower I ‘in
parts of Mandi, Sirmour and Solan. The Lesser ‘
Himalaya includes the parts of Mandi, Sirmaur M
w
/
¢..4″@’~;
_’_’t’~* _.

VI ‘
1 ,1
and parts of Chamba, Kangra and Shimla districts. –
The Alpine zone is at an altitude of 4,500 m and
beyond, includes Kinnaur and parts ofLahaul and
Spiti, Chamba districts. The areas of the state
increase in elevation from west to east and from
south to north. Therefore, geo-climatically “‘~/ ;’::§1_”“””
Himachal Pradesh has three zones (i) The Outer ‘£|”““;:’;‘°‘:*;“fl___Mm mm. _
Himalaya, [ii] The Inner Himalaya and [m] Alpine _:§:f;”“”” °”“” “”“”“”‘ “’“””‘°“”””
zone. The first Zone receives annual rainfall “”°”‘°””
between 150 cms and 175 cms. In second zone, it Fig, 9; Vegetatign Dengity Map
varies between 75 cms to 100 cms and the Alpine
zone receives solid precipitation during winters only and remains under the impact ofsnow for about
five to six months in a year. The average annual rainfall in the State is about 160 cms. The climate
varies between hot and humid in the valley areas to freezing cold in the areas ofperpetual snow.
The areas in the state under each climatic pattern based on K0ppen’s Classification are shown in
following Fig. 10 & Table-4. This broad classification is based on the variation of temperature and
precipitation. The state as a whole mainly comes under the climatic type as stated below.
As per the study carried out by IMD Pune, the districts Bilaspur, Kangra, Mandi, Sirmour Una,
Hamirpur, Solan and Chamba falls under the climatic type Cwa with Sub-tropical monsoon, mild and
dry winters and hot summers. Shimla district and some parts of Chamba has been classified as
climatic type Cwb with Sub-tropical monsoon, mild and dry winters and short warm summers.
Chamba, major parts of Kullu and Mandi districts has been classified as a climatic type Cfa with humid
subtropical mild winter, moist all seasons, long hot summer. Kullu district has a climatic type varying
between Cfa and Cfb; Humid sub tropical, mild winter, moist all seasons, long hot summer and marine.
As the sufficient temperature data for the districts Lahaul & Spiti and Kinnaur is not available, climatic
type of these districts is not mentioned though District Kinnaur classified as type Dwb and Dfb for
Lahul and Spiti.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 28

Therefore, based on the rainfall and temperature variability criteria the climate pattern observed in
the State are as follows:
Table-4: Classification based on Climate Pattern
Climate Pattern Classification
Mild and dry winter,
l-lot summer
Sub Tropical monsoon
Mild and dry winter,
Moderate hot summer
Sub Tropical M onsoon
Without dry winter,
With hot summer
Sub Tropical M onsoon
Withou t dry winter
with m od erate hot summe r
Sub Tropical monsoon
Humid continental Severe and dry winter,
warm sum H161‘
Severe winter, moist all
seasons, short warm summer
Humid continental
I-n
Cwb
Ju-nun pm
Ch
III.
QQ
Cr: Ch
Type
Cwa
Cwb
C fa
Cfb
Dwb
Dfb
Area / Districts
Bilaspur, Kangra, Mandi,
Sirmour, Una, Hamirpur, Solan,
Chamba
Shimla, parts 0fChamba
Chamba, Major parts 0fKuIIu
and Mandi
Minors parts 0fKuIIu
Kinnaur
Lahul & Spiti
Source: IMD Pune
\
.
“”c~o
.-
tlgnnl ‘ ”
Ornunacflnnllulnn
_..~…_.._-…._~ .-…__
.~.~_-._-._-….-. .-._._.._
..-4-_..-__…_._……-~
.- -.~……_.-_…_ _.__…-_
…_ -__ -….-_-_.._-_._-
….___–…-.-._..-.
Fig. 10: District Wise Classification based on Climate Pattern
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012
29

Throughout the year the State experiences four seasons [Table-5). The winter season from December
to February is followed by the pre—m0nsoon or hot weather season from March to May. The period
from ]une to September constitutes the southwest monsoon season and the period from October to
December is the post monsoon season. During the period from Ianuary to February, generally low
temperature prevails over the entire state and is generally not very pleasant due to biting cold. In this
season, a series of western disturbances affect the climate of the state. Heavy snowfall occurs during
this season. In the summer months from March to May, weather is very dry. In the hilly regions, due to
lower temperature, the climate of the state is comfortable. Weather tends to be humid during Iuly to
September due to rise in moisture content of the atmosphere. These monsoon months are fairly
comfortable due to reduced day temperature, although humidity continues to be high in comparison
with the other months.
Table-5: Prevalent Seasons in Himachal Pradesh
Seasons Pattern/ Duration/ Period
Winter Low temperature, biting cold, snow
December- February
Pre-monsoon/ Hot weather- Extreme d ry in lower elevation/ Mild in hills and valleys
Summer March-May
South West Monsoon/Rainy Heavy rains, humid, hot in lower elevations
]une- September
Post Monsoon /Autumn Moderate temperature
Octob er- November
Source: IMD Pune
STATE STRATEGY&ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE I-IIMACHAL PRADESH ~ Z012 30

3.2.2 Current Climate Trends in Himachal Pradesh
In the context ofunderstanding the climate trends in Himachal Pradesh, both precipitation [Rainfall
& Snowfall) and temperature are considered significant indicators. Based on comprehensive studies
carried over NW Himalayas on long term trends in maximum, minimum and mean annual air
temperate by Bhutzyani, et. al. 2007, included observation from Shimla, HP for a period 1901-2002, at
95 % confidence level indicates that there is a significant increase in air temperature in the NW
Himalayan region by about 1.6°C with winter warming at a faster pace.
The rates ofincrease ofwinter, monsoon and annual air temperatures in “C in last century, computed
by liner regression slope is given in the Table-6.
Table- 6: Winter Monsoon & Annual Air Temperature in Himachal Pradesh
Observation Season Winter M onsoon Annual
Location bx 10 0 bx1 00 bxl 00
Shimla Mean Maximum 2.6 2.8 2.4
Mean minimum 1.0 (-) .0 1 0.5
Average annual 1.8 1.5 2.0
North West Mean Maximum 1.7 1.3 1.6
Himalayas Mean minimum 1.7 0.4 1.1
Average annual 1.7 0.9 1.6
Source: Bhutiya ni et,aI. 2007 (95% confidence level]
As per analysis it is observed that the temperature rose at a lower rate till 1930, thereafter grew at a
modest rate during the decade of 1961-1970. Warming rate was higher during the period from 1991-
2002 as compared to the earlier periods and the gross rise in mean temperature during 1980-2002
was about 2.20 C. According to Bhutz)/ani et. al. 2007 based on short term analysis observed that in
different altitudinal zones in Himachal Pradesh, the rate of increase in maximum temperature at
higher altitudes was more than that at the lower altitudes and in last century north western
Himalayan region warmed significantly higher than the global average.
The gross increase in winter mean air temperature in last two decades in Himachal Pradesh is given in
the Table-7.
Table- 7: Increase in Winter Mean Air Temperature in Himachal Pradesh
Observation Stn (Alt) Mean Max Mean Min Average Winter
(°C) (“Cl (“C1
Bahang (2192) 4.0 1.8 3.8
Solang (2480) 4.4 – 2.0 3.8
Dhundi (3050) 5.6 1.0 3.2
Patseo (3800) 3.0 – 3.0 0.0
Shimla (2200) 2.8 2.2 2.4
Average 3.2 0.8 2.2
Source: Bhutiya ni et.aI. 2007(95% confidence level]
STATE STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH 7 2012 31

There is clear increase observed in winter temperature in Himachal and across North West
Himalayan region (Table-8].
Table-8: Observed Increase in Winter Air Temperature
Observation Stn. (Period) Mean Max
Shimla
(1901-2002)
(1991-2000)
(2001-2007)
Solang
(1991-2000)
(2001-2007)
North west Himalaya (1901-2002)
(“Cl
2.6
1.83
3.42
0.99
2.84-
1.7
Mean Min
(°C)
1.00
0.14
0.74
– 0.08
— 1.12
1.7
Ave rage Winter
(“Cl
1.800
0.898
2.800
0.45
1.98
1.7
As per analysis carried on different altitudes in Himachal Pradesh decreasing trend of snow fall is
observed (Table-9).
Table- 9: Altitudinal Variation in Snow Fall Trends.
Observatory Stn Time Period Time Period
Bhang
Solan g
Dhundi
Patseo
Observations based on depth of snowfall
(-) 1974-2005
(-) 1982-2005
(-) 1989-2005
(-) 1983-2005
(+) Increasing, (-) Decreasing trend
Through an analysis ofdata base from 1866-2006 w.r.t. climate change and precipitation, variation in
the north western Himalayas (Bhutiyani et. al. 2009) it has been observecl that the change in winter
/%rTrTrT
) 1991-2005*
) 1991-2005*
) 1991-2005
—) 1991-2005
Source: Bhutiya ni et.aI. 20 07 (95% confidence level]
precipitation is minimum but there is significant decrease in monsoon precipitation.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012
32

Results of trend analysis of annual, winter and monsoon precipitation in Shimla & North Western
Himalaya are as under in [Table-10].
Table-10: Trend Analysis of Annual, Winter 81 Monsoon Precipitation
Observatory Stn.
Annual Precipitatio n
Shimla
North West Himalaya
Winter Precipitation
Shimla
North West Himalaya
Monsoo n Precipitation
Shimla
North West Himalaya
Data Period Trend Analysis
1866-2006
1866-2006
1866-2006
1866-2006
1866-2006
1866-2006
(+) Increasing, (-) Decreasing trend
Mann-Kendall’s Non Linear Regression
Parametric T ext Coefficient (b)
t-1*
[-1*
t-1*
t-1*
[-1*
[-1*
t-1*
r-1*
t-1*
t-1*
t-1*
t-1*
Source: Bhutiyanietal.2007 (95% confidence level}
Trend analysis ofannual rainfall data [Ranbir, 2010) oflast 25 years in different districts in Himachal
Pradesh revels that increasing trend ofabout 33.5%, 54.3% and 51.5% has been observed in the State
in district Kinnaur, Chamba and Lahul & Spiti respectively on one hand and decrease of about 8.7%,
13.3% and 26.6% in District Solan, Shimla and Sirmour respectively. About 0.5°C rise in maximum
temperature is observed for Palampur, in District Kangra.
The Annual Rainfall Variation Trend in different districts of H.P. is given in (Table-11).
Table-11: District Wise Variation in Annual Rain Fall Trends
Districts
Kinnaur
Chamba
Lahual & Spiti
Sol an
Sh imla
Si rmour
Rainfall Variation
25 years
33.5% (+)
54.3% (+)
51.5% (+)
8.7% (-)
13.3% [-)
26.6% [-)
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012
Source: Ranbir, 201 0
33

The variation observed in Mean Temperature (Max & Min] in District Kangra, H.P. is given in (Table-
12).
Table-12: Observed Mean Temperature (Max. & Min.) in District Kangra
Observatory Stn. Temperature (Max) Temperature (Min)
1985 2009 1986 2009
Palampur 31.5 °C 32.1 °C 4.4°C 5.2°C
Kangra
Net Change 0.5“C O.8“C
Source: Ranbir, 201 0
It has also been observed that there has been about 40% reduction in rainfall over the last 25 years as
it was 948 mm in 1987 which is reduced to about 470 mm during 2009. Another analysis with respect
to climate of Shimla reveals that total precipitation and snowfall for all the season has a decreasing
trend. The analysis of twenty years data by (Bhan & Manmohan, 2011, IMD) reveals that the season
tends to end by about 10-12 days earlier per decade leaving long term impacts on agriculture-
horticulture production ofthe State.
Table-13: Observed Decreasing Trend in Rain Fall & Snow Fall at Shimla
Month Trend in Total Precipitation, No of Days with Snowfall
Rainfall and Snowfall
Trend [mm per decade) Avg. no of days with Max. no of days with
snowfall snowfall (year)
Rainfall Snowfall
December — 3.8 – 8.4 0.8 3 (1995)
Ianuary – 46.0 29.6 3.1 8 (1995)
February – 20.9 14.5 3.9 1 2 (20 00]
March – 19.2 -4.3 0.4 2 (1993,2007]
Season – 89.9 – 56.9 8.2 20 [1994-95)
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 34

Analysis of Trends of Rainfall & Snowfall of Shimla Himachal Pradesh
I
_-n-.-— -.-v- –um-nu _ “*-“I —*-—’— 1-Mn–¢\
.- Q-
“ \ r I \ Em /l\ Ii‘ 5
I / /\ ‘.
Q‘: / \
in
: I
-<“”
‘1
Fig. 11 (i): Total Seasonal Precipitation over Fig. 11 (ii): Total Seasonal Snowfall (Equivalent to
Shimla mm orwater] over Shimla
Q
1;;-‘4-an-n –@on-~–
I noun-@o|¢_¢0-no —v-uun4u—
“‘ »-no-1| –‘~15-nu
<-
“‘–_._
_~o-|-¢_-
I I I
0
I
cm-u-u-nnuqnnapv–1;-mp-@411–um
u_@n¢—
Fig. 11 (ii): Beginning and End of Snowfall Season at Shimla
Source: Bhan, Manmohan, 2011, IMD
110 years annual rainfall trend of Shimla, Himachal shows a decreasing trend which is similar for
about S0 KM aerial distance around (Fig. 12).
ll
1 .|.-.-ml -lnlvll ““‘LI1OIl u\mnulR1IInl1|
3‘ \” l’:l\‘l$.\.‘
…. 1 I
5
sis \¢ \“‘ 0“ \l”A 6“ G‘. \\“ Q‘. \*. \¢‘ \¢— Q“ ‘F \d‘ \l‘ \€’ qfl‘ .f
hnfiilntlqhi
Fig. 12: 110 Years Annual Rainfall in Shimla Source: IMD, Pune
– 35
STATE STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH 2012

Extreme Temperature Variations Ever Recorded (°C)
O @
Q – .
-r~ I ~.
1‘
3
».-.
Z
I
. 1.
\ _…
– Dina
_.–.-
Fig. 13(i): Area Affected by Drou ht [1951-2000 Fi
g ] g. 13(ii]: Highest Temperature Ever Recorded [ C)
ltcllllul
ltnn:
yum.
I-Dill i
-10:-M:-Ha
jun-an-mu
I an-nun
Fig. 13[m): Lowest Minimum Temperature Ever Recorded (°C]
STATE STRATEGY &ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012

The trend analysis of climate variables (temperature and precipitation] at various altitudes in
Himachal Pradesh over more than two decades is as follows in Table-14.
Table-1 4: Altitude Wise Climate Variables in Himachal Pradesh
Altitude
(amsl]
1, 500-2 ,4 00
1,200- 1,8 00
700-1,500
< 700
Obs. Stn.
Theog (Shimlaj
High Hill Temperate
wet
Kullu
High Hill Temperate
wet
Palmpur [Kangra)
Mid Hill sub Humid
Fatehpur
(Sirmour)
Low Hill sub Humid
AnnualMean
Temp.
[+] 1.8 “C
[+] 2.8 “C
[+) 1.0 flc
[+)
Annual Mean
Rainfall
(-) 1 27 mm
(+] in Kh ari fseason]
(—) 2 0.1 mm
(+] in Khari fseason
(-) 1,000 mm
exceptional decrease
(+] in Kh ari fseason
(-) 29.4mm
Data base
20 years
34 years
35 years
23years
3.2.3 Glaciers & Snow Fields in Himachal Himalaya
As per the investigations carried out in the Himachal Himalayas, there are about total of334 glaciers
in the entire Satluj basin which includes the glaciers in Beas, Sainj, Spiti, Baspa basins and 457 glaciers
in the Chenab basin in Himachal Himalaya. Out of334 glaciers in the entire Satluj basin, 202 glaciers
are located in Himachal Pradesh (Kulkarni et. al]. The total area covered by these glaciers in Satluj
and Chenab basins is around 2,175 sq. km. Besides, the glaciers there are about 1,826 permanent
snow fields in these basins having a total area of 1,101.737 sq. km. (Table-15).
Table-15: Basin Wise Distribution of Glaciers and Snow Fields in Himachal Himalavas
Basin Name Number of
Beas
Parvati
Sainj
Spiti
Baspa
Satluj
Chenab
Total
Glaciers
06
36
O9
71
25
55
457
659
Aerial No. ofPermanent
Extent Snowfields
(sq. km.)
15.843
450.627
37.255
258.237
203.300
154.762
1055.27
2175.294
47
131
59
597
66
194
732
1826
Aerial
Extent
(sq. km.)
72.442
188.188
51.934
368.366
64.964
110.843
245.000
1101.737
In the case of Himachal Pradesh rivers flow, the major contribution is from the snow and glacier melt
which affects the discharge ofthe streams considerably. To understand the effect of global warming
on the hydrological balance, the snow ablation studies in the Himalayas have been carried out.
Initially the investigations were carried out in the Beas and Baspa basins in Himachal Pradesh.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 37

To understand these changes snow cover an evaluation has been carried out in the Beas and Baspa
basins using IRS WIFS satellite data from October to lune for the period 1997 to 2001. On the basis of
the study carried out by Space Application Center in the Beas basin pertaining to the period from
October to ]une 1997-98 and 2001-2002, that snow accumulation has been observed in early winter
i.e. from November to Ianuary for 1998-99 and 1999-00, in 2000 it was substantially lower than in
1997-98 and 2000-2001, which may be attributed due to low snowfall in the early winter and
abnormally high temperature as the average maximum temperature in the month of November and
December was higher in the year 1998 and 1999 as compared to 1997. On the other hand, the snow
accumulation pattern in the year Z000-2001 was entirely different. Overall snow cover was very high
in the month of Nov-December, but right from the beginning of December snow cover started
retreating and this trend continued up to the middle of February. The data suggest that the snow
accumulation was above normal for 1997-98 and very low for 1998-99 affecting snow ablation
patterns. In May 1998, snow cover was almost 70% compared to 30% in 1999. Altitude wise
monitoring ofsnow has also been done in the Beas basin between 1800 m to 5400 m at an interval of
600m. It has been observed that there was a substantial retreat ofsnow in the month ofDecember up
to 5400 m altitude in this basin. In Ianuary retreating snow was observed up to 4200 m in the Beas
Basin. The melting of snow cover in high altitude region in the month of December and Ianuary is an
unusual observation. Similarly, on the basis of the studies so far done on Chotta Sigri glacier in the
Chandra basin, it has been observed that snout of Chotta Sigri glacier has receded by about 8m/year
during 1963 to 1984 and about 23 m/year during 1984 to 1986. It has further receded by about 15 to
20 m during September 1986 to August 1987. Average melting rate calculated was 6.5 cms/day, 4.1
cms/day and 3.0 cms/ day in snout, ablation and accumulation zone. The results have proved that the
rate ofmeltingwas maximum in the snout zone and minimum in the accumulation zone.
The glaciers are receding, precipitation is becoming erratic, the protection of glacier fields is
emergingas an important issue and associated livelihood issue does require attention at the moment.
The analysis of data whatever available, therefore, presents that effects of climate change are likely to
be become more intense by next 2-3 decades when time temperature may rise by 2-4 “C. There would
be clear change in monsoon precipitation pattern which may increase by 20-25 %. Frequency of
extreme events may double. Resultantly there will be snow and glacier field loss, which will affect the
flow in river system, the flow in lower elevation would reduce maximum. The glacier fields may
reduce by more than 50% due to rise in temperature, increased melting rate, monsoon, extreme
events may further increase the issues of sedimentation, intense erosion, destabilization of slopes
and the increase in events ofGOLF’s etc. (Kulkarni et. al).
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 38

Climate Change Impact on the Himalayan Glaciers
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STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012

Long Term Monitoring of Himalayan Glaciers
‘I’M ‘ ‘ _
_ 4
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012
F
~~b‘.’- ‘.5; .~.-~ \ 1″} L ‘ ‘-
___ll$’
. ‘ 4
‘r<.;~e’ – . .. -. . ,,‘.-_.’ *9‘ . fa 4 r ‘I F 0 H .r~ _@’ \ – ‘ ‘-71%, ‘ \”~»- 7 as \_\s’ P 4-0 3.2.4 Conclusions From above discussions it is observed that in Himachal Pradesh the climate change variations are set to arrive in following manner: 3.2.4.1 Temperature The annual temperatures are set to rise. The rise in temperature with respect to 1970s shows a range between 1.5 “C to 2.8 “C. Temperatures are also showing a rising trend in all seasons. 3.2.4.2 Precipitation The mean annual rainfall likely to vary between 125012252 and 155011752 mm in Himachal Pradesh. The rate ofincrease is more in North-western parts ofthe State i.e. areas ofdistrict Kangra, Chamba, Kullu, Una are likely to receive rainfall with increased intensity. The High Hill areas like Kinnaur, Lahul & Spiti and some parts ofChamba and Kullu districts may also experience rainfall in place of snowfall with increased temperature. There may be staggering decrease in snowfall patterns in mid-hills temperate wet agro climatic zone. The number of rainy days may increase in Himachal Pradesh with decrease in average intensity. An increase in rainfall in the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon months with increasing incidence ofstorms in Himachal Pradesh. 3.2.4.3 Extreme Events Change in rainfall patterns with increased variability in future some regions [South- eastern parts) may be experiencing less rainfall. Drought like conditions may prevail in given projections. Projected increase in temperature, rainfall, rainfall variations and intensities in the State may lead to accelerated summer flows leading to situations like floods/flash floods in North—western parts of the State. Health risks are also associated indirectly with extreme events in sub montane, low hills, and sub humid agro climatic zones ofthe State. STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 41 3.3 Climate Statistics for Himachal Pradesh- Current & Projections Long term trends in observed seasonal rainfall and temperature over State using IMD gridded rainfall and temperature at daily time scales has been performed to arrive at the current baseline climatology. 3.3.1 Rainfall Rainfall in the state ofHimachal Pradesh varies considerably both in space and time from year to year as in Table—16. Table-16: Variation in Rainfall in I-limachal Pradesh Season Annual Winter Pre-monsoo n Monsoo n Post Monsoon Annual Winter Pre-monsoo n Monsoo n Post Monsoon Statistics Average [mm] Ran ge-average [mm] Average [mm] Ran ge-average [mm] Average (mm) Ran ge-average [mm] Average [mm] Ran ge—averag e [mm] Average [mm] Range-average [mm] Ran ge-l nter-an nual variation Ran ge-l nter-an nual variation Range-lnter~an nual variafion Ran ge-Inter-an nual variation Range-I nter-an nual variafion Value 14-90 606.8—3722.S 134-.1 1 7.4-—31O.1 163.9 Z 8.4-268.9 1 087.7 19.9-1275.2 89.40 4.4—96.6 0.93-1.25 0.6-0.8 0.4-0.6 0.86-0.90 0.3-0.5 Contribution in AnnualRainfall (%) 9% 1 1% 73% 6% Source: IMD Gridded Rainfall Data (1 971-2005) K – Q Fig. 14: Annual Normal Rainfall (cm) STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 4-2 The total annual rainfall in the state is the maximum over the region of Kangra district and neighbourhood areas (Fig. 14). The total annual rainfall for the state is 149 cm with total annual number of rainy days as 65. Kangra district receives the maximum amount of rainfall (185 cm) in a year, whereas Una receives the minimum amount ofrainfall (12 1 cm] in a year. The figures have been plotted which show rainfall pattern during winter season (December to February] and pre-monsoon season [March to May]. The rainfall over the state increases towards northeast region during winter and pre monsoon. The pattern of spatial distribution of the rainfall over the state during the southwest monsoon season generally resembles to that of the spatial distribution of the annual rainfall. In both cases, the rainfall is maximum in northwestern region which is further corroborated by fact that the isopleths are concentrated more in this region. lt is observed that during the post- monsoon season, the rainfall pattern over the north and eastern parts is uniform and rainfall decreases towards west/southwestregion (Fig. 15 [i-iv]. In-1’. .-v; -u= Fig. 15(i): Seasonal Rainfall[cm]- Cold Weather Season- Fig. l5[ii]: Post Monsoon Season- October to December lanuary to February STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 4-3 Inflow‘ __ __ ..|| ..\= I ‘ i Fig. 15(m]: Pre-monsoon Season- March to May Fig. 15(iv]: Monsoon Season- ]une to September The southwest monsoon season is the predominant rainy season in the state. Of the total annual rainfall, about 73% is received during the southwest monsoon season (lune to September), about 9% is received in the winter season (December, ]anuary and February), about 11% is received in the pre- monsoon season (March to May) and about 6% is received in the post-monsoon season (October to November]. The percentage ofthe seasonal number ofrainy days with respect to the annual number ofrainy days is 63% for the southwest monsoon season, 16% for the pre-monsoon season, 7% for the post monsoon season and 13% for the winter season. During the southwest monsoon season, the state receives rainfall mainly due to low pressure areas and monsoon depressions originating from the Bay ofBengal. – . 1″ _ ‘1 i .–, >-_
~-‘~’—~
__. ‘-” Kl,
-.-—- .
.-
5&-
Fig. 16: Are Affected by Excessive Rainfall
STATE STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH e 2012 4-4

The southwest monsoon extends over the entire state by the last week of]une. ]uly and August are the
wettest months accounting individually to about 27% ofthe annual rainfall. The number ofrainy days
ranges from 6 to 14 during southwest monsoon season, the number being maximum (14) for the
month of]uly and August. The most common rain-giving systems over the state during post-monsoon
season are the depressions and cyclonic storms originating from the Bay ofBengal. During winter, the
state receives about 14 cm ofrainfall. This rainfall, though small in amount, is ofutmost significant for
agriculture. This rainfall generally occurs in association with induced low pressure areas over the
surface due to western disturbances moving from west to east, across the northern parts of the
country.
Rainfall, sufficiently in excess of the normal, is a predominant factor for the occurrence of floods,
particularly in high rainfall regions. For the purpose of present description, annual rainfall of 125 %
or more ofthe normal is considered as excessive rainfall.
The Fig. 16 shows the percentage frequency of excessive rainfall and successive years of excessive
rainfall during the period 1951 to 1999. It is seen from this figure that the frequency of excessive
rainfall for Chamba district in northwest region ofthe state is highest and the number of successive
years ofexcessive rainfall are more.
The annual rainfall in different river catchments is as follows. It is seen from Table-17 and Fig. 17 that
the river Beas has a catchment (No. 203] in the state, which receives the maximum amount ofannual
rainfall [182.2 cm) as well as the maximum rainfall (130 cm) during the southwest monsoon season.
Table-17: Catchment Area Wise Mean & Maximum Rainfall
River Catchment Catchment Area M ean Ann ual Max. Rainfall
N0 Districts Rainfall [mm] mm(month)
Sutlej
(Upto Bhkara Dam)
Sutlej
Between Bhakra Dam
and Beas excluding
Beas)
Beas
Ravi
Chenab
Yamuna
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012
Z01
Z02
203
204
205
403
Shim la, Kinnaur,
Solan, Mandi,
Bilas pur
Sola n, Sirrn ou r, Una
Kangra, l-lami rpur,
Kullu, Lahul &Spiti,
Mandi, Ch amba
Chamba
Lahul & Spiti
Shimla, Sirmour
1191.9
1573.8
1821.9
1190.3
1004.4
1355.1
Z 56.6 [luly]
444.9 [luly]
4 9 7.9 [Iuly]
1 69.2 [luly]
155.5 [Mar]
3 54.6 [July]

The spatial distribution of the coefficient of variation of annual rainfall over Himachal Pradesh is
depicted as shown in Fig. 18 Coefficient 0fVariation (CV) which is expressed as percentage is defined
as:
CV = Standard Deviation (0) X 100 Normal (N)
It is observed that the values of CV of annual
rainfall range between 30% and 50% over the
entire state of Himachal Pradesh. The values of
CV over northwestern and southern parts are
less than 30%, while those over some parts ofthe
northern and eastern Himachal Pradesh the
values are higher than 50%.
The regions of extreme southern parts of the
State exhibit the highest variability, with values
of CV exceeding 70%. During the southwest
monsoon season, the rainfall variability is low
with the values of CV ranging between 20% and
50% (Fig. 19]. It is observed that the values ofCV
of the rainfall during the post-monsoon season
range between 80% and 120% (Fig. 20). During
the winter season also, the variability of rainfall
O
n ‘ ‘
0
_ .
O
,___ _
‘O
n –
Fig. 17: Catchment Area with Annual
is very high. The values ofCV range between 40% and 120% (Fig. 21). Thus, the variability ofannual
rainfall and rainfall during the southwest monsoon season, over Himachal Pradesh is relativelylower.
On the other hand, the variability of seasonal rainfall for the other three seasons is very high. The
contribution ofsouthwest monsoon rainfall to the annual rainfall is the highest.
¢..
.-__.~<
.~_.¢-
Fig. 18: Coefficient of Rainfall Variation- Annual
Fig. 19: Coefficient of Rainfall Variation- Southwest
Monsoon
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 4-6

Ill
|I
‘2’-_ – §
Fig. 20: Coefficient of Rainfall Variation- Post Monsoon Fig. 21: Coefficient of Rainfall Variation- Winter
<‘>
uunmno
11»–ammo
jam:
-nun-no
-Inn-no
Fig. 22: Coefficient of Rainfall Variation- Premonsoon
STATE STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012

3.3.2 Temperature
Table-18 gives the mean daily maximum and mean daily minimum temperature. The spatial
distribution of the mean daily maximum temperature for the representative months of four seasons
of a year is depicted (Fig. 23]. lt is observed that the
temperatures of hilly districts with deep valleys vary
considerably from place to place depending on
elevation. ]une is the hottest month with the mean daily
maximum temperature of35.5°C in the plains and 28.7°C
in hilly places. During ]une, the mean daily maximum
temperature ranges from 24“C to 38.4°C over the state,
the values increases towards southwest. The highest
values are observed over the extreme south western
region. With the onset of monsoon season the day
temperatures falls significantly. During August, an
appreciable drop in the mean daily maximum
temperature is observed with the values ranging
between 20.4°C and 32.6″C. The values of mean daily
maximum temperature in October range between
18.8°C to 30.6°C with the values generally increasing
towards southwest. lt is observed that the mean daily
maximum temperature oflanuary ranges between 9.3°C .
and 20.3°C. The temperature pattern oflanuary is quite
similar to that ofOctober.
O
Fig. 23 Annual Normal Temperature (“C]
Table-18: Seasonal Variation Max. & Min. Temperature
Season Statistics Max. Temperature
Annual
Winter
Pre-monsoon
Monsoon
Post Monsoon
Annual
Winter
Pre-monsoon
Monsoon
Post Monsoon
Average
Range-average
Average
Range-average
Average
Range-average
Average
Range-average
Average
Range-average
Range-Inter-annual variation
Range-Inter-annual variation
Range-Inter-annual variation
Range-lnter-annual variation
Range-Inter-annual variation
(“C1
22.31
17.3-29.7
14.6
9.3-22.6
23.9
14.6-36.2
27.02
20.3-38.4
22.05
15.1-30.6
0.04-0.06
0.07-0.09
0.02-0.03
0.01-0.03
0.06-0.08
M in. Temperature
(“(3)
10.6
6.2-16.2
3.1
-1.7-8.9
10.91
2.6-20.8
17.01
11.1-24.5
8.58
1.4-17.5
0.02-0.03
0.16-0.18
0.04-0.04
0.03-0.05
0.04-0.06
Source: IMD Gr1’ddedRainfaIl Da ta (1 971-2005)
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012
48

The spatial distribution of the mean daily minimum temperature for the representative months of
four seasons ofa year is also depicted. In the month oflanuary, the minima ofthe mean daily minimum
temperature are observed over the northeast region ofthe state. The values range between -1.7°C to
7.3 “C [Fig.24-). Over the southern region ofthe state, temperature higher than 5°C is observed. During
the winter months, cold waves associated with western disturbances may bring down night
temperatures appreciably, even 5-10°C below the freezing point of water. In the month of April, the
values range between 6.2°C to 18.4°C [Fig.25). The temperature is more than 18°C over the extreme
southern region of the state. The lowest value of the mean daily minimum temperature is observed
over the northern region ofthe state. ln the month of]uly the values of minimum temperature range
between 14.7°C to 245°C (Fig. 26). The values of mean daily minimum temperature over the hilly
region ofthe state are generallylowerthan 20°C.
During the month ofOct0ber, the values ofmean daily minimum temperature range between 5.3°C to
0
175°C (Fig. 27]. The temperature over the hilly region is observed to be lower than 11 C except at
Dharamsala observatory.
,<.
\
s_.
“-
i-»<v¢.z u Q-NV.‘ Q Fig. 24 Mean Minimum Temperature [°C) — lanuary Fig. 25 Mean Minimum Temperature (“C) – April STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — Z012 4-9 Q O Fig. 26 Mean Minimum Temperature [“C) – ]uly Fig. 27 Mean Minimum Temperature [°C] – October The highest maximum temperature and the lowest minimum temperature ever recorded are depicted. The highest maximum temperature ever recorded in the State is 49.9°C on 8t“ May, 1958 at Gondla observatory and the lowest minimum temperature ever recorded in the state is -259°C at Keylong observatory on 2 1“ February, 1978 in Lahaul and Spiti district. Thus, day temperatures in the state increase uniformly from April to October. ln general, the night temperatures are lower in the higher latitude districts. Both day and night temperatures are lower over the hilly stations than those over the plains. Maximum temperatures rise rapidly from February onwards till ]une and ranges from about 10°C to 16°C at plains and about 14°C to 16°C over the hilly regions, whereas minimum temperatures rise rapidly during the period from February to ]uly and it ranges from 13°C to 18°C at plains and 12°C-16°C at hill stations. In the state, from the beginning of ]une to the end of]uly, the maximum temperature falls by about 2°C to 6°C whereas the minimum temperature falls by about 2°C to 3°C from Iuly to September. Both day and night temperatures start falling rapidly after October onwards and attain the lowest value by lanuary. August has the lowest diurnal range of temperature, about 9°C in plains and about 8°C in hilly regions. The diurnal range increases rapidly after the retreat ofsouthwest monsoons. During the period from November to lune, the diurnal range is ofthe order of 14“c to17°C atplains and 11°c to 14°c in hilly regions Fig. 28 (i-iv]. STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 50 ‘I2; Fig. 28(i) Mean Max. Temperature (“C) – August Fig. 28[ii) Mean Max. Temperature (°C) lune Iii!- jun-Ii-an -an-an 1- Ir‘ IJIZPI E -In-rvnu bi – 1-..¢–1 }_… Fig. 28[m) Mean Max. Temperature [°C) – October Fig. 28[iv) Mean Max. Temperature [“C) — january STATE STRATEGY &ACTlON PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – Z012 O @ -.-.- Q 3.3.3 Climate Scenarios Third major publication of INCCA assessment is an attempt to use PRECIS [Providing Climate Investigation Studies) based on HadRM (Hadley Regional Climate Model) to generate climate change scenario for 2030s. This report provides an assessment ofimpact ofclimate change in 20305 on four key sectors of the Indian economy, viz. Agriculture, Water, Natural Ecosystems & Biodiversity and Health in four climate sensitive regions of India, viz. the Himalayan region, the Western Ghats, the Coastal Area and the North-East Region. At State level there are hardly any studies that have done a thorough analysis ofthe trends ofclimate change in Himachal Pradesh from where set conclusion can be drawn. The climate change scenarios have been derived from a Regional climate change model PRECIS [a version ofHadRM3 developed by the Hadley Centre, UK) with a resolution of50km x 50km and forced by a Green House Gas (GHG) emission scenario emanating from A1B IPCC SRES [Special Report on Emission Scenario, IPCC, 2000). The year 2030 is the average ofthe period between 202 1 to 2050. All the changes in this period are with respect to the average ofthe period 1961 to 1990, also referred to 1970s orthe baseline. 3.3.3.1 Temperature PRECIS simulations for the 20305 indicate an all-round warming over the Indian Subcontinent associated with increasing GHG concentrations. The annual mean surface air temperature is projected to rise by 1.7°C to 2.0°C in 20305. Seasons may be warmer by around 2.0°C towards the end of 20305. The variability of seasonal mean temperature may be more in winter months. . . – . n – On a regional scale, the variations in temperatures are described below [Figurez ES3 (a) forthe observed mean temperatures in the 1970s and simulated by PRECIS for the same period]. Figure: ES3 (b) depicts changes intemperatureinthe 20305. – – Q _ – ‘ As per PRECIS simulation the mean annual temperature of Himachal Pradesh is projected to increase from 0.9i0.6°C to 2.6:0.7°C in the 20305. The net increase in temperature ranges from 1.7°C to 2.2°C with respect to the 1970s. Temperatures also showa rise in all seasons. _ ‘ L 3.3.3.2 Precipitation ¢ ‘ ~‘>”‘
U
All the regions of Indian Subcontinent under
consideration show a small increase in annual ~ . . _ _ ‘
precipitation in 20305 with respect to the ~ –
baseline’ that is 19705‘ Figqre: E54 Shows Fig. ES3: (a) Mean Annual Surface Air Temperature Climatology
the summer I‘flOl1S0Ol’1 rainfall climatology simulated by three PRECIS runs compared with the observed
Simulated by the three PRECIS Simujations climatology [upper left panel] for baseline period (1961-1990). (b)
. . P’ dh ‘hA lSfA’T ‘hZ030
Compared Wlth the observed Cllmatology “j-:jep;e70;-angesint e nnua urace 1r emperaturemt e s
STATE STRATEGY 8: ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 52

[upper left panel) for the baseline period. Figure: ES4 (b) shows projected changes in summer
monsoon precipitation in the 2030s with respectto the 19705.
As per PRECIS simulation the annual rainfall in the Himachal region is likely to vary between
126812252 and 160411752 mm in 20305. The projected precipitation is likely to increase by 5% to
13%in2030swithrespectto1970s.
3.3.3.3 Extreme Temperatures
Further, analysis of the model indicates that both the daily extremes in surface air temperature, that
is, daily maximum and daily minimum may intensify in 2030s. The spatial pattern ofthe change in the
lowest daily minimum and highest maximum temperature suggests a warming of 1°C to 4°Ctowards
the 2030s. The warming in night temperatures is more over the southern peninsular region and the
Central and Northern India, whereas daytime warming is more in Central and Northern India.
As per PRECIS simulation in our region,
minimum temperatures are projected to
increase by 1°C to 4-.5°C, and the maximum 0
temperatures may increase by 0.5°C to ‘
2.5°c. ff -1’
.. .
\ | ‘ ‘\
3.3.3.4 Extreme Precipitation
Extreme precipitation can be defined in
terms of number of rainy days if it exceeds
the currently observed average number of
rainy days in a year (exceeding 2.5mm] as
well as the volume of rainfall in a day if it ‘ I
exceeds a particular threshold. Currently, .
the frequency of rainy days is more in East
and North-Eastern India and less over
Western India. Projections for the 20305,
however, indicate that the frequency of
rainy days is likely to decrease in most parts
of the country. Presently, the intensity of a
rainy day is more along the western coast,
especially in the Western Ghats, and North-
East India. The intensity of rainy days
increases in a more warming scenario.
of 0’
‘ 1
Q” “_ U
?”f ‘I
V U
. I – Q X I Q – – 7 tf
As per PRECIS simulation the number of Y’ ‘ – ‘
rainy days in our region may increase by
Fig. ES4: (a] Summer Monsoon Rainfall Climatology simulated by the
5-10 days on an average in the 20305. The
rainy days will increase by more than 15
days in the north-western part of the State.
The intensity of rainfall is likely to increase
by 1—2mm/ day.
three PRECIS simulations compared with the observed climatology
[upper left panel] for the baseline period [1961~1990]. (b) Projected
changes in summermonsoon precipitation in the2030s w.r.t. 1970s.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 53

3.4 Conclusions
Therefore, it is clear from PRECIS simulations that Himachal Pradesh is likely to experience the
climate variations in following manner:
3.4.1 Temperature Variations
– The annual temperatures are set to rise.
– The rise in temperature with respect to1970s shows a range between 1.7°C to 2.2°C.
– Temperatures also show an increase in all seasons.
3.4.2 Rainfall Variations
– The mean annual rainfall likely to vary between 1268:2252 and 1604:1752 mm in
Himachal Pradesh.
– The rate of increase is more in north western parts of the State i.e. areas of district
Kangra, Chamba, Kullu, Una are likely to receive rainfall with increased intensity.
– The number ofrainy days is projected to increase in Himachal Pradesh with decrease in
average intensity.An increase in rainfall in the pre-monsoon and post monsoon months
with increase in number ofstorms in Himachal Pradesh.
3.4.3 Extreme Events
– Change in rainfall patterns with increased variability in future will have some regions
(south eastern parts) experiencing less rainfall. Drought like conditions may prevail in
given projections.
– Projected increase in temperature, rainfall, rainfall variations, and intensities in the
State may lead to accelerated summer flows leading to situations like floods/ flash
floods in North-Western parts.
The changes in extreme events of rainfall and temperature will have direct or indirect bearings on
different sectors of economy with changes in hydrological response of the basins including impacts
on glaciers. The land use changes are expected with impact on development trends.
The following sectors will primarily be affected adversely in projected scenarios:
Directly- Agriculture, Water Resources, Biodiversity, Forests.
Indirectly- Livelihoods, Tourism, Hydropower, Health.
Acti on
Re qui red
Climate Current Projecte d Impact Uncertainty Gap
Variable Trend Trend
Temperature Increase Increase Both Direct and High level of Database Research
Rainfall Decrease
Frequency of Decrease
Rainfall
Intensity of Low
Rainfall
Slight
Increase
Increase
Decrease
Indirect
[-ve & +ve)
Both Direct and
Indirect
[-ve & +ve]
Direct
[-ve & +ve)
D irect (-v e)
Confidence
High level of
Confidence
Low level of
Confidence
Low level of
Confidence
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012
Databas e
Databas e
Databas e
Adaptatio n
Mitigation
Research
Adaptatio n
Research
Adaptatio n
Mitigation
Adaptatio n
Mitigation

The IPCC scenarios provide a mechanism to assess the potential impacts on climate change. Global emission scenarios were
first developed by the IPCC in 1992 and were used in globalgeneral circulation models to provide estimatesfor thefull suite of
greenhouse gases and the potential impacts on climate change. Since then, there has been greater understanding ofpossible
futuregreenhousegas emissions and climate change as well as considerable improvements in thegeneral circulation models.
The IPCC, therefore, developed a new set ofemissions scenarios, published in the IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios
(IPCC SRES November 2000). These scenarios provided input into the Third and Fourth Assessment Reports and were the
basisfor evaluating climatic and environmental consequences ofdifferent levels offuture greenhouse gas emissions andfor
assessing alternative mitigation and adaptation strategies. These scenarios refer to the predictions made for future
conditions mainly related to precipitation, sea level rise and temperature changes based on ‘story lines’ of the alternate
greenhouse gas emissions. There arefour storylines (A1, A2, B1 and B2) identifying alternate states offuture economic and
technological development that takesplace over the nextfew decades as sum marized infollowing Table:
IPCC SRES Scenarios
A1 AZ
World: Market Oriented World: Divided World
Economy: Rapid economic growth. Economy: Regionally oriented, lowest per capita income.
Population: Peals in Z050 and then gradually declines Population: Continuouslyincreasing population.
Governance: A Convergent world-income and way of life Governance: independently operating self-reliant nations.
coverage between regions Extensive social and cultural Technology: Slower and more fragmented.
interactions worldwide.
Technology: There are three subsets to theA1 Family
A1F1-fossil-fules intensive.
A1B: balanced on all energy sources
A1T: non-fossil energy sources.
B1 B2
World: Convergent World: Local Solutions
Economy: Service and Information based, lower growth then Economy: Intermediate levelsofeconomic development.
A1. Population: Continuously increasing population, but at
Population: Same as A1. slower rate than in A2.
Govemance: Global solutions to economic, social and Governance: Local solutions to economic, social and
environmental stability. environmental stability.
Technology: Clean and resource efficient technologies. Technology: More rapid A2, less iapid more diverse A1/B1.
Source: IPCC 4″‘ Assessment RQPOIT [2007]
Climate models are mathematic models used to simulate the behaviour ofclimate system. They incorporate information
regarding climate processes, currentclimate variability and the response ofthe climate to the human-induced drivers. These
models rangefrom simple one dimensional models to complex three dimensional coupled models. The latter, known as Global
Circulation Models (GCM), incorporate oceanic and atmospheric physics and dynamics and represent thegeneral circulation
ofthe planetary atmosphere or ocean. The GCMs are usually run at very course grid (about3° x 3”] resolution whereas the
processes that are ofinterestfor studies such as this one, such as precipitation, are highly influenced by the localfeatures
namely orography and land use. These local characteristics are not properly represented at the coarse scale of GCM and
contribute to prediction errors on the impact ofclimate change at the sub-grid scale. Therefore, these GCMs are strengthened
with the incorporation of local factors and downscaled, in general with a grid resolution ofabout 0.5”x 0.5″or less. The
downscaling can be of dynamic or statistical type. These models are referred to as Regional Climate Models (RCM) and
improve the quality ofclimatic predictionforspecific localareas.
A RCM is a model ofthe atmosphere and landsurface which has high horizontal resolution and consequently covers a limited
area ofthe earth’s surface. A RCM cannot exist without a ‘parent’ GCM to provide the necessary inputs. The RCMs provide an
opportunity to dynamically downscaleglobal model simulations to superimpose the regional detail ofspecified region. RCM
provide climate information with useful local detail including realistic extreme events and also they simulate current climate
more realistically.
A Regional Climate Model:
– ls comprehensive physical high resolution (~50km) climate model.
‘ Coversalimited area oftheglobe
~ Includes the atmosphere and landsurface components ofthe climate system
‘ Contains representations of the key processes within the climate system (e.g., cloud, radiation, rainfall, soil
hydrology]
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 55

Advantages ofRegional Climate Models include
– highly resolved information
– physically based character
– many variables
– better represen tation ofthe mesocale andweather extremes than in GCMs.
Disadvantages ofRegional Climate Modelsinclude
– computationalexpensiveness, particularlyforlong runs
– lack oftwo waynesting (feedback with theforcing GCM input)
– dependence on usually biased inputsfrom theforcing GCM
– errors in the GCMjields thatcould resultin errors in the regional climate scenarios
– availability of fewerscenarios.
Providing Regional Climatesfor lmpactStudies (PRECISJ is an atmospheric and landsurface model oflimited area and high
resolution which is locatable over any part of the globe. Dynamical flow, the atmospheric sulphur cycle, clouds and
precipitation, radiative processes, the landsurface and the deep soil are all described and lateral boundary conditions (LBCs)
are required at the limits ofthe model’s domain. lnformationfrom every aspect may be diagnosedfrom within the model
(Noguer et al., 1998). PRECIS can be applied easily to any area oftheglobe to generate detailed climate change predictions
and is usedfor vulnerability andadaptation studies andclimate research.
Regional Climate Scenarios for India Using PRECIS
PRECIS is the Hadley Centre portable regional climate model, developed to run on a PC with a grid resolution of0.44°x 0.44“.
High-resolution limited area model is driven at its lateral and sea-surface boundaries by output from global coupled
atmosphere-ocean (HadCM3) and global atmospheric (HadAM3) general circulation models. PRECIS captures important
regional information on summermonsoon rainfall missing in itsparentGCMsimulations.
Noguer M, jones R, Murphy] (1 998] Sources ofsystematic errors in the climatology ofa regional climate model over Europe.
Clim Dyn 14:691—712
PRECISAIB, which is a midpath scenario, afuture world ofvery rapid economicgrowth,globalpopulation thatpeaks in mid-
century and declines thereafter, and rapid introduction of new and more eflicient technologies, with the development
balanced across energysources
Indian RCM PREClShas been configuredfora domain extendingfrom about1.5°N to 38°N and56°E to 103°E.lPCCSRESA1B
Scenario10— Q14 Qump [Quantijj/ing Uncertainty in Model Predictions) for the time slices ofpresent (1961-1990), mid
centur)/(2021-2050) andendcentur)/(2071 -2100] has been madeavailable byllTM Pune.
Simulationsfrom a seventeen-member perturbed physics ensemble (PPE) produced using HadCM3 under the Quantifying
Uncertainty in Model Predictions (QUMP) project of Hadley Centre Met Office, UK have been used as LBCs for 138 year
simulations ofthe regional climate model PRECIS. The QUMP sim ulations comprise 1 7 versions ofthefulbr coupled version of
HadCM3, one with thestandard parametersetting and 1 6 versions in which 29 ofthe atmosphere componentparameters are
sim ultaneously perturbed [ Collins et al,, 2006).
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 56

3.5 Impacts on Key Sectors in Himachal Pradesh & Projections
As explained above in detail on the basis ofthe analysis of available data base it is quite clear that in
the State climate variables are showing changes in trends:
– Change in trend of rainfall.
~ Change in trend ofsnowfall.
– Change (shift) in cropping pattern and vegetation species.
~ Change (shift) in apple contour.
These trends which have been established on scientific data base are also supported by concerns
expressed by local stakeholders such as:
~ Some of common birds, butterflies and insects have disappeared.
– Vegetation species and crops have changed and become extinct.
~ Decline in normal winter precipitation.
– Natural water sources have started drying up.
– Increase in incidences of diseases, pests etc.
~ Change in setting of seasons.
As per the projections explained above Himachal Pradesh is highly vulnerable to climate change.
Himachal Pradesh has a high reliance on agriculture which has a direct bearing from climate
variations. Climate change also poses additional challenges as higher temperatures increase the need
for water, irrigation and the risk of warm stress on crops. Changing weather patterns and rising
temperatures will leave the farmers ofthe State vulnerable to crop losses on one hand and excessive
precipitation also destroy the crops on other hand. Climate change will also negatively affect the
water resources with increased water scarcity in hill stations. The increase in water demands will
increase the vulnerability in the State. The sectorwise analysis ofprojections is as under:
3.5.1 Agriculture: With increasing temperatures, it is anticipated that there may be an all-round
decrease in horticultural- agricultural .
production in the region in long-term, and the _ I
line of production may shift to higher altitudes. . ‘ ‘ O
Apple production in the Himachal Pradesh ‘U . . ‘ 0
region has decreased between 1982 and 2005 as . ‘ ‘ > \ , \.‘ 0 ‘
the increase in maximum temperature has led to . ‘ >4 . 9 ° – ~
a reduction in total chilling hours in the region-a I ‘ .
decline ofmore than 9.1 units per year in last 23 I I .
years has taken place (Fig. 29). Temperature 0
Humidity Index (THl] is projected to rise in ‘
many parts of State during March—September //,’ ,’//
with a maximum rise during April—]uly in 2030s
with respect to 19705 will lead to discomfort of “‘
the livestock productivity and therefore will
have negative impact on livestock productivity Fig. 29: Trend ofApple Production in Himachal Pradesh
between 1980 and 2005.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 57

3.5.2 Forests, Natural Eco-systems & Biodiversity: It has been projected that the forest vegetation
type of the four eco-sensitive regions are vulnerable to projected climate change in the short term,
that is, in 2030s, even under a
moderate climate change scenario
[A1B). The impacts vary from
region to region. For Himachal
Pradesh, of the 98 IBIS grids
covering this region, 56% of the
grids are projected to undergo
change in 20305 shows a high
degree of vulnerability of forests
in the State. The dense forest line
is expected to undergo more
changes. The Net Primary
Productivity (NPP) is projected to
increase in the region by about
57% on an averageby2030s.
3.5.3 Water: The water resources
in this analysis have been assessed
in terms of water yield in the
various river basins that are part of our region. The water yield is the total surface runoff, which is
usually a function of precipitation, its distribution, evapo-transpiration (ET) and soil characteristics.
As per PRICIS region-specific projections for 20305, the water yield in Himachal Pradesh, mainly
covered by major rivers, is likely to increase by 5%—20% in most of the areas, with some areas
showing an increase ofup to 50% with respectto 1970s. The impact ofincrease in precipitation in this
region has been reflected in an almost similar pattern ofincrease in the ET. Increase in the wateryield
is more for those areas that have experienced a low increase in ET.
3.5.4 Health: A qualitative assessment of PRESIS indicates that morbidity and mortality of the
population in the regions under focus are likely to increase with warming temperatures and variable
precipitation as they have direct as well as indirect effects. Direct effects can manifest as heat stress
and indirect effects can be in terms of vector borne diseases, water borne diseases and malnutrition
etc. A quantitative assessment has been carried out for determining the transmission of malaria in
20305. The transmission windows have been determined in terms of (a) temperature as well as (b)
temperature and relative humidity requirements for transmission. It has been concluded that the
projections based on Temperature (T) and Relative Humidity (RH) do not match with the
observations made in the Himalayan region, and other regions, thereby indicating that even if the
required humidity is not existing in the atmosphere, the mosquito vectors seek micro niche for their
resting to get the required RH for survival. In Himachal Pradesh which is nestled in the North-Western
Himalayas, projections of malaria transmission windows for 2030s, based on temperature, reveal
introduction of new foci and an increase in opening of more transmission months in different districts
ofthe State.
3.5.5 Frequency of Droughts: The percentage change in the spatial distribution of Soil Moisture
Deficit Index (SMDI) between 1970s and 20305 has been used for defining the Drought Index. The
weeks when the soil moisture deficit may start, drought development (Drought Index value between
0 and -1) as well as the areas which may fall under moderate to extreme drought conditions (Drought
STATE STRATEGY8: ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH ~ Z012 58

Index value between -1 and -4) has been assessed. There is an increase in the drought like situations
for those areas of various regions that have either projected decrease in precipitation or have
enhanced level of evapo-transpiration in the 20305. Similarly, the weeks belonging to moderate soil
moisture stress, show an increase in severity of drought from baseline to the mid-century scenario,
which is self-evident. It is very evident from the depiction that the moderate to extreme drought
severity has been pronounced for the State, where the increase is more than 20% in many areas
despite the overall increase in precipitation.
3.5.6 Floods: Possible floods have been projected using the daily out flow discharge in each sub—basin
as generated by the SWAT model, ascertaining the change in magnitude of flood peaks above 99″‘
percentile flow in 1970s and in 2030s. The change in peak discharge equal to or exceeding at 1%
frequencyin 1970s and 2030s for various regions indicates that the flooding would vary from 10% to
over 30% of the existing magnitudes in most of the regions. This has a very severe implication for
existing infrastructure such as dams, bridges, roads, etc., in the areas and will require appropriate
adaptation measures to be taken up.
From the analysis one can say that impact on agriculture-horticulture production will be visible in the
form of change in cropping pattern and the crop productivity can be projected to decrease even at 1-
2°C rise in temperature. Whereas Himachal Pradesh is likely to experience 1.7°C to 2.2°C warming:
– Northern parts ofthe State at higher altitudes can witness most shifts.
— Agriculture may benefit from the increase length ofgrowing period initially but would
get adversely affected later on.
— Apple production maybe affected with shift in the long term.
— Some regions may experience large reduction in yields [up to 50% by 2020).
Impact ofclimate change on water resources will definitely be manifested in the State, further; water
stress will increase with changes in rainfall patterns and the fastmelting ofHimalayan glaciers.
– The rainfall is projected to increase during ]une to September.
– Increased occurrence of floods and increased flow in rivers and dams, increased
instances ofsoil erosion and silt load.
– Increase in water stress for rain-fed crops due to warming [1.7°C to 2.2°C)
– Glaciers retreat may affect the discharge dependability of all rivers.
Impacts ofClimate Change on the forests ofState are highly uneven due to climate variance:
– The forests of the State are highly vulnerable especially the high altitude dense forests.
– Forest types shifts may occur in >80% offorested grids [2080 scenarios).
– The occurrence offorest fire mayincrease.
– The forest productivity may increase initially but there would certainly be long term
adverse impacts.
Therefore, the water crisis, droughts and floods, agriculture-horticulture security issues, agriculture,
land fertility, health impacts especially vector borne diseases, vulnerable forests, deforestation and
loss ofbiodiversity, pollution ofair, water and soil will have the most impact on the State and so on the
poor and vulnerable groups and sections ofthe society. There is a need for further analysis, capacity
enhancement to cope up with the likely climate change impacts in Himachal Pradesh and need for
adaptation and mitigation measures. The assessment of vulnerable groups can only be seen as
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 59

composite of the regional and local vulnerability w.r.t. climatic variables. Through this report the
vulnerability assessment has been carried out at Block level so as to ascertain the exposure,
sensitivityofthe regions.
Forests in Himachal Pradesh are an important ecological and natural resource and have been aptly
termed as “Green Pearl” in the Himalaya. About 26% ofthe State’s geographical area is the repository
of 3,295 species out of which 95% are endemic to the state and 5% (150) species are exotic, most of
the people in rural areas in the State depend directly or indirectly on forests for their livelihood and
use significant quantity of forest goods and services like non-wood forest products, eco-tourism,
fodder, timber etc.

: v V ¢_¢~Q.‘-
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Avalanché ‘“ ‘ – k l
STATE smvrecv & ACTION PLAN ow cumms cnmcs HIMACHAL PRADESH a 2012 so

Assessment of Climate Change Vulnerability: Himachal Pradesh 4-
Himachal Pradesh has a large repository ofnatural resources. It is the most important source ofclean
water for the people of Northern India. Snow and glacier melt during the summer season provide
large inflows to five major river basins and their tributaries the crucial source ofwater supply for the
people inhabiting in these basins. The availability of abundant water resources, fertile soil and
suitable climate has led to the development of a highly agricultural based society in this region. In
view of significance of agricultural sector and water resources for the State, its sensitivity to the
vagaries climate change makes it imperative for the planners and scientists to strategize as in case of
any changes in the pattern of climate in the form of shift in the time period, frequency or magnitude,
there can be substantial impacts on the overall economy ofthe State.
Himachal Pradesh faces a number of non—climatic and climatic stressors due to several reasons
includingthe rapid growth in industrialization, hydro-power development, increasing tourism based
activities etc. There has been substantial deforestation and change in the land use. The increasing
population of various towns has put a stress on water resources besides on its quality. Inadequate
infrastructure such as sewage treatment plants, municipal solid waste management sites is adding to
the stress in many ways. impounding and diversion ofwater systems for development ofhydropower
is resulting in long term impacts on the ecosystems.
The widespread range of climatological and geographical features makes the State more unique.
Therefore, any small alteration in the natural resources ofthe State has its implication on the society
and the ecosystem as a whole.
Climate change projection scenarios suggest an increase in temperature, changing precipitation
trends resulting in increased river water flows in the short term due to fast melting of snow and
glaciers followed by substantial decrease in river flows in the long run.
From the above discussions, it is imperative to understand the current levels of risks from climate
variability and changes, sensitiveness of resources and existing capacity so as to ensure compatible
solutions for mitigating the likely impacts. Frameworks containing various indicators have been used
to measure the vulnerability broadly based on its definition which takes it as a function ofthree broad
factors viz. exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. The current assessment at the Block* level is
mainly on the secondary information in the form of reliable database gathered from different
Government departments/sources.
* The selection 0fBlack as unitfor micro level assessment has been driven from the availability ofrequired data base at different levels.
Otherwise also the geographical distribution facilitated the selection ofthe Block as a unitfor assessment.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 61

4.1 Climate Change Vulnerability- Literature Review
Various factors show that Himachal Pradesh possesses a high degree of vulnerability to climatic
variations, which will affect millions ofpoor rural people. The majority ofthe estimated 69% poor
rural people in region are subsistence farmers tilling mainly the rain-fed lands. Impacts of such
disasters range from hunger and susceptibility to disease, to loss of income and human livelihoods.
Climate change in fact is emerging as the pre-eminent development issue in the entire Indian
Himalayan region. Some of the identified
key aspects of Himachal Pradesh have
been elaborated using parameters such
as adaptive capacity, exposure and
sensitivity that contribute to its net
vulnerability to climate change in the
State.
From global level assessments of
vulnerability on the basis ofdatabase for
the period 1960-1990 carried out by K.
O’Brien et al. / Global Environmental
Change 14 (2004) 303-313 following
spatial representations of adaptive
capacity, sensitivity and exposure have
beenobserved.
District-level mapping of adaptive
capacity of Himachal Pradesh at global
level measured as a composite of
biophysical, social, and technological
indicators [1960-1990] shows lowest
adaptive capacity for Chamba and Kullu
whereas higher adaptive capacity of
Kangra, Hamirpur, Una, Solan and
Sirmourdistricts[Fig.30].
District-level mapping of Climate
Sensitivity Index (CS1) for India based on
observed climate data [1961-1990] and
based on results from the HadRM2 model
is shown in the Fig. 32 and as per
estimate, sensitivity is lowest for Lahaul
& Spiti and low in Chamba, Shimla, Kullu
and Kinnaur regions[Fig.3 1).
Districts in the country that rank highest
under climate change vulnerability and
globalization vulnerability are
considered to be double exposed
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – Z012 62
>\II\5:|\lll‘rIInh
uqmn
Hqn
Urdu-n
— W-
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.__, _. __
-_….- -; _ .
“,_‘ _; »_/
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Fig. 30: District-level Mapping of Adaptive Capacity at Global
Level in Himachal Pradesh
_-mu–>
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an
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u.~.< an Fig. 31: District-level Mapping of Climate Sensitivity Index [CS1] (depicted with hatching). lt is clarified that doubly exposed districts as shown in the map depicts that districts with high Climate Change Vulnerability may not necessarily be highly vulnerable to globalization. ..,_, sf; \‘ I >\ \ *
-Qtl I ” I
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Fig. 32: District-level Mapping of Climate Sensitivity Index
(CS1) forlndia
-_-4-.-u
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Fig. 33: District-level Mapping ofClimate Change
Vulnerability (Exposure)
\‘\ IL‘: – ..
The districts Una, Hamirpur, Solan,
Bilaspur, Sirmour have been categorized as
highly exposed and vulnerable towards
climate change, whereas, Kullu and Shimla
have medium level of vulnerability [based
on 1960-1990 data base at Global level)
[Fig.33].
The Climate Change Vulnerability has been
measured as a composite of adaptive
capacity and climate sensitivity under
exposure to climate change. District-level
mapping of globalization vulnerability is
measured as a composite of adaptive
capacity and trade sensitivity (for a
representative basket of import-sensitive
crops). Hamirpur district has been
categorized as highly vulnerable with
Kangra and Kullu districts at high and
Solan, Mandi and Shimla districts with
medium level ofvulnerability (Fig. 34].
–.-4″…
~¢.<
. a.
— ,-
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Fig. 34: District-level Mapping of Globalization
Vulnerability
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 63

The results presented in this document demonstrate a method for mapping vulnerability that can be
used to assess climate impacts in the context ofa range ofsocietal changes. As such, it is important to
look into and recognize both the limitations and strengths of the analytical method. As far as the
limitation of this method is concerned, one limitation of the macro-profiles is that mapping
vulnerability at the district level may lead to a false sense of precision. Abrupt differences in
vulnerability across district boundaries might be more realistically represented as fuzzy transitions.
Similarly, differences between farmers and between villages within districts are not captured in the
vulnerability maps, although these differences have been tried to be looked at during the assessment
of data base. The second limitation of this approach is that the uncertainties associated with
regionally downscaled climate scenarios [or scenarios of trade liberalization) are not explicitly
represented in the maps. Incorporation of the uncertainties associated with different climate
scenarios might be addressed through application of a range of different regionally downscaled
models. The third limitation ofthe approach concerns the time scale ofthe analysis, and especially the
fact that our assessment does not capture changes in adaptive capacity over time, but instead holds
the adaptive capacity constant to levels in a particular year. To capture potential changes over time,
the adaptive capacity indicators can further be analyzed using alternative scenarios of future social
and economic conditions.
\

~__s.1 .
STATE STRATEGY 8: ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — Z012 64

4.2 Climate Change Vulnerability- Current & Future Projections
The State with its economy closely tied to its natural-resource-base and climate-sensitive sectors
such as agriculture, water, and forests, today faces a major threat because ofthe projected changes in
climate. Crucial sectors in Himachal Pradesh like agriculture-horticulture, water resources, forests,
hydro power generation, health, urban waste management & sanitation, and rural development are
likely to be affected by climate change. Further, a large population of the State mainly depends on
climate-sensitive sectors like agriculture-horticulture and forests for their livelihood needs. Any
change in these sectors due to climate change will not only going to affect the livelihood prospects in
the agrarian economy ofthe mountain region, butalso impactpeople living in the plains.
It is very important to understand as how and which region is exposed towards climate change, what
is the level of sensitivity of these region, and what is the level of adaptive capacity to absorb the
projected and existing climate change trends. Undoubtedly, the data base is a big constraint to carry
out such an assessment comprehensively at micro level but still whatever and wherever possible the
data has been gathered and collated to demonstrate the current levels ofclimate change vulnerability
ofdifferent districts at the Block level.
VulnerabilityAssessment [VA] provides two important contributions:
~ Identify which system /region/sector/indicators are currently getting affected or are
likely to get affected in the future.
– Understanding why/how various sectors are likely to be vulnerable- whether directly or
indirectly, when interaction between shifts/change and existing stressors is projected.
The idea of this assessment is to prepare an indicative index to map the vulnerability among the
various areas, blocks and districts ofthe State and rankthese districts in terms ofvulnerability so as to
facilitate the process for actions; such as identifying and fixing priority for the vulnerable areas,
components, identification of adaptation interventions and mainstreaming adaptation in policy and
planning processes. Thus, Vulnerability Assessment (VA) is a key tool for informing adaptation
planning and enabling resource managers to make such decisions. A framework has been developed
for undertaking exercise to estimate the extent ofvulnerability through the indexbased approach.
4-.2 . 1 Methodology Adopted for Vulnerability Assessment
According to IPCC ‘Vulnerability’ is a function ofcharacter, magnitude and rate ofvariation ofsystem,
climate to which a system is exposed, its sensitivity, and it’s adaptive capacity. It has also been
indicated that the assessment of vulnerability could also be drawn on a wide range of physical,
biological and social science disciplines, and consequently employed variety of methods and tools
[Sumana Bhattacharva et. al. 20031.
It is widely acceptable in terms ofclimate change that:
Sensitivity- refers to innate characteristics of a system, sector and considers tolerance to changes
which temperature, rain fall, fires etc. alters.
Exposure- refers to extrinsic factors, focusing on the character, magnitude, and rate of change the
system, sector likely to experience.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 65

Adaptive Capacity- addresses the ability of a system, sector to accommodate with impacts with
minimum disturbance.
In otherterms we can say that:
Exposure
– Historic v/s future projected estimated changes.
v Basic climate, draught, hydrologic changes, changes in fire regimes, changes in CO2
concentrations, changes in vegetation, changes in storm/event frequency and intensity.
Sensitivity
~ Hydrology related, fire hazard related, wind.
– Physiological factors, dependence on sensitive habitats, ecological linkages, phenological
changes, population growth rates.
– Degree of specialization, reproductive strategy, interaction with other stressors,
sensitivity ofcomponentspecies, community structure.
– Sensitivity of component species, sensitivity of ecosystem processes to temperature or
precipitation.
Adaptive Capacity
– Ability for a sector to attend change or behavior to synchronize with changing
environmental conditions.
~ Dispersal abilities, evolutionary potential, permeability ofland use, landscape,
– Redundancy and response diversity within functional groups.
IPCC Indicators for Assessment of Vulnerability Sensitivity or Adaptive Capacity Category
ProxyVariables:
Sensitivity or Ad apti ve
Capacity Category
Settlement/ Infrastructure
Sensitivity
Food Security
Eoosystem Sensitivity
Human H ealth Sensitivity
WaterResource Sensitivity
Economic Capacity
Human and Civic Resources
Environmental Capacity
Proxy Variables
Population at flood riskfrom SLR, Populaflon without access to clean
water and sanitation
Cereals production/area, Animal protein consumption per capita
% Land Managed, Fertilizer use
Completed fertility, Life expectancy
Renewable supply and inflow, Water use
GDP (market)/ capita, Ginilndex
Dependency Ratio, Literacy
Population Density, SO2/ Area and % Land Managed
S0urce:lPCC, 2001
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 66

In the current analysis, the proxy variables used to determine exposure, sensitivity and adaptive
capacity for the State in different districts at Block level is as per Table-19.
Table-19: Proxy Variables used at Block Level
Component Indicator
Exposure Tem peratu re
Rainfall
Sensitivity Agriculture
Agro-cl im ate Zo ne
Water Res ourc es
Health
Forests
Adaptive
Capacity
Economic Capacity
Education
Environmental Capacity Population Density (persons/ sq. km.)
Physical Capacity
Proxy Variable
Annual Mean Max. Temperature(°C]
Annual Mean Min. Temperature [°C]
Annual Mean Rainfall (mm)
Agriculture Population (%)
Rainfed Farming (%]
Altitude [Mean] (mts).
Irrigated Area (%]
Birth rate, Family Size (%)
Forest Cover [%)
Bio diversity richness [%)
Poverty Rate [%]
Literacy Rate (%]
Road Network [%)
Source
IMD Pun e
Government 0/”HP,
Deptts. 0fEconomics &
Statistics, Agriculture,
Public Works, Forests,
I,P&H, and Census.
Therefore, the basic approach for the micro level vulnerability assessment is broadly based on three
components such as exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity with 1-2 proxy variable/indicators
covering diverse dimensions of climate, population, ecosystem and socio economic conditions. The
method for assessingvulnerability has been opted after reviewingvaried methodologies.
Broadly, the process adopted has three major steps moving from variables to indicators and then to
components and finally to the Vulnerability Index.
~ Selection ofpossible scale, variables, indicators and components for the analysis.
‘ Grouping ofvariables in terms ofindicators and components for calculations
~ Normalization of data by equal weightage system.
– Combining ofvalues under each component.
~ Identify variables as how systems are already impacted.
~ Deriving Vulnerability Index [Exposure- Adaptive Capacity) x Sensitivity.
~ Scaling the values from 0 to 1 to indicate low to high vulnerability.
The steps can be broadly summarized as follows:
Step I Variables- Indicators
– Proxy variables/indicators are selected and quantified.
– Standardization ofvalues; the variables value for an indicator are standardized so that the
mean=0 and range=1. The proxy variable Vn have been estimated using the following
equation
v. = W-v….1/V…-v…..)
Where, Vn is the actual value of nmvariable, within an indicator each variable will have
equal weightage between 0-1.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012
67

VulnerabilityAssessment
Exposure Sensitivity
Potential lmpact Adaptive Capacity
Vulnerability
Step ll lndicator- Components
– The indicators for a component are normalized so that the mean=0 and range=1. The
indicator In have been estimated usingthe following equation
1“= (1-1m.n1/IW-Imm)
– The indicator value for each component Cb is taken by taking the average of all the
indicators Average (In).
Step lll Comp0nent- Vulnerability
– The climate related vulnerability index Vl has been calculated as:
V.= (Cb(Expus\|re] -Cb[MWEcW.m] X Cl:(Sensil|vity]
– V, is thereafter again normalized so that the mean=0 and range=1.
The Vulnerability Index for a particular indicator is typicallybased on a number ofvariables which are
likely to determine the relative vulnerability ofthat indicator towards climate change scenarios.
4.2.2 Spatial Patterns of Vulnerability
The output ofVulnerabi1ity Assessment along with census data has been integrated on a Geographic
Information System [GIS] platform using open source GIS software’s (Quantum GIS and Map
Window] for integration ofthe various layers on a GIS platform.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 68

As has been explained above that the State has been distributed in four different agro climatic zones
viz sub mountain, low hill, sub tropical, mid hill sub humid, high hill temperate wet and high hill
temperate dry. For better comprehension it is essential to understand the distribution district wise.
Following table gives an understanding to various areas falling under different zones, which are
explained ahead with climate variables in terms of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity:
Agro Climate Zone wise description of Different Districts
Elevation
(mtrs.msl)
350 to 650 meters
Agro Climatic Zone
Sub mountain, Low Hill,
Sub Tropical
35% ofthe geographical area and
about 40% of the cultivated area
Mid l-lill Sub Humid 651 meters to 1,80 0 meters
3 2% ofthe total geographical area
andabout 37% ofthe cultivated
area
High Hill Temperate 1,80 1 to 2,200 meters
Wet
about 35% of the geographical areas
and about 2 1% ofthe cultivated
area
High Hill Temperate Above 2,200 meters
my
8% ofthe geographical and 2% of
the total cultivated area
, =‘* _ <:ve~~~.
DistricG/ area
Hamirpu r, Una, Bilaspur,
Parm ofSirmour, Kangra, Solan and Chamba
Parts ofMandi, Solan, Kullu, Chamba, Bilaspur,
Sirmour
Palampur & Kangra tehsils of Kangra Rampur
tehsil of Shimla
Shimla, Kullu, Chamba
Parts ofMandi, Kangra, Chamba
Kinnaur, Lahul & Spiti
Parts ofChamba District
<-A
..7~_
4%“;
STATE STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 69

4.2.2.1 Exposure
The long term meteorological data base on various parameters is available from IMD. The exposure is
determined in terms of climatic variables such as annual mean temperatures, annual mean rainfall
pattern and no of extreme events, rainy days etc. Himachal Pradesh is exposed to a range of climate
conditions and extreme events. In particular, some of the key features of the region’s climate are the
influences of monsoons, the El Nifio-Southern Oscillation, and cyclones on the rainfall in the State.
Most part of the State is adapted to, and thus reliant upon, the annual monsoon occurrence, which
makes it vulnerable if the monsoon fails and rainfall is significantly limited/less. Meanwhile,
variability associated with the El Nifio-Southern Oscillation, and particularly El Nifio events,
contributes to cyclic droughts. Besides, much of area gets affected by tropical disturbances and their
associated high winds, snow, hail storms, and extreme rainfall. These climate challenges are the
permanent features of the Himachal Himalayan region, but that may be significantly altered by
anthropogenic climate change in the decades ahead as well.
‘ \
Fig.35(i): Annual Mean Min. Temperature at Block Level Fig. 35(ii): Annual Mean Max. Temperature at Block Level
STATE STRATEGY8: ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH ~ 2012 70

_\
Z g&
Fig.36: Annual Mean Rainfall at Block Level Fig 37? Climate Change EXPOSUTE at Block Level
Temperature is a critical parameter of climate which strongly influences people, biodiversity and
ecosystems, important driver ofnatural and man managed systems. As perthe analysis, in the last few
decades, the average temperatures have been found to vary from normal ranges for Himachal
Pradesh and yearly variations in average temperature are indicative of this trend. Variability, leading
to higher temperatures shows higher exposure level of the different Blocks in different districts Fig.
35(i-ii].
Precipitation is an important component of the water balance and ecosystem. Normally, rainfall
patterns are dependent on a range of factors such as topography, local climate and wind patterns. ln
Himachal Pradesh, as per analysis of the long term database it is observed that during the past
century, some areas have experienced an average rainfall, some areas have experienced increase in
the rainfall and few areas have faced reduction with variation in frequency and intensity Fig. 36. A
change in the timing of run-off impacts the water availability, which will resultantly impact progress
in developing areas, crops, agriculture, livelihoods and eventually the entire economy. Average
rainfall and change in pattern in different region shows higherlevel of exposure to climate change.
The analysis of results reveals that the low lying areas of Himachal Pradesh are highly exposed to
climate change. The areas falling in Hamirpur, Sirmour, Solan and Una districts are highly exposed
whereas, Kangra, Chamba and Mandi districts are also exposed but comparatively less than the above
districts. Likewise areas falling in and Shimla and Kullu districts are also moderately exposed to
climate change Fig. 37.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – Z012 71

4.2.2.2 Sensitivity
Ecosystem balance profile leads to overall measurement of sensitivity of the region. The sensitivity
component here includes four indictors such as Agriculture-livelihoods, Water resources, Forests and
Health with 1-2 proxy variables of each indicator. Besides being exposed to a variety of climate
hazards, the vulnerability of Himachal Pradesh in the Himalayan region also gets affected by the
sensitivity ofdifferent neighboring States and sectors to these hazards when they occur. For example,
with much of their subsistence and economic growth dependent upon agriculture, the potential for
widespread adverse impacts is enhanced in these areas. Likewise, the existing water resources are
limited in many areas under development, as is subsequently, access to safe drinking water,
sanitation, and irrigation. In case ofdrought or flood, the ability to safely and efficiently manage water
storage, diversion, and delivery would be easily compromised. Settlements and infrastructure in
Himachal Pradesh tend to be more susceptible to the effects ofclimate extremes and are more likely to
be damaged. The analysis shows that low-lying river bed areas, including hydro power projects, are
more sensitive to the effects of water level rise and flood like situations and thus have potentially
more to lose from climate change than the other regions. Statistics indicate that extreme events in the
region are associated with significant financial losses as well as the loss of lives, and as explained
above such disasters in the region has increased in recent decades/years.
There are few regions where forest cover has decreased and less forest cover would thus be more
sensitive and vulnerable to climate change ifthe same trend continues. Land use change has a direct
linkage with climate change. The deforestation, habitat fragmentation, urban expansion and other
developmental modifications have significantly changed the land use patterns. Extensive land use
changes have an impact on livelihoods of people and ecosystems. The areas where agriculture
workers are more would be more sensitive to climate change. Clearing of vegetation leads to
degradation of area and enhances the sensitivity towards climate variability; resultantly the
biodiversity gets impacted adversely. Further, an increase in gross sown area will raise the sensitivity
levels ofthe different areas ofvarious districts. Higher family size or the birth rate would increase the
sensitivity since there will be competition for scarce resources. The analysis depicts different levels of
sensitivity with different trends of indicators.
4t 4t
K7*<ufllI“($l\I!1I\\\I .~,- -~.» \\4v\!udI>7-nnuvl\!
Fig. 38[i]: Percentage Agriculture Population at Block Level Fig. 38[ii]: Percentage Rain-fed Agriculture at Block Level
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 72

‘ – 0
Fig. 38[m]: Percentage Irrigated Area at Block Level Fig. 38(iv]: Altitude Distribution at Block Level
Q.
Fig. 38[v): Forest Cover at Block level [Percentage of District) Fig. 38[vi): Family Size at Block Level
STATE STRATEGY&ACTl0N PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH ~ Z012

‘.; __
I .
Fig. 38[vii): Percentage Biological Diversity Richness at Block Fig. 38[vm): Climate Change Sensitivity at Block Level
level
The results depicts that District Chamba, Lahul & Spiti, Kinnaur, Kullu and some areas of Shimla,
Sirmour are highly sensitive towards climate change and Hamirpur, Mandi, Solan Una, and Kangra
districts are moderatelysensitive to climate change Fig. 38[i-vm).
~ v
~._‘.»»
I
STATE STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH ‘ 2012 74

4.2.2.3 Adaptive Capacity
The socio economic conditions
give measures on adaptive
capacity which contain economic
capacity, poverty rate and, roads
connectivity, literacy rate,
environment management
infrastructure with population
density, as proxy variables Fig.
39[i-iv]. Adaptive capacity is the
ability or potential of a system to
respond successfully to climate
variability and change, and
includes adjustments in both
behaviour and in resources and
technologies. The presence of
adaptive capacity has been shown
to be a necessary condition for the
design and implementation of
effective adaptation strategies so
as to reduce the likelihood and the
magnitude of harmful outcomes
resulting from climate change
[Brooks and Adger, 2005). Adaptive
capacity also enables sectors and
institutions to take advantage of
opportunities or benefits from
climate change, such as a longer
growingseason.
From analysis of database it is
evident that the areas which have
high percentage of poverty are
more exposed shows low
economic capacity and, therefore,
has less adaptive capacity and
more vulnerability. Higher literacy
rate, road network shows higher
adaptive capacity. More is the
population, lesser the adaptive
capacityin the region.
Fig. 39(i): Economic Capacity at Block Level
7
Hauutnnhrvoty
J 530
Fig. 39[ii): Environmental Capacity at Block Level
STATE STRATEGY8: ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH ~ Z012

~
. 4 ‘
C
U i K ‘
Fig.3‘) (m): Physical Capacity at Block Level Fig. 39(iv]: Human Capacity at Block Level
The analysis of the index of vulnerability at the Block level of all districts of State has been calculated
using index based approach which primarily is an outcome-based vulnerability measurement.
‘ ~
. Q-00 Qoi 0
Fig.4-0: Adaptive Capacity at Block Level Fig.41: Climate Change Vulnerability at Block level
STATE STRATEGY &ACTlON PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – Z012 76

From the analysis it is observed that the adaptive capacity of Lahaul & Spiti, Kinnaur, some areas of
Kangra, Shimla and Mandi districts is better. The adaptive capacity ofDistrict Chamba, Hamirpur, Una,
Solan and Sirmour is poor to cope with the impacts ofclimate change.
When combined together all the three components i.e. Exposure, Sensitivity and Adaptive Capacity,
the results indicates that Hamirpur, Kangra, Una, Solan, Bilaspur, Sirmour districts are highly
vulnerable to climate change whereas, the districts Mandi, Shimla, Kullu, Chamba are moderately
vulnerable.
The Vulnerability Index, measured here, tries to capture a more comprehensive scale ofvulnerability
to give composite Vulnerability Index [Table-20]. It has been calculated byincluding many indicators
that serve as proxies to look at different aspects of vulnerability. In other words, we assume that
vulnerability can arise out of a variety of factors. In particular, we look at different sources of
vulnerability; broadly this includes the climatic factors, demographic factors, agricultural factors and
occupational factors etc.
4.2.2.4 Economic Impacts
In Himachal Pradesh climate change is projected to have likely negative effects on its sustainable
development, as it compounds the pressures on natural resources and the environment associated
with rapid urbanization, industrialization and economic growth. The net effect of climate change on
local and regional economies is projected to be largely negative. Loss of agricultural-horticultural
revenue and additional costs for managing water resources, energy, and disease and other health
risks will be a drag on economic activity. Given long term, sustainable economic development and
growth in per capita wealth, such economic impacts may comprise a declining portion of total
economic welfare, and State’s capacity to effectively manage climate risk is likely to rise more in
future.
Table-20: Vulnerability Index of Himachal Pradesh [Districts at Block Level)
Sr. No. Districts Blocks Components Vulnerability
Exposure Sensifivity Adaptive lndex
Capacity
\D@\lO\U1IPUil\?P-I
Bilaspur Bilaspur Sa dar
Ghuma rwin
landhutta
Chamba Pangi
Chamba
Salooni
Bha rmour
Tissa
Bha fiyat
10 Mehla
11 Hamirpur Bhorani
12 Bijhri
13 Hamirpur
14 Nadaun
15 Taunidevi
16 Suianpur
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012
0.68
0.66
0.67
0.37
0.65
0.60
0.41
0.60
0.64
0.64
0.81
0.76
0.83
0.82
0.73
0.73
0.26
0.24
0.24
0.38
0.25
0.26
0.32
0.26
0.31
0.27
0.22
0.20
0.19
0.19
0.20
0.20
0.68
0.71
0.65
0.51
0.60
0.65
0.45
0.51
0.59
0.50
0.76
0.61
0.72
0.70
0.65
0.61
0.56
0.49
0.61
0.18
0.65
0.48
0.48
0.73
0.69
0.86
0.64
0.78
0.72
0.73
0.69
0.75

17 Kangra
18 Kangra
Dharamsala
19 Bhawarna
20 Panchrukhi
2 1 Nurpur
22 Nagrota Bagwan
23 Rait
24 Fatehpur
25 lndora
26 Pragpur
27 Lambagaon
28 Behdu Mahaclev
29 Dehra
30 Nagrota Surian
3 1 Baiinath
32 Kinnaur Pooh
33 Kalpa
34 Nichar
35 Kullu Nagar
36 Baniar
37 Nirmand
38 Kullu
39 Ani
40 Lahul Spiti Lahul
41 Spiti
42 Mandi
43 Sundernagar
44 Sadar
45 Balh
46 Chauntra
47 Darang
Dharampur
48 Karsog
49 Chachiyut
50 Seraj
51 Gopalpur
52 Shimla Chopal
53 Basantpur
54 Rohroo
55 Nankhari
56 Chirgaon
57 Rampur
58 Theog
59 Ma shobra
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012
0.81
0.69
0.73
0.70
0.69
0.68
0.69
0.68
0.70
0.69
0.69
0.68
0.68
0.69
0.71
0.36
0.40
0.40
0.54
0.51
0.50
0.58
0.55
0.32
0.34
0.65
0.66
0.67
0.62
0.68
0.63
0.57
0.57
0.55
0.63
0.60
0.65
0.61
0.54
0.49
0.61
0.55
0.56
0.29
0.28
0.28
0.28
0.20
0.30
0.25
0.19
0.21
0.20
0.19
0.27
0.19
0.18
0.19
0.39
0.42
0.32
0.29
0.31
0.26
0.27
0.28
0.50
0.45
0.22
0.23
0.22
0.23
0.26
0.26
0.27
0.28
0.27
0.24
0.26
0.25
0.23
0.24
0.28
0.22
0.24
0.26
0.67
0.77
0.70
0.65
0.61
0.65
0.74
0.58
0.61
0.62
0.61
0.58
0.61
0.63
0.66
0.44
0.45
0.43
0.51
0.47
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.50
0.67
0.68
0.65
0.63
0.62
0.51
0.58
0.59
0.52
0.65
0.48
0.66
0.52
0.60
0.56
0.51
0.61
0.67
0.88
0.43
0.62
0.67
0.69
0.63
0.48
0.70
0.70
0.67
0.68
0.76
0.67
0.65
0.64
0.34
0.41
0.51
0.64
0.67
0.60
0.75
0.70
0.00
0.07
0.54
0.53
0.61
0.57
0.67
0.79
0.55
0.53
0.63
0.55
0.79
0.55
0.71
0.48
0.43
0.74
0.47
0.37

62 Sirmour Nahan
63 Pachad
64 Raj garh
65 Sangrah
66 Paonta Sahib
67 Shilai
68 Solan Solan
69 Dharampur
70 Kandagh at
71 Nalagarh
72 Kunihar
73 Una Una
74 Haroli
75 Ga gret
76 Amb
77 Bangana
0.72
0.69
0.70
0.68
0.78
0.67
0.69
0.72
0.71
0.73
0.67
0.70
0.69
0.73
0.71
0.67
0.23
0.27
0.27
0.29
0.25
0.25
0.28
0.26
0.26
0.22
0.24
0.26
0.26
0.23
0.21
0.20
0.56
0.51
0.53
0.48
0.58
0.54
0.68
0.68
0.61
0.64
0.59
0.69
0.63
0.58
0.63
0.57
0.83
0.91
0.89
0.99
0.94
0.80
0.60
0.63
0.76
0.71
0.71
0.59
0.67
0.81
0.70
0.72
Higher thevalue, high is the vulnerability
4.3 Analysis of Results
The vulnerability assessment for this report has been carried out for a total of77 blocks of 12 districts
ofthe State (Table-20) The analysis oflarge data sets for the variables ofdifferent indicators for all
these blocks is as under:
4.3.1 Sectoral Analysis w.r.t. Climate Change Vulnerability
The climate change has direct bearing mainly on agriculture-horticulture, water resources, forests &
biodiversity. Like the rest of the northwest region of India and other Himalayan regions, Himachal
Pradesh is extremely vulnerable to climate change. Himachal Pradesh has a high reliance on
agriculture and horticulture. Climate change poses a huge challenge as rising temperatures, raises the
need for irrigation and the risk ofheat stress or crop failure. Shift in weather patterns, erratic rainfall,
rising temperatures leave farmers vulnerable to crop losses.
The sectoral analysis ofvulnerabilityamongst these sectors is as follows:
4.3.1.1 Agriculture- Horticulture
In Himachal Pradesh, agriculture and horticulture activities have high dependency on precipitation
and temperature. lt has direct impact on crop production and food security. From the above analysis,
it is observed that with the rise in temperature, crop productivity will slightly increase in tropical
regions but will decrease in sub tropical areas. The agricultural families are highly exposed in
changing climate scenarios since rainfed dependency is high. ln the State, there will be an impact on
crop performance in sub tropical region. Based on ICAR recent findings, the apple belt is shifting
upwards due to rise in temperature and decrease in chilling period. Due to this reason, the apple area
between 1500-1800 msl is decreasing and increasingbetween 2200-3000 ms].
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 79

As per study carried out by Verma et. al. (2009), in higher altitudes of Shimla Districts, the farmers
have already started shifting from high chilling requirement crops to less chilling requirement crops
such as kiwi, pomegranate and vegetables etc.
Another study carried out by IHBT observed that the quality oftea has been adversely affected due to
less rainfall in Palampur area as it has affected the accumulation ofa compound responsible for giving
colour and briskness to the tea. Over all one can say that the agriculture-horticulture sector is
vulnerable and require adaptive and mitigative steps.
4.3.1.2 Water Resources
The snow depository and glaciers support water supply to the major rivers and their tributaries. The
analysis shows change in patterns of rain fall in different areas differently. There is drought like
conditions in almost every or alternate years. The areas located in Kangra, Bilaspur, Hamirpur
districts have received rainfall below the normal though Kangra receives maximum rainfall in the
State. The change in rainfall will impact most the natural springs of rural and semi urban habitations
where there is no glaciated or wetlands in uplands. Water conservation, distribution, recharging and
storage are required to be developed in such areas.
Over the period, the water requirement has gone up where as water availability has declined. The
situation in summer months is even worse. The irrigated area is very less in comparison to the
potential available. The major source ofwater supply in the State is surface water, which is augmented
by rainfall, snow and glaciers and in case ofany change in the pattern oftemperature and rainfall; the
water supply system will get badlyaffected.
The Asian Development Bank (ADB, 2010) has carried out a detailed analysis ofimpacts of climate
change on water eco-system and has suggested a strategic framework forthe State.
4-.3 . 1.3 Forest & Biodiversity
About 26.37% area ofthe State’s geographical area having spread of 14,679 sq. kms. is covered with
forests. The State is having unique forest and diverse habitat with large altitudinal variations. The
State is a repository of about 3,295 species ofplants (7.32% oftotal of Country) and 5,721 species of
animals (7.4 % of Country total]. Three altitudinal strata of the State i.e. Shiwalik, Middle and
Himdaris support about 35 types of forests which vary from dry scrubs forest to alpine pastures. Any
change in temperature or rainfall pattern will adversely impact the entire ecosystem. The
consequences of change in climate will cause change in distribution of floral species, forest areas,
forest productivity, shift in tree line, mortality during transient, threatened species will be highly
exposed.
From the analysis, it is observed that the forests of High Hill Temperate Wet zone will be highly
vulnerable. Species composition may change. With higher temperatures, the production of species
such as deodar and oak may decline. Decline in snow fall may result in greater mortality of species.
Change in climate conditions in sub tropical regions will favour expansion ofcertain species upwards.
As per study carried out by Rana et. al. (2009), states that many temperate species such as Lilium
polyphyclum, Sorbus, Lanata, Swertia chirayita, Androsco, Aconitum heterophyllum which were
frequently found in Shimla (Collet, 1902) are no longer observed in the localities as mentioned by
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 80

him. As per data Pinus longifolia which was 100 years ago was recorded at 1800 mtrs. but is now it is
recorded above 2200 mtrs altitude. Similarly, Woodfordia fructifose earlier located at 1500 mtrs has
now shifted to 2000 mtrs altitude. Over all the tree line is highly vulnerable which will resultantly
affects the habitat of many other species from Mid Hill Sub Humid to High Hill Temperate Wet and to
Temperate Dry zones subsequently. Interventions are required to be taken well in time to sustain
these unique ecosystems ofthe Himalayan region.
To counter the severe impacts of climate change, varied developmental interventions are required at
different levels, since significant variations are observed among various Blocks within the district
itself. Interventions are required in agriculture, water resources, forests & biodiversity energy,
health, tourism and urban planning as to minimize the exposure and improve the adaptive capacity.
4.3.2 Climate Change Vulnerability under differentAgro Climatic Zones
The climate change vulnerability of different districts and blocks under different agro climatic zones
is described as follows Fig. 42(i-xv):
4.3.2.1 Exposure
The temperature and rainfall depicts moderate variations over small distances. The north (some
parts), west, south and partially central parts of the State which has low elevation and is a drought
prone area is observed to be highly exposed. The local community perception and the trends of
climate change are also corroborating the current analysis e.g. shift in cropping pattern and shift in
floral and faunal species etc. Based on the trends, the same are the concerns which are invariably
expressed by the local communities such as change in setting of season, extinction of birds,
butterflies, vegetation species, decline in snow fall, and drying up ofnatural water sources etc.
Some of the regions of districts Kangra, Una, Hamirpur, Solan, Sirmour, which are falling in sub-
mountain low hills, sub tropical region and mid hill sub humid regions are having higher exposure
conditions w.r.t. Climate Change variations as depicted in Fig. 42 (i). Areas of districts Chamba, Kullu,
Shimla, Sirmour, Palampur falling under high hill temperate wet zone are also more exposed in
comparison ofdistricts Lahul & Spiti & Kinnaur, Chamba falling in high hill temperate dry zone.
4.3.2.2 Sensitivity
The Sensitivity Index evaluated on the basis ofdifferent indicators indicate that High Hill Temperate
Wet and High Hill Temperate Dry zones of the State are highly sensitive to any kind ofvariation in
climate and they also represents the biodiversity richness ofthe State. It is observed that even a small
variation in temperature or timing ofprecipitation has significant impacts. The rising temperatures
will affect the cropping patterns in High Hill Temperate Wet Zone.
The regions ofDistricts Lahul & Spiti, Kinnaur, Kullu, Chamba, Kangra which is biodiversity rich zone
are highly sensitive towards Climate Change, the majority of area of this region falls within the high
hill temperate dry & high hills temperate wet zones, besides some adjoining parts of District Mandi
and Shimla, which falls within the mid hill sub humid zone and also has rich biodiversity is expected to
face changing patterns due to Climate Change variations. However, the sub mountain low hill sub
tropical region is not that sensitive in view ofits lesser biodiversity and growing pattern as depicted
in Fig. 42 (ii).
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – Z012 81

4.3.2.3 Adaptive Capacity
The High Hill Temperate Wet and Dry zones have high adaptive capacity in comparison to Sub
montane, Low Hill, Sub Tropical Mid Hill Sub Humid, which are found to be having moderate-low
adaptive capacities in view of the better physical connectivity and infrastructure. Certain areas with
high literacy and poverty rate but with poor connectivity displayed low adaptive capacity. The Block
with urban centres havingbetter infrastructural facilities depicts high adaptive capacity.
The adaptive capacities ofmajority ofareas ofdistricts Chamba, Lahual & Spiti, Kinnaur, Kullu, Manali,
Shimla, Una, Sirmour, Solan are better in comparison to other areas as shown in Fig. 42[m]. The
adaptive capacity is better in high hill temperate dry, partially in high hill temperate wet due to less
exposure, however, in sub mountain low hills sub tropical zone it is better due to better infrastructure,
or forthe one orthe other reasons despite higher exposure.
Over all the vulnerability ofthe 77 Blocks of the State as a combination of exposure, sensitivity and
adaptive capacity observed to be high in Sub montane, Low Hill areas and Sub Tropical regions ofthe
State and in case ofMid Hill Sub Humid, it ranges from moderate to high, As far as High Hill Temperate
Wet regions ofthe State are concerned, the vulnerability varies from low to high where as in case ofin
case of in High Hill Temperate Dry regions it is reasonably low due to better adaptive capacity as
shown in Fig. 42[iv). The areas where the climate sensitive livelihoods are practices have least
adaptive capacities and at the same time have high exposure resulting into higher vulnerability. The
trends of climate change depicts that the vulnerability of all the zones are likely to show an increase
and therefore there is a need to strengthen the adaptive capacity of such areas so as to offset the
exposure and sensitivity. There is need for adaptation and mitigation measures in Sub montane, Low
Hill, Sub Tropical, Mid Hill Sub Humid and High Hill Temperate Wet zones ofHimachal Pradesh.
4.3.3 Projection ofscenarios 2020 & 2030
The HADCM3 simulations downscaled with PRECIS indicate an all around warming over the Indian
sub continent associated with increasing GHG concentrations. It is observed that both maximum and
minimum temperatures are projected to rise under the PRECIS A1B scenario. Increase in the
monsoon season would be lower than in the dry season.
Himachal Pradesh receives most ofits rain during the monsoon season, which starts in the late lune.
The mean seasonal precipitation simulated by PRECIS shows variations for Indian sub continent.
Under A1B scenario, mean annual rainfall is projected to increase marginally for the State by about
(5% to 13%) i.e. 70-200 mm by 2030. Increase in monsoon season, and marginal increase in other
seasons withincreasein rainy days.
Besides, on the basis ofavailable data base w.r.t. temperature [max & min] and precipitation form IMD
Pune and after working out the decadal variation on average basis, decadal scenarios for climate
variations i.e. variations in rain fall and temperature for 2020 and 2030 have been projected [No
specific PRECIS or HADCM simulations have been worked out for Himachal Pradesh separately] and
have been further analyzed for deriving Vulnerability Index while assuming that the sensitivity and
adaptive capacitywould continue to showthe same pattern*(The adaptive capacity & sensitivity could notbe
analyzed for decadal scenarios in view oflack of data base for specific variables and also that the adaptive capacity or
sensitivity will not show any change in its pattern in case projected on simple average methods].
* [Even ifthe increase in biodiversity or growth in infrastructural facilities is observed]
s-ms smrrsav .2, ACTION PLAN on cummz CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 s2

Therefore, the projections only w.r.t exposure based on decadal variations have been plotted on
spatial maps to see thelikely/ possible changes in 2020 & 2030.
The exposure scenario for 2020 is depicted in Fig. 42 (v) and further overlaid with agro climate zone
layers, Fig. 42 (vi), reveals that the different regions of district Sirmour, Solan, Una, Shimla, Bilaspur,
Hamirpur, Kangra, Mandi, Kullu which are falling under sub mountain low hill sub tropical region and
mid hill sub humid zones are likely to have greater exposure in comparison to high hill temperate dry
&high hill temperate wet agro climatic zones.
Further, when the same exposure scenario is applied to derive projections with respect to
Vulnerability Index for 2020, we observed variations in current levels. By examining Fig. 42 (vii) one
can see that the Vulnerability Index spatial distribution projected for 2020 in various blocks. While
overlaid by agro climatic zone wise layers to observe the different zone wise variations, it is observed
that the Climate Change vulnerability in 2020 scenario the areas ofdistricts Sirmour, Solan, Bilaspur,
Una, Kangra, Mandi, Kullu, Chamba will be at risk, that means the regions falling under sub mountain
zone will be at riskwhile otherwill have lower risk, Fig. 42 (vm).
Similarly, the decadal scenarios projections have been worked out for 2030 as well and the Fig. 42 (ix),
42 (x), 42 (xi) & 42 (xii) shows the spatial distributions of scenario projections of Exposure
Projections 2030, Agro Climate Zone Wise Exposure Projections 2030, Climate Change Vulnerability
Projections 2030, Agro Climate Zone Wise Climate Change Vulnerability Projections 2030
respectively, with the indication that the vulnerability of low lying areas i.e. sub mountain low hills
sub tropical region, mid hills sub humid will be athigher risk and high hill temperate wet will be under
moderate riskwhile dry region will be continue to have lower risk even in 2030.
Furthermore, while drawing spatial maps the Climate Change vulnerability maps have also been
overlaid through climate classification layers to observe that how the current Climate Change
vulnerability in different regions emerges, Fig. 42 (xm), similarly the layer have been overlaid on
2020, 2030 as well, Fig. 42 (xiv) &42 (xv) respectively.
It is observed that currently, the region classified as sub tropical monsoon with mild and dry winter,
hot summer (CWa) is highly vulnerable with some adjoining regions sub tropical monsoon without
dry winter, with hot summer (CFa), while plotting the spatial distribution projection scenarios, it is
observed that vulnerability ofthese area will continue to increase further in 2020 & 2030 see Fig. 42
(xm), Fig. 42 (xiv) & 42 (xv) and thus the adaptive capacities of the area needs to be enhanced to
counter the impact of exposure besides sensitiveness of the region falling in sub tropical monsoon
with mild and dry winter, hot summer (CWa).
In view of climate classification, the regions having sub tropical monsoon with mild dry winter,
moderate and hot summer are highly exposed and are highly vulnerable to climate change. This
region ofthe State is quite significant from economic point ofview as it represents about 86% area of
total cultivated area and 67% of total geographical area.
The results have been summarized in Table-21 along with projected trends.
s-ms smrrscv .2, ACTION PLAN on cummz CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 as

I
‘Y
0

Q
Q. ” ., ~”
9 ” 0 3″
Fig. 4-2 (i): Climate Change Exposure as per Agro-climatic Fig. 42 (ii): Climate Change Sensitivity as per Agro-
Zones at Block Level climatic Zones at Block Level
\ 1
\ _ ‘ ’
~ I
.&”
Mnwnfiacrly 7
14.‘ Iv \
I
$1Qr0b‘I ‘
, -‘0’»-sq–:-| H \
-¢- \— – – – —
;’;f;‘;” 01-an L1 -nu
\4n¢w-|–on la r-u – – – ~
Fig. 42 (m]” Adaptive Capacity as per Agro—climatic Zon F
. es ig. 42 (iv): Vulnerability Variation as per Agro-climatic
at Block Level Zones at Block Level
STATE STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH ‘ 2012 84

“Q
Q

{@-
E _i_
(2020)
i
F
_
(2020)
STATE STRATEGY
O
‘M.’
7
\| ‘ J?
E
0
’.__
‘ “ .I:_’:’
Cl ate Change Exposure as per Agro-climatic
Fig. 4-2 (v): Climate Change Exposure at Block Level Fig. 4-2 (vi): im
at Block Level (2020)
O
I
nit
.7‘ _ –
ci
I .-__
{ti}-3i __ _
42 i]: Vulnerability Variation as per Agru-climatic
Fig. 42 (vii): Climate Change Vulnerability at Block Level Fig. [vii
Zones (2020)
& ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012

O O
– F I
\” \ P»
_ Q Tao‘
. . .
Fig. 42 (ix): Climate Change Exposure at Block Level Fig. 4-2(x): Climate Change Exposure as per Agro-climatic
(2030) Zones (2030)
-. I
Q–_ -.-_
Fig. 42 (xi): Climate Change Vulnerability at Block Level Fig. 4-2 (xii): Vulnerability Variation as per Agro—climatic
(2030) Zones (2030)
STATE STRATEGY8: ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH ~ Z012 86

Q O
;. _ 1′ ,
T _.u. 0.
i\~i. ” “’- ”
_ \’ ‘
I ‘ 0 .
Fig. 4-2 (Xm): Vulnerability VHI‘iEiCiOIl HS per Climate Fig, 4-Z [xiv]; Vulnerability Variation as per Climate
Classififlfliifln Classification (2020)
O
g .
1
I

Fig. 42 [xv]: Vulnerability Variation as per Climate
Classification [2030]
STATE STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH ‘ 2012

Table-21: Agro Climate Zone Wise Description ofVulnerability lndex 8:. Projected Trends
Agro Elevation
Climatic (mtrs.msl)
Zone
Sub
mountai n,
bow Hi ll,
Sub
Tropi cal
35 0 to 650
meters
35 % of the
geographical
area and
about 4-0%
of th e
cultivated
area
65 1 m eters
to 1,80 0
meters
Mid Hill
Sub Humid
32 % of the
total
geographical
area and
about 3 7%
of the
cultivated
area
High Hill
Tempe rate
Wet
1,801 to
2,2 00
meters
about35%
ofthe
geographical
areas and
about2 1%
ofthe
cultivated
area
High Hill
Temperate
Dry
Above 2,2 00
meters
8% of th e
geo graphical
and 2% of
the total
cultivated
area
Districts/ Climate Change Impact Vulnerability
area Component Index
Exposure Sensitivity Adaptive
Capacity
Hamirpur,
Una, High
Bilaspur,
Mod er ate High High
Parts of
Sirmour,
Kangra,
Solan and
Chamba
Parts of
Mandi, High
Solan,
Kullu,
Chamba,
Bilaspur,
Sirmour
Mod er ate Moderate Moderate to
High
Palampur
& Kangra
tehsils of
Kangra
Rampur
tehsil of
Shimla
Shimla,
Kullu,
Chamba
Moderate High Moderate Low to High
Parts of
Mandi,
Kangra,
Chamba
Kinnaur,
Lahul &
Spiti
Lo w High High Low
Parts of
Chamba
District
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012
Trend
as per
projections
of climate
change
(+)
(+)
(+)
(+)

Adaptation & Mitigation 5
Climate change is any long term significant change in the ‘average weather’ (temperature,
precipitation and wind patterns) that a given region experiences, which includes processes such as
solar radiation, green house gas concentration and the effects ofhuman activity. The recent climate
change manifestations are attributed to human activity, and the debate has now shifted to reduce
impact of human activity [Mitigation], and adapt to change that is already in the system
(Adaptation).
Vulnerability can be reduced either by mitigation and/or adaptation. Mitigation basically involves
reducing the causes of damage — in particular the GHG emissions and concentration in the
atmosphere – with the aim to reduce the probability of occurrence of adverse conditions for socio-
economic and environmental systems. The adaptation, however, reduces the severity of many
impacts when/ifadverse conditions prevail.
In its broader sense, adaptation to climate change can be defined as any adjustment in ecological,
socio—economic system in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli, impacts or effects. The
adjustment depends partially on climate change per se, but mostly on the vulnerability of the
impacted system. As per IPCC 2001 report, “vulnerability is the degree to which a system is susceptible
to, or unable to cope with, adverse efiect ofclimate change including climate variability and extremes.
[It] is a function of the character, magnitude and rate of climate change and variation to which a
system is exposed, its sensitivityand its adaptive capacity”.
Adaptation is a process taking place through space and time that can take the most diverse forms. Its
characterization depends on different factors. The most important are: the subject of adaptation
[who or what adapts), the object of adaptation (what they adapt to), the way in which adaptation
takes place [how they adapt). The last aspect includes e.g. what resources are used, when and how
they are used and with what results.
Adaptation to climate change has the potential to substantively reduce many ofthe adverse impacts of
climate change and enhance beneficial impacts – though neither without cost nor without leaving
residual damages…nevertheless…current knowledge of adaptation and adaptive capacity is not
sufficient for reliable predictions of adaptations; it also is not sufficient for rigorous evaluation of
planned adaptation options, measures and policies ofgovernments.
Presently, the research on adaptation tries to reduce the veil of ignorance surrounding this strategy.
The research should focus on the following:
– How effective the adaptation is in reducing climate-change damages?
– How much will it cost [in absolute terms as compared with other strategies)?
– When — where and what adaptation strategies should be adopted [should damage be
anticipated?
Or simply awaited and then accommodated? Should resources for adaptation be addressed where
they can be more effective orwhere they are more needed?
– Who should adapt and bear the costs [private agents or public agencies)?
– How can adaptation be harmonized with other strategies, first in line, mitigation? In particular
is mitigation and adaptation complement or substitute? What is the optimal balance between
them? What determines this balance?
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 89

The different objectives ofplanned adaptation can be summarized by the following:
– increasingthe robustness ofinfrastructural design and longterm investments,
– increasing the flexibility of vulnerable managed systems,
– enhancing the adaptability ofvulnerable natural systems,
– reversingthe trends that increase vulnerability (‘mal adaptation’),
– improving societal awareness and preparedness.
Adaptation: Possible Criteria for Classification
Concept or Attribute
Purp os efulnes s Autonomo us – Plann ed
Timing Anticipatory – Responsive
Temporal Scope Short term – Long term
Spatial Scope Localised – Widespread
Function/Effects Retreat — accommodate — protect — prevent
Form Structural — legal — institutional
Valuation ofPerformance Effectiveness — efliciency — equity —feasibiIity
Source: Smit et. aI., 1 999
The objective ofadaptation is to reduce vulnerability to climate change, thereby, reducing its negative
impacts. It should also enhance the capability to capture any benefits of climate change. Hence,
adaptation, together with mitigation, is an important response strategy. The mitigation of
greenhouse gas emissions in order to prevent dangerous interference with the climate system is one
plan. Some climate change is, however, inevitable due to historic and current emissions ofgreenhouse
gases, and for this reason, adaptation can no longer act as a policy option — it has to be a fundamental
element ofthe global response to climate change.
The issue ofglobalwarmingis much influenced bythe greenhouse gas emissions, and is considered to
be the primary source of climate change. As a result, the policies are necessary to slow down the
climate problem and to limit global warming. Therefore, it is very essential to understand clearly the
potential of Green House Gas Emissions from the State form various sectors so as to draw
options/measures for mitigation of climate change impacts besides assessing the energy needs
inventory for the State.
A detailed Green House Gas Emissions Inventory has been worked out for the State of Himachal
Pradesh using the standard norms adopted at National level. The details ofwhich are as follows:
5.1 Green House Gas Emissions- India
The Indian Network for Climate Change Assessment [INCCA], a nation-wide network comprising 127
research institutions working on science and impacts of climate change for the Ministry of
Environment & Forests, Union oflndia, filed a report on India’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions, 2007 in May,
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 90

2010. The said report was released by Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission, Mr. Montek Singh
Ahluwalia at an INCCA meeting, which made India the first “non-Annex I” (developing) country to
publish such updated numbers on global warming and climate change.
According to the latest report, India’s ranking in 2007 w.r.t. aggregate GHG emissions in the world is
5″‘, behind USA, China, European Union and Russia. The report also points out that the 2007 emissions
of USA and China are almost 4 times that of India. What is also highlighted in the report is that the
emissions intensity ofIndia’s GDP declined by more than 30% during the period 1994-2007, which is
largely attributed to the proactive efforts and policies being put in place by the Ministry of
Environment & Forests, Union of India from time to time. The report mainly focuses on emissions
from different sectors such as Energy, Industry, Land-use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUI-7]
and Waste.
As per INCCA report, the net Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from India, that is emissions with
LULUCF, are reported to be 1727.71 million tons of CO, equivalent (eq) in 2007. Out of this, CO2
emissions were 1221.76 million tons; CH, emissions were 20.56 million tons; and N20 emissions were
0.24 million tons. The largest percentage ofGHG emissions (58%) is from the Energy sector followed
by Industry, Agriculture and Waste sectors in that order. Within the Energy sector, 65.4% oftotal CO,
eq were emitted from electricity generation while the transport sector contributed to 12.9 % of the
total CO2 eq. The report also points out that for the estimation year 2007, LULUCF sector was a net
sink. It sequestered 177.03 million tons 0fCO2.
The report calculates India’s per capita CO2eq emissions including LULUCF for the assessment year
2007 at 1.5 tons/ capita. The report is also a step further towards incorporating the 3 M’s” —
Measurement, Modeling and Monitoring in the essence of formulating policies on climate change. By
releasing such updated figures well before the COP at Cancun in Mexico, the Union of India has
indicated its seriousness on the issue of climate change and its willingness to take on global
leadership.
Existing GHG Emissions by Sector (Transport, Buildings, Industry, Waste, Agriculture & Forests] and
Sub-sectors.
Annual C01 emissions (eq) Percentage 0fGlobal total
(In thousands ofmetric tonnes] Giga Gram
India I 17,27.706.10 <5% ofglobal Carbon dioxide Emissions (CO3). metric tons ofCO5_per capita (CDIAC) Rank Country I990 I991 1992 1993 I994 1995 1996 1997 19981999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 200520062007 I45. India 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 I I 1.1 I.I 1.1 [.1 1.I I.l 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 Rank oflndia (out 0ft0taI215 countries) the data presented above corresponds to emissions in Z007. The data was collected in 2008 by the CDIAC for the United Nations. The data only considers carbon dioxide emissions from the burning offossil fuels and cement manufacture, butnotemissionsfrom land use such as deforestation. (By Sources & Removal by Sinks during 2007 (In thousand tons) STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 91 C02 emissio C0; removal N20 C02 equivalent GRAND TOTAL 14 970 29.2 0 275358.00 I 20564.20 2 39.3 1 172 770 6.10 ENERGY 99283 6.30 |42e6os 56.88 110 005 6.89 Ele ctricity generation 715829.80 I814 10.66 719305.34 Other energy industries 33787.50 I112 0.07 33845.32 Transport 138858.00 | 23.47 8.67 142038.57 Roadtmnsport 121211.00 I2100 6.00 1 23554.00 Railways 6109.00 |a34 2.35 6844.64 Avi ation 10122.00 I010 0.28 10210.90 Naviga ti on 1416.00 I013 0. 04 1431.13 Residential 69427.00 36.29 137838.49 C0mmercial/ Institutional 1657.00 |Z72L94 018 0.04 1673.18 Agriculture/ Fishe ries 33277.00 1.20 1.15 33658.70 Fugitive emisions 15 09.40 31697.30 INDU 5’1‘ RY 40 586 2.90 14.77 2 0.56 412 546.53 Mineral s 130783.95 0.32 0.46 130933.27 Cement production 129920.00 129920.00 Glass & ceramic production 277.82 0.46 427.14 Other uses of soda ash 586.12 P co N 586.12 Chem ica ls 27888.86 1.14 17.33 33496.42 Ammonia production 10056.43 >-1
10056.43
Nitric acid production
16.05
4975.50
Carbide production
119.58
119.58
Titanium dioxide production
88.04
88.04
Methanol production
266.18
285.37
Ethylene prod uction
7072.52
0.91
7270.64
EDC & VCM production
198.91
9.43
198.91
Ethylene Oxide production
93.64
97.71
Acrylonitrile production
37.84
0.19
37.98
Carbon Black production
1155.52
0.01
1156.07
Caprolactam
0.03
336.22
Other chemical
8800.21
8873.97
Me tals
122371.43
I
I056
1.08
122736.91
Iron & Steel production
116958.37
| 0.95
0.20
117315.63
Ferroall oys production
2460.70
I035
1.11
2462.29
Aluminum production
2728.87
loos
1.09
2729.91
Lead production
84.13
I001
86.38
Zinc production
76.11
looo
0.00
77.99
Copper
63.25
0.01
64.70
Other Industries
123969.17
I000
001
0.01
124530.44
Pulp and paper
5222.50
2.37
0.00
5248.35
Food processing
27625.53
0.05
1.65
27717.25
Textile and leather
1861.11
1.12
0.08
1867.94
Mining and quarrying
1460.26
0.03
0.22
1464.62
Non-specific industries
87799.77
0.06
239.31
88232.28
Non energxproduct use
849.49
849.49
Lubricant
776.75
Paraffin wax
72.75
STATE STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012

AGRICULTURE
275358.00
334405.50
Enteric fermentation
67 80 0. 00
212095.80
Livestock Manu re management
207520.00

o
\1
2436 .70
Rice cultivatio n
69 86 7.00
Burning 0 f crop res iclue
27 53 58 .0 0
F‘
o
o
66 06.00
LUL UCF
67 80 0. 00
-1 77 02 8.00
F0 restland
207520.00
-6 78 00.0 0
Cr opl and
-Z 07 52 0.00
Gmssland
38.00
10 49 0. 00
Settlement
27 53 58 .0 0
-3 8.00
Wetland
NE
Other lan cl
NO
Fuel wood use in forests
87 84 0. 00
Waste
57725.18
Municipal Solid waste
12 69 4. 71
Domestic waste water
>-
22 98 0.47
lnclustrial waste water
22 05 0. 00
Bunkers‘
>~
3484.45
Aviation Bunk ers
335531
Marine bunkers
.0
>-A
o
12 9. 14
/..~._\‘V_\
_.-1_
\…
Q. xi;
ii»:
, /\/’ “E1
_- ..1i’\\l ~ ‘___ _
{:1 \” it ¢’
~\ W, v,_‘{/ J. 4
r 1» /I
_./if
\ ,
Distribution 3 0 Forest Strata Across India
<j.-
.-3.,1
\,;__
Source: INCCA Report-2007
Note: LULUCF: Land Use Land Use Change 8:. Forestry, * Not included in the National totals, NE: Not estimated; NO: Not Occurring
STATE STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012

5.2 Green House Gases (GHGs) Emissions Inventory- Himachal Pradesh
The existing GHG emissions have been worked out for sector and sub-sectors viz. Transport,
Buildings, Industry, Waste, Agriculture and Forests. The assessment provides an in site on the
predominant emissions of Green House Gases (Carbon Dioxide [C0,], Methane (CH,) and Nitrous
Oxide [N20] emitted as a result of anthropogenic activities at the State level from sectors like Energy,
Industry’ Agriculture’ Waste’ Annual CO2 emissions [eq] Percentage of
and Land USE Land USE Change (in thousands of metric tonnes) Giga Gram Globaltotal
&Forestry [LULUCF].
[Hm 17,27,70e.10 <s% ofglobal
Himachal 10082.87* ~0.67% ofIndia*
The source of the activity data
taken for deriving calculations
is primarily from the published
documents of different
organizations in the State and
the studies carried out by HPSCST&E, HPSPCB, Departments of
Transport, Economic and Statistics, HPSEB, Forests and
Agriculture etc. The methodology, emission factors used in
calculations has been drawn from the INCCA country specific
references available in IPCC publications. The methodology tier
level presented is also a ‘mix type‘.
5.2.1 MethodologyAdopted for Estimation ofGHGs Emissions
CO2 eq @ ~SO% operational capacity.
In Himachal Pradesh the estimated volume ofthe Greenhouse Gas
emissions have been worked out as per the standard
methodologies contained in IPCC Guidelines (IPCC 1997, 2000 and
2003):
Emissions gas = E MWA X Emission Factor (EF)
Where; Emission gas is the emissions of a given gas from all
source categories.
A is amount of individual source category utilized that
generate emissions.
Pradesh* ~0.00147 per capita 000’tones*
* Without taking into consideration emissi0n/ removals due to hydro power
generation 6,419 MWcontributedtogrid as clean energy ~ [-) 15,397.191 000’tons
Methodology Tiers
Tier 1 approach employs activity
data that are relatively coarse, such
as nationally or globally available
estimates of deforestation rates,
agricultural production statistics,
and global land cover maps.
Tier Z use the same methodological
approach as Tier 1 but applies
emission factors and activity data
whicharedefinedbythecountry
Tier 3 approach uses higher order
methods are used including models
and inventory measurement
systems tailored to address national
circumstances, repeated over time,
and driven by disaggregated
levels.
EF is the emission factor ofa given gas as pertype ofsource category.
Following sectors have been considered in the State contributing for GHGs emissions:
Energy, Industry, Agriculture, Land Use, Land Use Change * Forest (LULUCF) and Waste.
The emission reductions by the project activity [ERY] during a given period ofyear y are the product of
the baseline emissions factor (EFY, in tC02e/MW) times the electricity supplied by the project to the
grid at the same period ofyear y (EGy, in MW], as follows: *(ref Cachoeira Encoberta).
ER, = EF, . Ea,
As in all scientific endeavors; any estimate provided is necessarily contingent upon the
availability of data and information. Over time the coefficients will be refined, methodologies
and data sources improved therefore, it is anticipated that there will be adjustments in future
iteration, to keep pace with scientific convention and good practice.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 94

Green House Gas Emissions by Sources & Removal by Sink (with LULUCF) from Himachal
Pradesh in 2007-08- 09 (000’tons) Giga Grams [Table-22)
[Following IPCC convention in calculating G1-lGs footprintat source ofproduction and not consumption]
Table 22: Gl-lGs Emissions from different sources in Himachal Pradesh
Sr.
No.
A.
1.
2.
a.
b.
c.
3.
a.
b.
c.
Total
B
1
a.
b.
Z
a.
b.
3
P-PP‘?
4
9-FF?
Total
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012
Type GHG
(00 0’t0nes) G grams
Electricity/ Energy
Captive Generation and
Consumption
Transport
Road
Railways
Aviafi on
Others
Residential
In dust1″ial/ Commercial/
In stituti0nal/ Bulk mics.
Agriculture
A
Industry
Mineral
Cement Production
Glass Production
Chemical
Carbide Production
Methanol
Metal
Ferroalloys
Aluminum
Lead (Secondary Production)
Zinc production
Otherlndustries
Pulp & Paper
Textile & Leather
Food Processing
Mini ng and Quarrying
B
CO2
358.056
655.14
0.0012
0.0011
911.525
3183.27
15.66
5123.6533
5170.39
0.971713
26.488
4.775
82.170
170.399
28.192
0.0191
0.02312
0.042
0.012
0.0022
5483.4-84
cl-I4
0.01823
0.012
3.555
0.346
0.00056
3.93179
0.0012
0.00163 903
0.00396
0.000 624
0.000 00022
0.000 00049
0.000 00068
0.0074-24
N10
0.000742
0.0032
0.4765
0.0768
0.000555
0.557797
0.00161
0.007906
0.000000354-
0.000000096
0.000000451
0.009517
CO; eq
358.670
667.28
0.0014
0.0012
1809.72
32 13.984
15.840
6065.4-97
5170.39
1.49397
26.488
5.11925
82.22 31
170.464
28.946
0.0191
0.02323
0.01204
0.042 154
0.002 21
54-85.223
95

A. Agriculture
gxwnv-\
. Enteric fermentation – 0-1134 – Z-3814
, Manure management – 0.00129 000000076 0.02733
. Rice cultivation – 7-0445 – 147-9936
Crop residue – 0.478 0.0399 13.972
5, Soils – – 0.00152 0.475
Tgtal C – 7.63719 0.04-142 164-. 84-933
D Land Use, land Use Change & Forestry
Forestland (-1 Z917-79 – – I-) 291 7-79
Cropland I-16953 I-16953
Grassland (+136-27 (+13 617
4-. CO2 loss due to fuel wood use (+1 1318-41 – (+1 13 18-41
Total D (-)1s32.70 – [-)1a 32.70
E Waste
1. MSW – 0.027147 1 – –
Z. Industrial Waste Water — 0.0001366 — 0.00612 9
Total E 0.02 72 837 0.006129
Grand Total 8974-.4-37 11.603 69 0.6 O8 734 10 08 2.87
A+B+C+D+E
94!“?
5.2.2 Key Results
– The net Green House Gas (GHG] emissions from Himachal Pradesh thatis emissions with LULUCE
for activity data base foryear 2009 were 10.083 million tons ofC0, equivalent [eq) ofwhich
– CO2 emissions were 8.97 milliontons;
– Cl~I4emissionswere 0.116 milliontons; and
– N20 emissions were 0.0061 milliontons.
– GHG emissions from Energy, Industry, and Agriculture sectors constituted 5 1.77% (6065.497 Gg),
46.82% (5485.223 Gg), 1.41% (164.85 Gg)) of the net CO2 eq emissions respectively. The
contribution ofWaste sector is quite marginal.
– Energy sector emitted 6.07 million tons of CO2 eq, of which 3.21 million tons of CO2 eq were
emitted from electrcity consumption in Industrial, Commercial and Institutional sectors and 1.81
million tons ofCO2 eq were emitted from energy consumption in Residential sector.
~ Industry sector emitted 5.49 million tons ofCOZ eq.
~ LULUCF sectorwas a net sink. It seqestrated 1.63 million tons ofCOZ eq.
~ Himachal Pradesh per capita CO2eq emissions including LULUCF were 1.47 tons/ capita in 2009.
From the analysis it is concluded that in Himachal Pradesh, the majority ofemissions are from energy
consumption by industry, commercial, tourism, institutions etc. besides the emissions from cement
manufacturing industry. The sector wise description is as under:
1. Energy: The Energy sector emitted 6.066 million tons of CO2 eq due to fossil fuel combustion in
electricity generation in captive plants, transport, commercial/institutional establishments,
agriculture, and energy intensive industries such as cement, steel and secondary metallurgical
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 96

processing plants, including energy demand from Residential sector. Fugitive emissions from
vehicles also accounted for in the Energy sector.
a. Energy consumption for Industry, Tourism, Commercial, Institutional etc.: The energy
demand/ consumption in industry, tourism, commercial, institutional etc. activities emitted
3.214 million tons ofC0, eq. which is about 52.99 % ofthe total CO, eq. emissions from Energy
sector.
b. Residential: The Residential sector in Himachal Pradesh is one of the major consumers of
electricity, fuel, LPG etc. outside the energy industries. Total green house gas emissions from
this sector were 1.81 million tons of CO, eq. about 29.84 % of the total CO, eq emissions for
Energysector.
c. Transport: The Transport sector emissions are reported from road transport, aviation,
railways. In Himachal Pradesh, the Transport sector emitted 0.667 million tons 0fCO, eq. Road
transport being the dominant mode of transport in the State, emitted 99.99% ofthe total CO,
equivalent emissions from the Transport sector. The railway and aviation in comparison only
emitted 0.01%% ofthe total CO, eq emissions.
d. Captive Power Generation and Consumption: The total greenhouse gas emissions from
captive power generation and consumption by industries were 0.358 million tons CO2 eq. The
C02 eq emissions from electricity generation were 5.91% ofthe total CO2 eq emitted from the
Energy sector. It has been assumed that coal use constituted about 55% of the total fuel mix
used.
e. Agriculture: The energy demand/ consumption in agriculture activities emitted 0.0158
million tons ofC0, eq. which is about 0.26 % ofthe total CO, eq. emissions from Energy sector.
2. Industry: In Himachal Pradesh of 11.707 million tons of CO, eq Industrial activities together
emitted 5.486 million tons ofCO, eq ofGHG. Industry sector emissions have been estimated from data
base for production process manufacturing of cement, glass, metals, chemicals, other specific
industries. The emissions covered in the Industry sectorinclude the process based emissions.
a. Cement and Glass Production: The cement industry emitted 5.17 million tons of C0,, which
is 94.26% of the total CO, eq emissions from the Industry sector. The emissions cover all the
large, medium and mini cement plants, grinding plants. The other ones like glass production
emit 1.494 000′ tons ofCO2 eq.
b. Metals: The metal industry viz. aluminium, ferroalloys, lead, zinc and copper production lead
to an emission of0.282 million tons ofCO, eq. about 5.14% ofthe total ofCO2 eq emissions.
c. Chemicals: The chemical industries together emitted 0.0316 million tons of CO2 eq. about
0.57% ofthe total ofCO, eq emissions.
d. Other Industries: Other industries comprising of pulp/paper, leather, textiles, food
processing , mining and quarrying, and non specific industries comprising of rubber, plastic,
watches, clocks, transport equipment, furniture etc., together emitted 0.0796 000′ tons ofCO,
eq. which constitute very little about 0.002% oftotal emissions from this sector.
3. Agriculture: The Agriculture sector estimated to be emitting 0.165 million tons of CO, eq.
Estimates ofGHG emissions from the Agriculture sector arise from enteric fermentation in livestock,
manure management, rice cultivation, on field burning ofcrop residue and agricultural soils.
a. Livestock: Enteric fermentation in livestock released 2.3814 000′ tons of CO, eq (0.1134 000
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – Z012 97

tons of CH4]. This constituted 1.45% of the total GHG emissions [CO2 eq) from Agriculture
sector in the State. The estimates cover all livestock, namely, cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats,
donkeys, horses and others. Manure management emitted 0.02733 000′ tons ofCO2 eq.
b. Rice Cultivation: Rice cultivation emitted 0.148 million tons of CO2 eq or 7.0445 000′ tons of
CH4. The emissions cover both type of rice cultivation, namely, irrigated, rainfed and upland
rice cultivation. The upland rice is zero emitters and irrigated fields are only emitter of
methane per unit area.
c. Agricultural Soils and Field Burning of Crop Residue: The total CO, eq emitted from these
two sources were 14.45 000′ tons about 8.77% oftotal C02 eq emissions. Agricultural soils are
a source ofN,0, mainly due to application ofnitrogenous fertilizers in the soils. Burning ofcrop
residue leads to the emission of a number of gases and pollutants. Amongst them, CO2 is
considered to be C,,,,,,,a,, and therefore not included in the estimations. Only CH, and N20 are
considered in this report.
4. Land Use Land Use Change and Forest: The LULUCF sector in Himachal Pradesh was a net sink.
lt sequestered 1632.70 000′ tons of CO2. The estimates from LULUCF sector include emission by
sources and or removal by sinks from forest land, crop land, and grassland. Wet lands have not been
considered due to lack ofdatabase.
a. Forest Land: Analysis indicate that forest land sequestered 2917.17 000′ tons of CO2 in
Himachal Pradesh. However, deforestation due to developmental activities, fuel wood
extraction in non-sustainable manner from forests led to an emission of 1318.41 000′ tons of
CO, in the State. This includes estimates ofemissions and removal from biomass in very dense,
moderately dense, open forests, and scrub lands.
b. Crop Lands: The crop land sequestered 69.68 000′ tons of CO, in Himachal Pradesh. The
emission estimates have been made from netsownarea aswell as fallowland.
c. Grassland: Pasture, grassland resulted in the emission of 36.27 000‘ tons of CO2 due to
changes in grass land area overa period oftime.
5. Waste: The Waste sector emissions were 0.2728 000′ tons of CH, from municipal solid waste
managementandindustrialwastewatermanagement.
a. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW): It has been estimated that the MSW generation and disposal
resulted in the emissions of0.02715 000’ tons ofCH,, in Himachal Pradesh. Systematic disposal
ofsolid waste is carried out only in the major towns resulting in CH4 emissions due to aerobic
conditions generated due to accumulation of waste over the periods. It is observed that the
municipal solid waste is the major nuisance in emission ofGHGs in the State.
b. Waste Water: The waste water generation emissions are estimated only for waste water
disposal from industries. Waste water management from industries emitted about 0.006129
000’tons ofCO, eq.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 98

5.2.3 SectorWise Description of Green House Gas Emissions
5.2.3.1 Energy
In Himachal Pradesh the Energy sector emitted 6.0655 million tons of CO2 equivalent. Out of this,
5.124 million tons were emitted as CO2, 0.00393 million tons as CH4 and 0.0006 million tons as N20.
This does not include emission/ removals from electricity generation from hydro projects for
distribution through grids. Ofabove, about 52.99% (3213.98 Gg) ofthe total CO2 equivalent emissions
from the Energy sector were due to electricity consumption
by Industry, Commercial, Institutions and Tourism. The
Residential sector has a rural and urban spread, and
therefore it combusts both fossil fuel as well as biomass
which together emitted 29.84% (1809.72 Gg) of the total
GHG emitted from the Energy sector. The Transport sector
emitted 11% (667.2826 Gg] of the total CO2 equivalent
emissions. Emissions due to captive power generation by
various industries contributed about 5.91% (358.67 Gg]. _
Rest of the 0.26% (15.84 Gg] GHG emissions were from * ‘
energyconsumption for agriculture.
Following the procedures laid in estimation ofemissions by . –2. -_ .–
IPCC, in Himachal Pradesh the key constituent of GHGs ——— – 1–—
emissions from energy sector are the electricity generation,
combustion of fossil fuels, transportation, energy
consumption by commercial, tourism, institutional, residential and agriculture sectors. The emission
factor ofthe fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas are the most important considerations in the
country butin case ofHimachal Pradesh it is veryminute contributor.
Based on above activity data the GHGs emission 000′ tones [or Giga Gram) from Energy sector in
Himachal Pradesh is as under:
Sr. No. Type GHG emission
000′ tones (or Giga Gram)
C0; Cl-L, N20 C02 eq
1. Electricity
Captive Generation and 358.056 0.01823 0.000742 358.670
Consumption
2. Transport
655.14 0.012 0.0032 667.28
Road
Railways 0.0012 – – 0.0014
Aviation 0.0011 – – 0.0012
3. Others
Residential 911.525 3.555 0.4765 1809.72
Industrial/ 3183.27 0.346 0.0768 3213.984
Commercial/
Instituti0nal/ Bulk
Mics./Tourism
Agriculture 15.66 0.00056 0.000555 15.840
Total: 5123.6533 3.93179 0.557797 6065.497
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 99

5.2.3.2 Emissions / Removals from Hydro Power Generation
The equivalent GHGs emission form hydro power generation to the State assuming that the
operational capacity is only @50% of total capacity annually:
Sr. No. Type GHG emission
000’ tones (or Giga Gram)
C02 CH4 N20 C02 9!]
Hydro Power Generation
1. Power General1’on(Hydro Power only] [-] 15322_795 – – [-]15397_191
Estimated CO; removals are equivalent to
kwh power to be replaced by hydro power
contributed to the grid.
Himachal Pradesh has been blessed with vast hydroelectric potential in its five river basins, namely
Yamuna, Satluj, Beas, Ravi and Chenab. Through preliminary hydrological, topographical and
geological investigations, it has been estimated that about 23,194.95 MW of hydel potential can be
exploited in the state by constructing various major, medium, small and mini/micro hydel projects on
these five river basins. Out ofthis hydel potential so far only 6,419 MW has been harnessed by various
agencies. Although the requirement of energy in the State is not so huge but in the national interest
the State is committed to contribute the clean energy to the national grid. The Government of
Himachal Pradesh is promoting run-of-river projects which are environmentally benign.
A paper reports on the findings of a recent IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) expert
meeting on the assessment ofgreenhouse gas [GHG] emissions from the full ‘lifecycle’ ofhydropower.
It discusses the different categories of hydropower plants in view of the two main sources of GHG
emissions: first, direct and indirect emissions associated with the construction ofthe plants; second,
emissions from decaying biomass from land flooded by hydro reservoirs.
In terms of GHG emissions, this report shows that, in most cases, hydropower is a good alternative to
fossil fuelled power generation. For hydropower plants in cold climate, a typical GHG emission factor
is 15 g CO2 equivalent/kWh, which is 30-60 times less than the factors ofusual fossil fuel generation.
For some hydropower plants in tropical climates, theoretical calculations have shown that reservoir
emissions could be very high. However, no measurements of emissions were taken from tropical
reservoirs and the current level of research does not allow for a reliable evaluation. Research is
urgently needed in humid tropical climates.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 100

Hydropower’s contribution to GHG emission control is related to avoided emissions [i.e., emissions
that would occur if hydroelectricity had to be replaced by another fossil—fuelled energy source]. The
estimation ofan appropriate value for avoided emissions is complicated, because there is not a single
equation to calculate the emissions that are notproduced at hydropower projects. The characteristics
of avoided emissions depend on the type ofpower that is displaced by hydropower generation. Ifa
kilowatt-hour (kwh] were not generated at the hydro plant, what plant would have generated it? The
answer depends on a range of factors: the time of day, the plants already on the system, the plants
available, their variable costs, the type offuel they use, their efficiencies, even the transmission losses
and constraints. The production of hydroelectricity is associated with significant reductions in the
nation’s GHG emissions, although the specific amount ofthis benefitis difficult to measure directly.
In a specialized documentation it is stated that impoundment of hydroelectric reservoirs induces
decomposition ofa smallfraction oftheflooded biomass (forests, peat lands and othersoil types] and an
increase in the aquatic wildlife and vegetation in the reservoir. The result is higher greenhouse gas
(GHG) emissions after impoundmen t, mainly CO2 (carbon dioxide) and a smallamountofCH, (methane).
However, these emissions are temporary and peak two tofouryears after the reservoir isfilled. During
the ensuing decade, C02 emissions gradually diminish and return to the levelsgiven ofiby neighboring
lakes and rivers. Hydropowergeneration, on average, emits one-thirty-fifth ofthe GHGs that a natural
gasgenerating station doesand aboutone-seventieth the GHGs thata coal-firedgenerating station does.
(Ref Hydr0- Quebec ‘s- Sustainable Developmenta specialized documentation).
The details of Generation, Consumption of Energy in the State of Himachal Pradesh is as follows:
Sr. No. Type Quantity
IPOJNH
. Total Generation (2 O08-09) (Hydro Power only] 5419 MW
. Captive Generation and Consumption ~ 100 MW
_ Electricity purchased from BBMB & other States 6047.497MU
_ Energy Consumed bythe State: 6958_716MU
(H) Domestic 1089.1 18
Eb? Non Domestic &Non-Commercial 30535
C Commercial 274563
Ed% Public lighting 13_()13
e Agriculture 28733
E0 Industries _ 3385.303
g] Govt. Irrigation & Water Supply Scheme 38933 1
h Temporaiy Supply _
E il Bulk & Misc.-Tourism
5. Fuel Consumption
(a] Diesel * ~5304-00 KL
(b] Petrol* ~244800 KL
(C) K@r<>sene* ~86000KL
*As per total sale/ consumption in Hi machal Pradesh
5_ Transport (Vehicles registered] 1 Tourist Taxis. ~53 8,3411\JQ5_
7_ LPG (including DBG) Approx.
Indian Oil Corpn. ~76800 MT/ annum
Hindustan Petroleum ..551()() MT/annum
Solute: HP Statistics Department, Indian Oil Corpn, HP Oil Corpn, and Transport Deparlment
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 101

5.2.3.3 Industry
GHG emissions from the Industry sector in brief are as the total C02 equivalent emission from this
sector was 5.485 million tons. Ofwhich 5.484 million tons were ofCO,, 0.007424 000’tons ofCH, and
0.00952 000’tons of N20. It is indeed a matter of concern that 94.29% of the total CO2 equivalent
emissions from Industry sector were from Cement production under Mineral industries categories,
whereas, Glass production industries under this category emitted only 0.02%. 5.12% ofthe total GHG
emissions were from Metal industries and about 0.57% of the total GHG emissions were from
chemical industries. The Other industries consisting ofpulp and paper, food & beverage, non-specific
industries, textile & leather, and mining/ quarrying together emitted 0.0015% of the total GHG
emission from the energy sector. The Industry sector includes emissions due to various processes
involved and burning offossil fuels. Broad categories which have been covered are Mineral, Chemical,
Metal, Other includingviz. Textile, Pulp and Paper, Food processing units.
Category
Cement
Glass
Production
Carbide
Production
Methanol
Ferroalloys
Aluminum
Lead
[Secon dary
Production)
Zinc
pro duction
Type
Mineral
Ceme
Chemical
Metal
Lead (secondary production)
Other Industries
Pulp 8: Paper
Textile & leather
Food Processing
Emission Facto r
0537 tCOz/ t Clinker produced
Gas
CO2
0.21 tCOz/ tglass (Container Glass); 0.22tCOz/t glass (Fiber Glass); 0.03tCOz/t C02
glass (Specialty Glass)
1.1tCO2/tCa C2 produced
0.67 tonsC0z/tons TiOz produced
23 kg Cl-I4/tons Methanol produced
4.8 tonsC0z/ton Ferrosilicon produced;
15 ton CO2/ton Ferromanganese produced;
1.1 kg CH4/Fe rrosilicon produced
1.65 ton CO2 /ton Aluminum produced
058 ton CO2/ton Lead produced (Imperial Smelting Furnace];
0.25 ton CO;/ton Lead produced (Direct Smeltin g];
02 ton CO2/ton Lead produced (Secondary Production];
053 ton CO;/ton Zinc produoecl (Pyro-metallurgical Mrocess)
CO2
C02 CH4
CO2 CH4
CO2
CO2
CO2
S ource
CMA Z010
IPCC, 2006
IPCC 2006
IPCC 2006
IPCC 2006
lPCC
IPCC 2006
(Avg. EF)
IPCC 2006
Sou rce: IPCC & NICCA Report 20 07
GHG emission
000’ tones (or Gig; Gram]
CO2 CH4 N20 CO2 eq
nt Production 5170.39 –
Glass Production 0.971713 0.0012
Carbide Production 26.488 –
Methanol 4-.775 0.0016390?)
82.170 0.00396
170.399 0.000624
28.192 –
0.0191
Ferroalloys
Aluminum
Zinc production
0.02312 0.00000022
0.042 0.00000049
0.012 000000068
Mining and Quarrying 0.0022 –
Total 5483.484
0.1137424
0.00161
0.007906
0.0 00000354
0.0 00000096
0.0 00000451
0.009517
5170.39
1.49397
26.488
5.11925
82.2231
170.464
28.946
0.0191
0.02323
0.01204
0.042154
0.00221
5485.223
Activity da tabase Source: HPSPCB & Industries Department
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012
102

1
‘ Zinc prggumon Carbide Production
97 ‘
Lead (Secondary -> Glass Pg;/duction
production) 0
9% ‘ ‘ Methanol
1
\ 26%
Aluminum
54%
CO2 Emissions from Industrial activities other than
Cement in I-Iimachal Pradesh
Pulp and Paper Textile & Leather
0.00086%
0.0oo23% * Food
0.001%
Aluminium Glass
9% 16%
Ferroalloys Methanol
53% ‘ 22%
CI-I,, Emissions from Industrial production in I-Iimachal
Pradesh
STATE STRATEGY 8: ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 103

5.2.3.4 Agriculture
Agriculture sector emitted 0.164 million tons ofC02equivalent, ofwhich 0.0076 million tons were CH4
and 0.414 thousand tons were N20. The majority of emissions i.e. about 89.78% were from rice
cultivation. Burning of Crop residue emitted 8.48% of the total
CO, equivalent emissions from this sector; where as 1.45% of
the emissions were due to enteric fermentation. However, Crop
soils emitted 0.29% of the total C02 equivalent emission from
Agriculture and 0.017% of the emissions were from Livestock
manure management.
The emissions from Agriculture sector are mainly in the form of
CH, from rice paddy cultivation and enteric fermentation.
However, the N20 emissions are due to use of fertilizers in the
agricultural fields. The sources included for calculations in
Himachal Pradesh are Livestock; Enteric fermentation, Animal
manure, Rice cultivation; Irrigated & Rainfed, Agriculture soils;
direct emissions & indirect emissions, and Field burning of
agriculture crop residue etc.
5.2.3.4.1 Enteric Fermentation
In Himachal Pradesh the livestock nurture is an integral part of hill culture and is also an important
component of the agricultural activities. Live
stock which includes cattle, buffaloes, sheep,
goat, horses, ponies, mules, donkeys, pigs,
dogs, yaks, and other live stock are the major
source of methane emissions [CH,,). Cattle
and buffalo are the main milk producing
animals in the State and constitute about 56
% of the total live stock population. In order .
to estimate the CH, emission from livestock, .
the cattle population has been divided into
STATE STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE l-IIMACHAL PRADESH e 2012
Entric Fermentation
2%
Management
.0034%
CH, emissions from Agriculture
Sector in Himachal Pradesh
~1—,
104

dairy and nondairy categories. The emission factors provided in the report (NATCOM, 2004) have
been used to calculate the emissions.
5.2.3.4-.2 Animal Waste/Dung /1 i
In Himachal Pradesh the waste
—dung is mainly converted into
manure, little percentage in to
dung cake for energy purposes in .- _ ‘ _ _,,,- ‘ .
the rural areas. The dung ;.Ҥ _ -<
. . ~ . ‘V fir‘ ~
management practices vary 1n _ “1-Ir ‘
different districts depending ‘
upon the need of the fuel and ” ‘ ‘»’
manure. Due to availability of fuel ” .- ‘
wood, the dung cake practice is $9
less practiced in the State. The – ‘- ~ ‘
manure is major way of use of ‘
dung. To convert the cattle and l 1 w, _‘4_u£ –
buffalo dung into manure, the 4″ ‘-L-:‘,(L’ 5
dung is collected on the heap
nearby to the animal shed. The residual feed and ash (available from kitchen etc.) are also put on the
heap.
. J, ‘1.
EQE ” . %w- –
1< :t‘fr.’ Ff ‘1’ ‘ _._-1‘! ‘ , ._r:’.’v*. ;, . ‘- dI1f$‘.Y\;b”_ :~@~.’Q’*’-,1-‘;-,~a . 1:-$5‘ ,r_,\”.-‘I’. The dung, thus collected is exposed to the weather conditions and methane emission is expected from the inner core of the heap due to the anaerobic fermentation of organic matter. IPCC (1997) also _ _. __ attributed this fact. The manure ‘ ‘ ‘ “””§¢‘ thus prepared is generally taken to the fields, orchards at the time of soil preparations after the monsoon season or at the time of need. Part of the dung of cattle and >-‘ buffaloes goes directly to the soil
and deposited on the soil during
the course of grazing. In
Himachal Pradesh, large forest
areas and natural pastures are
available for grazing and animals
not only survive on grazing in
such areas but also are allowed
to graze on road side, canal bunds, fellow lands and harvested fields. The excreta of grazing animals
dry up quickly due to the mixing with soil during the trampling by the animals and do not produce
methane as suggested by IPCC (1997).
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 105

I Type I GHGemission 000’tones (or Giga Gram)
I Methane (cm) i_N_,o
Enteric fermentation I 0.1134 _ –
Manure: ‘ 0.00129 0.00000076
Animal Waste/ dung , _
The dung ofgoat and sheep goes directly to the soil and farmer’s value for this source ofNitrogen (N),
Phosphorous (P), and Potassium (K) for their soil. Normally in winters (from Nov- Feb) in most ofthe
areas, farmers invite the nomadic shepherds along with their flock after the harvesting is over so that
the flock can sit on the harvested field and consume the stubble and provide the nutrients from their
dung and urine to the field. Traditionally shepherds are obliged with food and shelter till their flock
sits on the field. The dung of other species such as donkey, horses directly goes to the soil deposition
due to their daily mobility.
_
5.2.3.4.3 Rice Cultivation
In our country, rice is cultivated under various water management options, depending on the
availability of water across the country. In the mountainous regions, rice is grown in terraces created
along the side ofthe mountains. In most ofthe northern plains and some parts ofthe eastern region,
rice is cultivated by irrigating the fields intermittently or continuously, for a considerable period of
time. In other parts of the country, however, rain-fed rice cultivation is predominant where water is
only available in the fields during rains. Deep-water rice cultivation, with a water depth ranging from
50-100 cm. is also practiced in the coastal regions ofWest Bengal and Orissa. In coastal areas two or
three crops are taken annually.
The rice cultivation is under taken in about 79,000 hectare area. The State is primarily dependent on
rains and river water and takes single crop. The rain fed area is around 45% and irrigated area is 55%
ofthe total cropped area. The emissions from the sector are as follows:
Eon system Rice cultivation area ha Methane (Cl-I4) (000’tons)
Rain fed (upland only) 35,550 —
Irrigated 43,450 7.0445
Source: HP Agriculture Department
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 106

The CH, emissions from rice cultivation have been estimated by multiplying the seasonal emission
factors by the annual harvested areas. The annual amount of CH, emitted from a given area of rice is a
function of the crop duration, water regimes and organic soil amendments. The total annual
emissions are equal to the sum ofemissions from each sub-unit ofharvested area using the following
equation.
C114 Rice = 2 [EFi, 1, l(XAi, j, kx 10*)
i,j,k
Where,
CH, Rice = Annual methane emissions from rice cultivation, Gg CH,/yr;
EFijk = A seasonal integrated emission factor for i, j, and k conditions, kg CH, /ha;
Aijk = Annual harvested area ofrice for i, j, and k conditions, ha /yr;
i, j, and k = Represent different ecosystems, water regimes, type and amount of organic
amendments, underwhich CH, emissions from rice may vary.
Separate calculations were undertaken for each rice ecosystems (i.e., irrigated, rainfed upland
rice production).
The upland rice area is 35,550 ha and is a net sink ofCl-l,, as no anaerobic conditions are generated at
these heights.
___._ __¢.
5.23.4.4 Agriculture Soils
N20 emissions are estimated using details ofhuman-induced net N additions to soils [e.g., synthetic or
organic fertilizers, deposited manure, crop residues, sewage sludge], or ofmineralization ofN in soil
organic matter following drainage/ management oforganic soils, or cultivation/land-use change on
mineral soils (e.g., Forest Land/Grassland/Settlements converted to Cropland]. Nitrous oxide is
produced naturally in soils through the processes of nitrification and denitrification. Nitrification is
the aerobic microbial oxidation of ammonium to nitrate, and denitrification is the anaerobic
microbial reduction of nitrate to nitrogen gas (N2). Nitrous oxide is a gaseous intermediate in the
reaction sequence of denitrification and a by-product of nitrification that leaks from microbial cells
into the soil and ultimately into the atmosphere. One ofthe main controlling factors in this reaction is
the availability ofinorganic Nitrogen [N] in the soil.
In Himachal Pradesh the distribution of fertilizers (in nutrients) N, P & K:
Nitrogen [N] = 31042 MT
Source: HP Economics & Statistics Department
STATE STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 107

The emissions ofN20 that result from anthropogenic N inputs or N mineralization occur through both
a direct pathway and through two indirect pathways: (i] following volatilization ofNH3 and N0, from
managed soils and from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, and the subsequent re-
deposition ofthese gases and their products NH[ and N03 ‘to soils and waters; and [ii] after leaching
and runoff of N, mainly as N03 ‘ from managed soils. Therefore, total N20 emitted from soils can be
represented as:
N2O’N TOTAL : N20’N DlRECT+ N2O’N INDIRECT
Using the above methodology, the total N20 emissions from Himachal Pradesh are estimated to be
0.00152 [000’ tons). The emission factors used for rice—wheat systems are 0.76 for rice and 0.66 kg
ha‘ N20 -N forwheat for urea application.
‘ ” _. , ‘>__ ” _- A _ _ -r» mr~\-o’-
<‘..,~-:-‘.112 ,3: -ll C ” T -, .-‘\ .-.”\. Q‘ 5.2.3.45 Burning of Crop Residues Crop residue is burnt in the fields in many districts of the State such as Kangra, Mandi, Una, Kullu, Shimla, l-Iamirpur, Bilaspur, Solan producing C0, CH4, N20, NOX, S02 and many other gases. We have calculated only the CH4 and N20 emissions by using the equation given below. EBCR=Ecrops [AxBxCxDXExF) Where, EBCR= Emissions from Residue burning A = Crop production B = Residue to crop ratio = Drymatter fraction = Fraction burnt = Fraction actually oxidized = Emission factor ‘1-1f!’JU(\ The estimation of emission of targeted species was arrived at by first estimating the amount of biomass actually burnt in the field using the IPCC Revised Inventory Preparation Guidelines (IPCC, 1996). Currently, wastes from three crops viz., rice, wheat, maize are subjected to burning. The state’s crop production figures for 2007 have been used as the basic activity data. The dry matter fraction of crop residue is taken as 0.8 (Bhattacharya and Mitra, 1 998), 0.25 as fraction burned (IPCC, 1 997) infield and 0.9 as the fraction actually oxidized (IPCC, 1 997). Crop specific values of carbon fraction were as per IPCC default values. The default N/C ratios were taken from IPCC (2006). Further, the emission ratia was calculated using emissianfactorsgiven by Andreae and Merlet (2001) which are the defaultfactors mentioned in IPCC (2006) Nationallnventary Preparation Guidelines. STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 108 Using this methodology, it is assumed that in Himachal Pradesh 0.478 [000′ tons] ofCH, and 0.0399 (000’ tons) ofN2O was emitted from burning ofcrop residue in the fields. The GHG emission [000’tons] from the sector is as under: Sr. Type C Oz CH4 No 1 N10 0.1134 0.00129 7.0445 0.478 7.63719 Enteric fermentation 0.00000076 0.0399 0.00152 0.04-142 U’l>PUJl\-I
Manu re man agement
Rice culfivation –
Crop residue
Soils
Total
5.2.3.5 Land Use, Land Use Change & Forest [LULUCF)
Land Use, Land Use Change & Forest [LULUCF) are one of the key
components of the Greenhouse Gas Emission summary. lt involves
estimation of carbon stock changes, CO, emissions and removals and ‘
non-CO, GHG emissions. For estimating GHG emissions from this sector, ‘
the GHG inventory guidelines followed at National level i.e. IPCC— 2003
GPG approach due to advantages of reporting tables, the Himachal
Pradeshhas followedthe same procedure.
Methodology: IPCC GPG 2003 adopted six land categories to ensure – –
consistent and complete representation of all land categories, covering
the total geographic area ofa country or a State.
The GPG 2003 adopted three major advances over IPCC 1996
guidelines,suchas:
¢<_uI
-~ –
– Introduction of three hierarchical tiers of method that range from
default data and simple equations to use country specific data.
4-
1,,-‘$1 –
\ .
it
.-11,‘
4
1
C02 eq
2.3814
0.02733
147.9936
13.972
0.475
164-.84-933
,,, -2.»-m.-. .1;..-3
_ _,‘ …,_¢,‘ _ -1!. ’- ‘
7.-_, 4; _ <75:-‘ ,’,_’ . -_
‘\’___’.-_’_’~¥__”‘?(~ (_ 9 “‘\
– – _- -= \ .-=3:
\ “‘. A 1 – _
f{:’».,. _’.~¢c< ‘ ~. -wuya-. -‘ ‘ – 3:-vane:-.;,::’.4 p __ . G , I ‘ ‘- 7 -‘ _ -‘2a..>¢_.-Q».-‘._”::..,, ~ .
, sf ‘“§‘ ‘ ——- <1 ‘ __
-;j_‘-. .;”””uI1-1&1; fig -1.‘
_ _~’_-. .,» A AJ-
~}\-I~l \
J
-‘< – . ’ \- . – Land use category based approach for organising the ,_ 1 7 / ,’¢“.__~, methodologies. – Provides guidelines for all the 5 carbon pools. Methods adopted in Good Practice Guidelines (GPG 2003) are as under: 1 and others. 2 differently – other land converted to this land category. 3. non-CO, gases. 4. land categories— C-pools — CO, and non-CO, gases. 5 6. Biomass and soil carbon pools linked particularly in Tier 2 and Tier 3. snm: srmrccv & ACTION PLAN on CLIMATE crmuce HIMACHAL PRADESH . 2012 Land category based approach covering forest land, cropland, grassland, wetland, settlement . These land categories are further sub divided into; – land remaining in the same use category Methods given for all carbon pools; AGB, BGB, dead organic matter and soil carbon and all Key source/sink category analysis provided for selecting significant land categories; – sub- . Three tier structures presented for choice ofmethods, Activity Data and Emission Factors. 109 5.2.3.5.1 Carbon Stock Changes Carbon stock change is the sum of changes in stocks of all the carbon pools in a given area over a period of time, which could be averaged to annual stock changes. A generic equation for estimating the changes in carbon stock for a given land use category is as follows: ACLU, = AC,B+ACBB+ACDW+ACu+ACSC ACLU, is the carbon stock change for a land use category, AB is above ground bio mass, BB is below ground bio mass, DW is dead wood, Li is litter and SC is the soil carbon. For the purpose ofthis equation the stock change has been estimated for each pool by using following method- Carbon ‘stock-change’ or stock difference’ AC = (Ct2’Cn]/ [t2’t1) Where: AC is the annual carbon stock change in the pool, Cu is at time t1 and Ca is at time t2 in the same pool. In Himachal Pradesh GHG inventory has been prepared by taking the activity data available at National and State level. Land use change matrix has been prepared using land use data for 2005 and 2007. The area under forest has been obtained from Forest Survey of India Report, 2009 and area under other land categories has been sourced from Directorate of Land Record reports for the years 2005 and 2007. Land Use Pattem of Himachal Pradesh [Source FSI, 2009) Land Use Sub Category Area ha Forest Very dense 3,2 2,400 Moderately dense 6,38,3 00 Open 5,06,100 Total 14,66,800 Crop Land Netsown area 54,300 Fallow 7,400 Total 61,700 Grass land Grazing land andpastures 1,50,10O Scrubs 33,100 Total l,83,200 Other land Other land 38,45,600 ha Himachal Pradesh, Predominantly a mountainous State in the Western Himalayas, has a geographical area of55,673 kmz. The altitude ofthe State varies from 350 m to 6,975m above the mean sea level. It is located between latitude 30°22’ to 330.12’ N and longitude75“ 45′ to79° 04’ E. The State has three distinct regions viz the Shiwaliks with altitudes up to 1,500 m, Middle Himalayan region between 1,500 m to 3,000 m and the Himadrishigher than 3,000m. STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 110 About one third ofthe State is permanently under snow glaciers and cold deserts where tree growth is minimal due to harsh conditions. The overage annual rainfall is about 1,800 mm. The temperature varies from sub-zero to 35°C. The major rivers are Satluj, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Yamuna. The land use pattern of the State is given in Table. As per Census 2011, the total population of the State is 6.85 million of which the rural population constituted 89.96%. The population density is about 120 persons per kmz. The Scheduled Tribes constituting around 4.02% of the population ore mainly distributed in three districts. The livestock population as per Livestock Census 2003 is 5.12 million, which has increased marginally since the previous Census [1992]. 5.2.3.5.2 Land Use Change Matrix The recorded forest area of the State is 37,033 kmz. Reserved Forests constitute 5.13%, Protected Forests 89.27% and Un- classed Forests 5.60% of the total forest area. About two third of the State’s geographical area is under recorded forests. But a substantial part ofthis is not conducive for tree growth, being under permanent snow, glaciers and cold deserts. The forest cover in the State, based on interpretation of IIII ,_, , , ‘ \_ . _ ;._.‘ -L” Q-I1 ‘ – , ‘r-r. – – \ ‘»-‘ ‘. .. » n |:~ _‘._ -1.; ‘ ‘-.‘. ‘ ~ §I’.-1 . “K .11‘.-. -/~ ¢-PM , ..1’_,‘-_~ I A ‘;»”/ . »,- Ii – 315%‘ . 3: v 1 \ “’ ‘ ‘ _=-an‘ ‘ ‘5 \+ _ rfw-\ -~.. . -. -3 . ‘ -. ,,_.~=-/:¢:_.- . ._ . ‘ ‘r.(.» ‘_* Vv :~\{-TF5-“s ‘”16 A | I ‘ ¢;‘-‘. , “5-,_’ >– D
‘Q. :~~v;‘u-“_.
‘ “J, l r ‘. ..|.,.1.1
1
( v~
1
7 Focus! cave: of Kunochnl Pudnh 7
satellite data ofOct 2006 -]an 2007, is 14,668 kmz, which is 26.35% ofthe State’s geographical area. In
terms of forest canopy density classes, the State has 3,224 kmz very dense forest, 6,383 kmz
moderately dense forest, and 5,061 kmz open forest. As per data there has been a decrease of3 kmz in
the moderately dense forest and an increase of5 kmzin open forest.
Land Use Change Matrix of]-Iimachal Pradesh
Land Use
Forest
Crop Land
Grass land
Other land
Sub Category Area ha 2005-06
Very dense 3,2Z,400
Moderately dense 6,38,600
Open S,05,600
Net sown area 54,140
Fallow 7,520
Grazing land and pastures 1,50,100
Scrubs 33,100
Otherland 38,45,600
Area ha 2007 Change in area ha
3,22,40O –
638,300 [-]300
5,06,100 [+)500
54,300 [+]160
7,360 [-]160
1,50,100 –
32,700 (-]400
38,45,800 (+]200
(Source FSI, 2009 and Agriculture, Land Records Reports)
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 111

5.2.3.5.3 Assessmentof Carbon Stock from Forests
An assessment of Growing stock, Biomass and Carbon stock of Indian forests strata wise have been
made by FSI based on SFR, 1997 data base, as per the 2002 report the Forests carbon stocks are as
under:
Particulars India (1997) HP (1997)
Forest Cover (KM?) 633,357 12,521
Growing Stock (000, m3) 43,40,027.96 2,47,483. 99
Bio Mass (000, tons) 23,95,373.45 1,06,442. 18
Carbon (000tons) 10,83,809.74 48,909.11
Similarly, the estimates foryear 2005 and 2007 for Carbon stock under Forest sector are as under:
Particul als India HP
2005 2007 2005 2007
[Based on 2003 assessment)
ForestCover (KM2] 6,90,2 00 6,91,600 14,353 14,668
Growing Stock (000, m3) 47,29,540.05 47,39,13 3.67 2,83,694.41 2,89,92 0.50
Bio Mass [000,tons) 26,10,357.11 26,15,651.95 1,22,016.18 1,24,694.03
Carbon [000 tons) 11,81,080.31 11,83,479.75 56,065.21 57,295.65
S0urce:FSI Report
5.2.3.5.4 Soil Carbon Stock
As per Forest Survey of India, 2005 the forest cover in the State was spread over 14,35,300 ha which
was 14,66,800 ha in 2009 and the agriculture-crop area was 61,660 ha in 2005 and 61,700ha in 2009.
Based on an assessment w.r.t. carbon store in Giri catchment of the State conducted by Forest
Research Institute, Dehradun, it has been inferred that on an average HP Forests have 61.68 t/ha soil
carbon store and 53.74 t/ha average soil carbon store in agriculture sector. Therefore, applying these
averages the soil carbon stockhas been estimated for H.P. as follows:
Particulars HP C stock
in hectare in million tons/ ha
2005 Z007 2005 2007
(Basedon Z00 3 assessment]
Forest Cover (ha) 14,35,300 14,66,800 88.52 90.47
Crop Land (ha) 61,660 61,700 3.314 3.316
Total estimated area 14,96,960 15,28,500 91.834 93.786
The carbon stock estimates combined in terms of
– Above ground biomass
– Belo ground bio mass and
– Soil Carbon.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 112

Himachal Pradesh estimated emissions from Forest sector during 2007, based on 2003 and 2007
stock changes is given as below:
Carbon Pools C stockin million tons C stock in Change inC sto ck in
2005 million tons million tons [2003-2007]
[Basedon2003 2007
assessment)
A B C=A-B
Above ground 56.065 57.296 -0.3078*
biomass
Below ground
biomass
Soil Carbon 91.834 93.786 -0.488
Total 147.899 151.082 – 07958
CO; removalin
million tons during
2007
|)= c X 44/ 12
-2.1284
-1.7893
-2.9177
The emissions and removals for biomass and soil carbon for land categories with land remaining in
the same categories based on National Mean Annual Increments are detailed as follows:
Land Use MAlin MAI in MAI in total MAI in soil MAI in total
categories perennial perennial perennial carbon Carbon
above below ground biomass [t/ha/y) (t/ha/y)
ground biomass (t/ha /y)
biomass [t/ ha /y)
(I/ha/Y)
NetDC[Mt
Cl
Net Change in
coz (Mt)
F: E x 3.6666
[+ is Emission,-
A B A+B c D=(A+B]/Z +c
Crop Land 0.130 0.046 0.176 0.220 0.300
E: DxArea is Rem oval
0.019004 ~0.0696801
Grass Land 0.003 0.001 0.004 -0.056 ~0.054- 0.009893 +0.0 36273
The net CO2 emission/ removal for LULUCF sector is given below. This includes CO2 net emissions and
removals from land categories. The net CO2 emissions include gain and loss of CO2. The loss of CO, is
largely due to extraction and use of fuel wood from felling of trees which is not very large amount.
Over all, the net CO2 emissions / removal estimate shows that the sector is a net sink of 1,632.70 (000’
tons) C0,. The sector is a net sink due to uptake ofCO2 by the cropland followed by forest land. This is a
preliminary estimate and may change with improved activity data and emission factor estimates.
Emissions in 000’tons
Land use categories CO2 emissions/ removals C01 loss due to fuel wood Net C01
use emissions/removal
Forestland (-) 2,917.7
Cropland (-)69.68
Grassland (+)36.27
Total (—) 2,951.11 (+] 1,318.41
Removal [-) Emission [+)
(+1 1,318.41 [-11,632.70
[-] 1,632.70
Green Felling oftree etc. is completely banned in Himachal Pradesh; therefore the use offuel wood in
the State is much lower than the assumed National level %age. Source offuel wood is also not known,
so assumed to come from all land categories. About 2-3% ofthe fuel wood consumption is estimated
to come from felling oftrees leading to net CO, emission.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 113

5.2.3.6 Solid Waste & Waste Water (Industrial)
The total GHG released from waste sector in Himachal Pradesh 6.129 tons ofCO, equivalent, ofwhich,
27.284 tons were emitted as Methane (CH4). Municipal Solid Waste is the dominant source ofMethane
[CH4] emission in Himachal Pradesh it emits almost 99.50% oftotal emissions from this sector. About
0.50% ofthe total CO2 equivalent emissions from the waste sector were from disposal and treatment
of Industrial waste water.
We know that the methane [CH4] Gas is the main gas which produced and released into the
atmosphere as a by-product of the anaerobic decomposition of solid waste, in fact methanogenic
bacteria break down organic matter in the waste. Similarly, wastewater is also a source of Methane
(CH4) when treated or disposed anaerobically. It also releases Nitrous oxide (N20) emissions due to
protein content in waste water generated from activities at domestic level.
The total GHG released from waste sector in Himachal Pradesh 6.129 tons ofCOZ equivalent, ofwhich,
27.284 tons were emitted as Methane [CH,). Municipal Solid Waste is the dominant source ofMethane
[CH4] emission in Himachal Pradesh.
The greenhouse gases and their source categories considered in this sector include:
– Municipal solid waste disposal resulting in CH4 emission.
– Domestic waste water disposal emitting CH4 and N20.
1 Industrial waste water disposal leading to CH4 emissions.
\/
Effluent Treatment System for Treatment of Industrial Waste Water
STATE STRATEGY 8: ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — Z012 114

S.2.3.6.1 Municipal Solid Waste
In Himachal Pradesh, there are 56 urban local bodies viz. 1 — Municipal Committee, 20- Municipal
Councils, 28- Nagar Panchyats and 7- Cantonment Boards of which 33 have provided the MSW
dumping facility where waste is partially collected and disposed in a systematic way at waste disposal
sites under these ULBs in various towns, resulting in CH, emission from anaerobic conditions. In rural
areas, waste is scattered and as a result the aerobic
conditions prevail with no resulting CH, emission. In
towns, the municipal solid w aste is disposed in landfills by
means of open dumping; however, a small fraction is used
for composting in some ofthe disposal sites. In the major
towns such as Shimla, Kullu, Dharamsala, Solan, Baddi the
rate of generation of MSW is high due to tourists and the i‘ -‘1‘!
population growth rate. The rate ofdisposal ofMSW varies –
from place to place; therefore, the estimation of CH, – , _ I“ g, . _
generated from MSW State level also becomes highly 4
uncertain unless year wise data on MSW generation is
incorporated in the estimates. In the present calculations IPCC 2000 guidelines have been used.
Average CH, Emission Factor derived from a study by NEERI in 69 cities (NEERI, 2005) has been
applied to calculations.

For calculating the amount of degradable organic matter (DOm) in waste method used is as per
followingequation:
DOm = Wx DO x DO,»X MCF
Where;
DOm = mass ofdecomposable DO deposited m Gg
W = mass ofwaste deposited, Gg
DO = degradable organic carbon in the year ofdeposition, fraction, Gg C/Gg waste
DO,= fraction ofDO that can decompose (fraction)
MCF = CH, correction factor for aerobic decomposition in the year of deposition
(fraction)
The methane generated in ayear has been calculated as per following method:
Methane generated in yearY
CI-I, = DOm decopom,xFx 16/12
Where;
F = Fraction ofCH,, by volume
16/12 = molecularweightratio, CH,/C
Cl-I, Emitted Y = [Z CH,generated X, — RY ) X (1 — OXY]
Where;
RT = recovered CH, in yearY, Gg
OX, = Oxidation factor in year Y, [fraction]
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 115

On an average for towns waste generation rate is 0.350kg/capita/day and that 60% of the waste is
reaching the landfill site.
IPCC default factor (IPCC, 2002) such as the methane correction factor of 0.4-, fraction of degradable
organic carbon that decomposes (D0,) as 0.5, fraction of methane in landfill gas as 0.5, rate constant
(K) as 0.17 year -1 are used in the estimation. The factor related to degradable organic carbon fraction
(DO) in the waste disposed is taken as 0.1 1 (NEERI, 2005). Considering that the amount ofrecovered
methane is zero and oxidation factor is zero, the total methane CH, emitted from solid waste disposal
site is estimated to be 1 7.17 (tons) in the State.
Component Quantity
Urban population 6,88,704
Waste generation rate [kg/capita/day) 0.350
MSW generated (tons) 2410.464
Quantity of waste reaching the landfill site( tons) 1408.68
DOm disposed (tons) 45.12
DOm accumulated ( tons) 142.00
DOm decomposed (tons) 24.00
Estimated Methane [Cl-I4) emitted (tons) 27.14
Source: HP Economics & Statistics Department, HP SPCB
5.23.6.2 Waste Water
In Himachal Pradesh the wastewater originates from a variety of domestic, commercial and industrial
sources. ln industrial, commercial hotel etc. waste water is treated on site, however, for waste water
being generated from domestic sources in towns where the treatment facility is available it is
collected in centralized treatment plants but the %age is very low. As per information obtained from
HP State Pollution Control Board there are about 30 Sewage Treatment Plants installed in the State
by various Urban Local Bodies out ofwhich only 6 have been granted permission by the State Board
for operation. About 34 more STPs are being installed in the State which will definitely enhance the
capacity of State to treat the waste from domestic sources and so far majority of waste water is
disposed untreated nearby. The methane (CH4) is emitted from waste water when it is treated or
disposed anaerobically. Here for Himachal Pradesh the calculations have been carried out in
following manner: ‘
0 CH, and N20 from domestic waste water
I CH,fromlndustrialwastewater
In Himachal Pradesh, it is estimated that about
4,476.98 K litres per day (KLD) ofdomestic wastewater
is generated from urban area against 49,144.97KLD
industrial wastewater. The waste water generated from
rural areas is not treated in any way, therefore, as it
decomposes in an aerobic condition, it is considered as
not a source of CH4. Domestic wastewater have been categorized under urban and rural, since the
characteristics ofthe municipal wastewater vary from place to place and depend on factors, such as
economic position, food practice ofthe area, water supply status and climatic conditions ofthe area.
Trcalmcnl System for Trcatmcnl of Domestic Waste Water (Sourcc»SPC]3)
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 116

Waste water treatment and discharge pathways for the wastewater generated in the urban areas is
partial and about 70 % of the wastewater generated from the urban centres is not collected and
treatment is provided to only 10% of what is collected is not very significant. The waste water gets
disposed ofin aerobic conditions. Therefore, no specific calculations have been made.
The CH, emission from waste water generated from Industry has been estimated based on data
available with SPCB. The industries have been included for estimating CH, from industrial waste
water are given in following table:
Waste Water Generated in Major Industries in Himachal Pradesh
Sector Waste Water generated
Industrial 49,144.97 KLD
Domestic 4,47 6.98 KLD
Saurte: HPSPCB
The emissions have been calculated using as per IPCC approach by incorporating country specific
emission factors and State specific data. The general equation followed to estimate CH, emissions
from industrial wastewater is presented in equation below:
Ti I 1’ (TOWi —Si] EFi — Ri
Where;
Ti CH, emission in inventory year, kg CH,/yr;
i Industrial sector.
TOWi Total organically degradable material in waste water for industry i in
inventory year, kg COD /year.
Si Organic component removed as sludge in inventory year, kg COD/year
(Default Value 0.35].
EFi Emission factor for industry i, kg CH, kg/CODfor treatment/discharge
pathway or system used in inventory year.
Ri Amount of CH4 recovered in inventory year, kg CH4/year.
GI-I G Emitted from Waste Water Sector
(‘O00 tons)
Activity Cl-I4 CO2 equivalent
Industrial 0.0001366 0.006129
yr .~-»–._ _ ,__
9
1 _.‘ ‘\ “_,
“ ~’ 3′!‘ . _
Tertiary Level Treatment by provision of _.”~:r_a’;
Reverse Osmosis (Source-SPCB] w
I \._l
Root Zone Biotech plant at ACC Gagal i _
– \.’~’~ , .P”\. \’}. 41- ‘ ” – !<- A ‘. ~ – ‘J STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 117 5.3 Future Energy Needs & GHG Emissions Trends in Himachal Pradesh In Himachal Pradesh, power is one of the most important inputs for economic development. In addition to its widely recognised role as a catalyst to economic activity in different sectors ofeconomy, the power sector makes a direct and significant contribution to State’s economy in terms ofrevenue generation, employment opportunities and enhancing the quality oflife. In our country total energy consumption per capita, as published by the World Resources Institutefor theyear2003 is ab0ut512.4 kge/a which is in our case ab0ut225 kgoe/a. The data is given in kilograms of oil equivalent per year, and gigajoules per year, and in watts, as average equivalent power. Undoubtedly the energy consumption projections is an important input for planning growth in industry, agriculture, domestic, commercial and other related sectors but at the same it is quite significant from environment conservation point of view. As per CERC Electric Power Survey [EPS) Committee Report year wise electric demand has been given for each State for the terminal years of 12″” and 13m FiveYear Plansi.e. 2016-2017 and 2021-2022. The yearly energy requirement detailed out and projection are as follows: Years 2004–05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 Power 4-.516 5.022 5.585 6.212 6.909 7.684 8.545 9.504- in TWh Long Term Projections: Years 2011-12 2016-17 2021-22 Power 9503.91 1313 5.52 17657.40 in own Refi CERC It is pertinent here to mention that the population of Himachal Pradesh has been increasing continuously over the years. However, the growth rate of total population has shown a decreasing trend over the last three decades. In 200 1, the total population ofthe State was about 60,77,900 which duringthe year 20 1 1 has increased to 68, 56, 509. The percentage share ofurban population has been increasing continuously over the years. Population growth scenario in urban areas likely in Himachal Pradesh is as under: Component Year Year Year Year Year Year 1991 2001 2011 2021 2031 2041 Total Population 51,70,877 60,61,849 68,56,509 79,14,736 88,40,647 97,66,913 Urban Population 8.69% 9.79% 10.04% 11.29% 12.09% 13.23% Growth The energy demands also show an increasing trend which undoubtedly indicates need for mitigative and adaptive measures. STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 118 Scenario of Energy Demand Projections The simple method ofprojecting aggregate energy demand is to assume constant energy intensity for future years. This is adjusted for changes through conservation by estimating the likely conservation potentials for future years [Table-22, Fig. 43]. Table-2 2: Future Energy Demand Projections Year Years Year Year Year Year Year 1991-92 2002-07 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 1002.00 4300.439 5460.50 6200 6641 6950 7450 Estimated CO2 Emissions 3225 3662 3923 4105 4401 Ref: HPSEB, Energyin million units Year Year Year Year Year Year Year 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 2019-2020 8150 8741 9450 10050 10850 11400 12050 4814 5163 5582 5936 6409 6734 7118 (0, lm wom __- . _» _-” I _ -—’ ‘ . \,~ __» ._\ .;. \-. ‘ > ,-. Q. ,3 A _-\
. .. – . ~ – . . ~ ~ Vl ~
_4~* _, ,‘ ,» \\ ,5‘ ,>’ \_\ ,\‘ ,\’ ,\‘ \‘ .\* \
Ref: HPSEB, Energy Consumption in million units
Fig. 43: CO2 Emissions as per Energy Demand Projections
As per the current analysis carried out in case of Himachal Pradesh it depicts a higher emissions
scenario for the State. The scenario represents a more competitive economy that lacks cooperation in
development and portrays a future in which economic growth is uneven, which may be lead to a
growing income gap. It is important to here that mention that this scenario does notbracketthe entire
range ofpossible future emissions and resulting climatic changes, as even higher emissions or lower
emissions scenarios are possible depending upon the actions adopted.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 119

5.4 Some Current Actions forAdaptation & Mitigation
The Government of Himachal Pradesh is already taking various initiatives to adopt the path of
sustainable development and inclusive growth and has initiated various programmes and actions
which would be further strengthened and made well equipped to deal with the challenges ofclimate
change. The various actions have already been initiated in the State to streamline actions towards
expected changes in various sectors viz. Agriculture, Water Resources, Forests, Biodiversity,
Ecosystem, Energy (Hydro Power), Health, Tourism, Urban Development, Transport, Industry
(Mining), and Disaster Management etc. The State Government has demonstrated its commitment by
taking various initiatives for reductions of GHG emissions by way ofbringing energy efficiency in the
State.
5.4.1 Agriculture – Horticulture
The Department of Agriculture is working with responsibility for the economic up-liftment of
farming community ofthe State through planned agriculture development with a strategy for future
sustainable agriculture and production and improvement in productivity and quality through
various adaptive measures such as setting up of 21 Seed Multiplication Farms where Foundation
Seeds ofI(harifand Rabi crops are being produced. Annually about 3,500 to 4,000 qtls. seed ofCereals,
Pulses and Vegetables are produced. Besides this, the department has established 11 Soil Testing
Labs and 4 Mobile Soil Testing Labs to provide free soil testing facilities to the farmers.
The Department ofAgriculture is also keeping an eye on the pest situation in the State. To overcome
this, about 160-168 M.T. of pesticides through Departmental Sale Outlets are being supplied to the
farmers. For quality control ofpesticides, a State Pesticides Testing Laboratory has been set up with
an annual capacity of 500 samples. One Bio Control Laboratory has been set up at Palampur, where
conservation and augmentation, rearing and multiplication of bio-agents are being carried out.
Farmers Field Schools (FPS) are also organized to train farmers/ extension workers etc. The plant
protection material including Plant Protection equipments are supplied to the SCs/ STs/ IRDP
families and farmers ofthe backward areas at 50% cost.
There are 13 Potato Development Stations in the State where Foundation Seed Potato is being
produced. More area is being diversified for undertaking production of cash crops and market
maximum potato as table variety and produce only that much seed potato which can easily be
marketed outside the State. The diversification is towards market oriented demand of high value cash
crops/vegetables.
Three Vegetable Seed Farms have been set up in the State where Quality Seed is being produced.
Besides this, two Training Centers one at, Mashobra in District Shimla and other at Sundernagar,
District Mandi have been established. Further, farmers training camps are organized at Village, Block
and Districtlevels.
Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme [WBCIS] has been introduced for different crops. Two risk-
financing programmes have been started which support adaptation to climate impacts. The Crop
Insurance Scheme supports the insurance of farmers against climate risks, and the Credit Support
Mechanism facilitates the extension of credit to farmers, especially for crop failure due to climate
variability.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 120

The Department of Agriculture also is participating in RIDF for creation of irrigation potential
through Minor Irrigation / Water Harvesting Structures.
The programme for the production of cash crops through adoption of precision farming practices
through poly house cultivation and Project on Diversification ofAgriculture through Micro-Irrigation
and other related infrastructure is also being implemented in the State.
“Seed Village Programme” by which sufficient seed multiplication can be achieved in order to meet
local seed requirements is being implemented besides facilitating supply ofseeds at reasonable cost
and ensuring quick multiplication ofnew varieties in a shorter time. Under this programme, areas of
better seed production will be identified and a compact area approach will be followed.
The adoption oforganic agriculture on one hand, is expected to provide sustainability, while on other
hand, it will help in increasing the income of the farmers. The Government of India has launched a
National Project on Agriculture in order to promote organic farming in the State. Under this project,
financial assistance was being provided for setting up of Model Farms, training of farmers, setting up
ofvermin composting units, hatcheries etc. For promoting organic farming a project was taken up in
Shimla District in collaboration with Morarka Foundation and District Rural Development Agency,
Shimla.
The current programmes aims to minimize the adverse effects ofdrought on production ofcrops and
livestock, and on the productivity of land, water and human resources, so as to ultimately lead to
drought proofing of the affected areas. It also aims to promote overall economic development and
improve the socio-economic conditions ofthe resource poor and disadvantaged sections inhabiting
the programme areas or affected areas.
The Horticulture Technology Mission programme funded by Government of India is taking care of
adaptation actions to combat climate change impacts as well as capacity building of extension work-
ers, farmers and NGOs to supportbettervulnerability reducingpractices.
5.4-.2 Water Resources
In view ofvital importance ofwater for the sustenance ofhuman and animal life for maintaining the
ecological balance and for economic and developmental activities of all kinds, and considering its
increasing scarcity, the planning and management ofwater resource and its optimal, economical and
equitable use is treated as a matter of utmost urgency. Concerns of the community are taken into
account for water resources development and management. The State Water Policy has been
prepared in the State and is being currently revised.
In order to provide permanent drinking water supply and to avoid deployment of tankers/tractors,
the Rehabilitation and Source Level Augmentation of various schemes are being implemented.
Through such schemes percolation wells are being developed [6 Nos. along right bank of River Beas
and discharge is 30 LPS of each percolation well.) The villages/habitations proposed to be covered
under these schemes are water scarcity areas and huge number of tankers and tractors are being
deployed to supplement the drinking water demand in summer season. On implementation of such
schemes, sufficient drinking water supply is likely to be available to all habitations maximum number
ofPanchayats without deploying tankers/tractors in the summer seasons. Although Hand Pumps are
being installed throughout the State, but it does not cover the areas which has no road connectivity.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 121

These hand pumps are supplementing the existing piped water supply and have been installed in
drought prone areas, areas of acute water scarcity and other problematic areas and the areas where
tankers are being deployed during the peakseason in recent years at a huge financial cost.
The demand — driven, participatory approaches is being adopted in the State on water allocations.
The Village Panchayat / community are delegated with powers to plan, implement and manage
various schemes. An integrated approach to water, sanitation & hygiene, ground water conservation
and rain water harvesting is being adopted. Capacity development of the community to plan,
implementand manage the Rural Water Supply Schemes oftheir own choice is being undertaken.
The Hand Pump programme is quite successfull in mitigating the people’s misery due to shortage of
drinking water in different pockets ofdrought prone and acute water scarcity areas. The programme
was started during 1991-92 and a total of 23,371 hand pumps have been installed in the State up to
March-2011.
As towns in the State mostly serve as health resorts, environment improvements assume special
significance particularly to avoid pollution ofthe rivers and other water bodies ofthe State. To abolish
carrying of night soil on head load and scavenging system in the country/states, the Government has
given top priority to connect dry latrine system into water pour system. Hence, the sewerage
programme has assumed immense importance to contain the water pollution problem. Under this
programme sewerage facilities are proposed to be provided in all towns ofthe State.
13 sewerage schemes have been completed viz. ShimIa,PaIampur, Mandi,]awaIamukhi Shri Naina Devi
]i, Chamba, Bilaspur, Rohroo, Ghumarwin, Manali, jogindernagan Arki, Rampur, Reckong-Peo and
Sarahan. The work on 24 schemes is in progress viz. Una, Solan, Sundernagar, Paonta, Sarkaghat, Kullu,
Mehatpur, Santokhgarh, Dalhousie, Chowari, Bhuntan Dharamsala, Hamirpur, Kangra, Nagrota,
jubbal, Sujanpur; Nadaun, Kotkhai, Narkanda, Theog, Nurpur, SuniandDehra.
The non-conventional methods for utilization of water, including inter—basin transfers, artificial
recharge of groundwater, as well as traditional water conservation practices like rainwater
harvesting, including roof-top rainwater harvesting, are being practised to increase the utilizable
water resources. The rain water harvestinghas been made mandatory in Himachal Pradesh.
5.4.3 Forests & Biodiversity
India has a strong and well diversified afforestation programme. The impetus to afforestation process
was accelerated by the enactment ofthe Forest Conservation Act, 1980, which aimed at stopping the
clearing and degradation offorests through a strict, centralized control ofthe rights to use forest land
and mandatory requirements ofcompensatory afforestation in case ofany diversion offorest land for
any non-forestry purposes. In addition, an aggressive afforestation and sustainable forest manage-
ment programme resulted in annual reforestation of 1.78 mha duringthe period 1985-1997, which is
currently 1.1 mha annually. Due to this, the carbon stocks in forests ofthe country have increased over
the last 20 years to 9 -10 gigatons ofcarbon (GtC] during 1986 to 2005. The State ofHimachal Pradesh
is known for its forest wealth and has demonstrated its commitment to afforestation with an increase
in open forest of 13 sq. kms. Traditional methods are promoted for conservation ofbio resources.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – Z012 122

Mid Himalyan Watershed Development Programme:
The Project has become operative in 1 0 districts ofHimachal Pradesh w.e.fi 1st October, 2005 with thefinancial assistance of
the World Bank. The Project builds on the successful experience of the Integrated Watershed Development Project (IWDP)
( KANDI PRO]EC T) which culminated on 30”’ September, 2005. MHWDP Projectaims atscaling up the successes of I WDP with
two main difierences. First, it expands upwardsfrom the Shivaliks to the Mid-Hills, a region which covers about one-third of
the State and over halfofthe cultivated land. Second, it en trusts the responsibilityfor most Project implementation with the
local governments ( Gram Panchayats) rather than with Village Development Committees, which were created for the
purpose oflWDP implementation.
Project Goal & Objectives:
The overall goal of the projectis to reverse the process of degradation of the natural resource base and improve the productive
potential of natural resources and incomes of the rural households in the project area in Himachal Pradesh (using the
Community-driven Development (CDD) approach). A secondary objective is to support policy and institutional development
in the State to harmonize watershed development projects and programs across the5tate in accordance with best practices.
ProjectScope:
The project covers around 272 Micro-watersheds spread over 602 GPs, 42 blocks and 10 districts (viz., Bilaspui; Chamba,
Hamirpur, Kangra, Kullu, Mandi, Shimla, Sirmaur, Solon, and Una). The project benefits are expected to reach to around
25,000 poorfamilies in theprojectarea.
Pr0jectArea:
The project covers the Mid Hill and High Hill zone ofthe State within the altitude range o/”600-1800 metres. Shiwalik Hills
areas up to an altitude of600 meters has not been considered as it has been covered in IWDP (Hills-1 and ll). Accordingly, 1 1
sub-watershed divisions (falling in 10 districts except Tribal Districts] have been selected while covering 602 Gram
Panchayatsforimplementation.
The project is of7years duration. The project became operational in October, 2005 and will culminate in March 2013.A key
feature of the Project is the proactive involvement of village level institutions of self – governance i. e. the Gram Panchayats
(GP). It is envisaged thatsubstan tialProjectactivities, and the Projectfunds, would be channelized directly through the GPs.
Guiding Principles:
1. An integrated Watershed Managemen tframework as a strategy.
2. Conservation planning, while using water as the nucleusfora community-basedprogram ofruraldevelopment.
. Decentralization ofPRls and making them sustainable instrumentof natural resource management.
. Costsharingforpromoting ownership.
Transparency in decision making andresource allocation.
. Targeting vulnerablegroups such as women, landless andnomads with specialprogrammes.
Value addition to agriculturalproduction.
Improving accessibility.
. Communities being empowered through capacity building, partnership andaccoun tability mechanism.
\og:¢_\1c\_ul-zsw
Bio-Carbon Sub -Project:
(BC Sub-Project) is proposed as an additional component ofthe Mid-Himalayan Watershed Project (MHWP). Both projects
(MHWP& BC)focus on differentapproaches and implemented on difierentlands — at the same time complementeach otherin
all respects. The objective under the BCsub-projecthas been developed through a series ofconsultations with Mid-Himalayan
Watershed Project (MHWP) partners, Forest Department, Govt of HP ( GoHP) and World Bank wherein a consensus for three
guiding principlesfor the project were reached:
1) identify locally grown and accepted species in the MH WP areas,
ii] involve small and marginalformers in plantation activities thatwill bring value addition to the ongoing watershed
interventions/activities,
m) the plantation activities should supportfor livelihood enhancement. However, it is also important to understand the
con text ofMHWP through which it is proposed to implement the BCsub-project as an additional component and use
its institutional base withoutwhich itwouldnotbepossible to develop this initiative.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 123

The interventions proposed under the BC sub-project makes the villagers a strategic seller ofCarbon Credits under the Kyoto
Protocol as well as in response to global demand for Certified Emissions Reductions under the Clean Development
Mechanism. The BCsub-project is agood opportunityfor value addition to the rnarginalfarmers as majority ofthem will be
receiving additional cash benefits by selling carbon credits thatis overand above ecological and livelihood benefits through
MHWR Besides selling Carbon Credit, the villagers in general will also get direct benefit offuel wood and NTFPs (Non Timber
ForestProducts).
FlowofBenefits
Economic Ecological Socio-Econ omic
NTFPs Watershed protection ln volvement ofthepoorest ofpoor
Fuel wood Biodiversity co nservation Capacity building ofcommun ities pa rdcularly women
in management ofcarbon /ina nce
Fodder Soil quality improvemen t Institutional development
Ca rbon reven ue – ln creased crop produ ctivity
Indicative carbon revenue: Rs 3000 to 4000/ha at US$4/tonne ofcarbon besides reduction ofGHG globally.
(Ref: HP Forest Department website)
5.4.4 Health
The State has a better public health care infrastructure and better health status than many other
Indian states e.g., infant mortality rate in the State is less than two-third of the all India average. The
people ofthe State also appearto find highervalue in the care provided by government facilities many
Indians in other states.
The Department of Health has played an important role in this success through such activities in
improving governmenthealth facilities and implementingthe targeted disease reduction campaigns.
As the State is developing economically, there is also a need for the Department ofHealth to engage in
greater depth on the issue of insurance and the challenges of providing financial protection against
catastrophic losses. The current insurance mandate in the State represents a step forward. A robust
regulatory mechanism needs to be in place in order to mitigate effectively.
There are various programmes which are being carried out extensively in the State. The prime
objective of these programmes is the surveillance and control of vector borne diseases such as
Malaria. The health programmes also provide for emergency medical relief in the case of natural
calamities, and to train and develop human resources for these tasks.
There are other programmes to promote the role ofGram Panchayats in providing basic health care to
their residents and as a part ofthe decentralization planning processes, the basic health functions are
also being provided by the Gram Panchayats.
5.4-.5 Disaster Management
The flood prone area in the State has been estimated as 2.31 Iakh ha. The Government ofHimachal
Pradesh is making strenuous efforts to protect private properties and culturable land by providing
emergent flood protection measures in the shape of embankments, spurs and wire crates etc. Up to
March, 2011 the Irrigation & Public Health Department was able to protect an area of17,602 ha from
the fury offloods.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 124

A Disaster Management Authority has been setup in the State to combat the emerging threat of
natural disasters. The State provides grants-in-aid to victims of weather related disasters. It also
supports proactive disaster prevention programmes, including dissemination of information and
training on disaster-management personnel. The State Disaster Management Plan is also being
finalized wherein the vulnerability assessment of the State would be carried out and various
mitigation measures would be suggested. Besides his, District Disaster Management Plans have been
prepared by most of the districts and District Disaster Management Authorities have been
established. The State Emergency Operation Centre (SEOC) has also been established.
5.4-.6 Actions Relevant to GHG’s Mitigation
Himachal Pradesh has in place a detailed policy to programme level structure that relates strongly to
GHG mitigation. The State has in place its own Power Policy which ensures sustainable development
of hydropower and promotes run-of-river projects, release ofminimum discharge downstream the
diversion structures etc. The major initiatives are:
– Promotion ofCFL bulbs, energy efficiency in all sectors.
– Promotion ofropeways.
– Emphasis on use ofrenewable sources ofenergy includingbiofuel plantations.
– Accelerated development ofHydro power through run-ofriver projects.
– Adoption of several clean energy related technologies.
A number ofeconomic activities are required to prepare Environment ImpactAssessments (EIA], and
Environment Management Plans [EMF], which are appraised by SEAC/ SEIAAs before the
commencement of work. The provisions under the Environment [Protection] Act, 1986 strongly
promote environmental sustainability. The mitigation of impacts is ensured through implementation
of Environment Management Plans. The State is also undertaking preparation of basin wide
Cumulative Environment Impact Assessment [CEIA] and basin wide integrated catchment Area
Treatment Plan (CAT).
5.4.7 Other Initiatives
– A “Community Led Assessment, Awareness, Advocacy & Action
Programme (CLAP) for Environment Protection and Carbon
Neutrality” in Himachal Pradesh has been started in the State. This
programme has been envisioned to assess the carbon and Hf’ hf I
environment footprints at Panchayat level, the smallest unit of “” “”‘ ” “”~. ,
governance and through advocacy usher in sustainable
development and low carbon economy in partnership with the
citizenry through environment awareness, awareness, advocacy,
action and improvement activities.
The programme at the grass rootlevel would comprise ofthe following activities:
1 Assessment: Facilitate systematic assessment and documentation of the existing
environmental quality and carbon foot prints ofPanchayats, Urban Local Bodies, Blocks, and
Districts through network of Eco-clubs, Mahila Mandals, NGOs etc. by Participatory
Appraisal Techniques and build requisite capacity for these purposes on an ongoingbasis.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – Z012 125

0 Awareness: Facilitate generation of systematic awareness through network of Eco-clubs,
Mahila Mandals, NGOs etc. of amongst among citizens, decision makers, communities and
other stakeholders in the society on the state of environment, environmental issues and
causes ofdegradation and possible ameliorative action.
0 Advocacy: Facilitate mobilization of communities and panchayats through network of Eco-
clubs, Mahila Mandals, NGOs etc. for to promote environmental advocacy for policy change at
district and state level.
0 Action: Based on environmental assessment help Panchayats and communities through
network ofEco-clubs, Mahila Mandals, NGOs etc. to undertake environmental improvement
actions at the local level to improve environment and reduce their carbon foot prints.
The State Government has introduced use of CFL for energy conservation through ‘AtaI Bijli
Bachat Y0jna’ by distributing 4 CFL bulbs at free of cost to every family in Himachal Pradesh
aimed to achieve sizable reduction in energy consumption. The State is also encouraging run-of-
river hydel power projects and is striving to meet 100% ofits energy requirements from the hydel
sector. The State is discouraging use offossil fuels and othertraditional materials for space heating
and has banned use ofcoal for purposes ofspace heating. This has led to a sizable reduction in the
GHG emissions in this environmentally sensitive Himalayan
state. The State has also initiated the processes of energy
efficiency, waste audit and water audit etc. The State is
promoting use ofenergy efficient devices and making efforts to
reduce the consumption of energy and promoting use of solar
passive technologies. The solar passive designs have been
made mandatory in the State. By following Energy
Conservation Building Code [ECBC), the space heating load of i
Government building can be reduced by 40%. By replacing the ‘
existing 40 W tube lights with energy efficient T-5 tubes and by V
providing daylight controls, energy consumption can be
reduced by 70%. By integrating solar hot water system with
existing heating system, 10 % load on the central heating can be reduced.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 126

Gaps in Understanding the Impacts of Climate Change 6
Based on the available data and its assessment clearly indicates that that there is a considerable gap in
our knowledge about the natural resources and their vulnerability to climate change of the entire
Himalaya in general and State in particular. There is no systematic monitoring, documentation, or
research to have an update on the status ofbiodiversity in the region. Despite various projections and
observed changes, the region lacks adequate scientific evidences to understand the impact ofclimate
change on various aspects ofhuman well being. Across the entire region, most ofthe limited research
that is available focuses on the adverse impacts of climate change and overlooks the adaptation
mechanisms that local people have developed themselves, and have evolved the potential new
opportunities. There is also a lack of trained human resource and institutional set up and policy
imperatives to tackle climate change issues. The present analysis and assessment experienced
shortcomings mainly as a result oflack ofreliability in observed trends and model projections in later
parts resulting from the lack ofconsistent sector wise data in relation to climate change. Three broad
areas stand outas knowledge and data gaps thatneed to be addressed:
– First, there is much to learn about the potential magnitude and rate of climate change at the
regional and local levels, and subsequent impacts on the full range of biodiversity endpoints
and ecosystems.
~ Second, there is need to develop a consolidated biodiversity conservation techniques (both
traditional and natural], or climate adaptation techniques, targeted on Himachal Pradesh or
Himalayan region.
~ Third, detailed analysis needed at the moment to be developed for each of the priority
vulnerable sector specifically to agriculture and horticulture, ecosystems and to biodiversity
and other natural resources.
Based on available data base and the current/prevalent conditions, analysis have been carried out for
Himachal Pradesh to demonstrate that how the State is vulnerable w.r.t. climate change risks and
what are the indicators/scenarios. An attempt has been made to undertake the district level mapping
of adaptive capacity in the State as a composite of bio, social and technological indicators. But
certainly inadequate data base and the knowledge gaps indicate towards strengthening ofcapacity of
State on account ofthis.
6.1 Actions on Gaps for Projections
In Himachal Pradesh there is exists a significant data gap for drawing projections. Climate change is
an interdisciplinary subject that cuts across physics, chemistry, biology, earth sciences, economics,
technology development, etc. Therefore, multiple data sets are required even to simulate the current
situations by different models; for which the current data on climate, natural ecosystems, soils, water
from different sources, agricultural productivity and inputs and socio-economic parameters amongst
others are continuously and consistently required. lt is essential to have accessibility to databases
that reflect local and regional concerns. Various agencies in State are presently collecting such data on
a regular basis; however, efforts are required to be made to establish an effective mechanism for
sharing and accessingthis data in formats that can be easily deciphered.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 127

6.2 Systematic Observations
Systematic observations that have the long term effects must be taken up on a regular basis in the
State which adds to the database on physical and biological systems for example, data on forest
vegetation types. In Himachal Pradesh, forest observation plots were established in the late 19″‘
centuryto observe the changes in forestvegetation patterns in different areas. However, most ofthese
plots have not been continuously monitored, and as a result, we do not have adequate data on the
vegetation types, forest soil characteristics etc. which could have been effectively used for modeling.
The Forest Survey of India (FSI) is now making efforts to revive these plots, so that they can be
observed and monitored for a longer period of time to attribute the effects of climate change on
various systems.
6.3 Building Capacities
A rapid building up of capacities is essential to enhance the level of climate change research in
Himachal Pradesh. ln this context scientific cooperation and collaboration is essential in the area of
climate modeling, impact assessment, integrated impact assessments, research on mitigation of
climate change concerns and adaptation to impacts of climate change. Extensive networking of
researchers within country to carry forward the work on science, impacts and mitigation of climate
change in the State is required.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 128

Main Entry Points with Eight National Missions 7
The Government of Himachal Pradesh has already decided to undertake the path of sustainable
development and inclusive growth and have taken various initiatives and programmes which would
be further strengthened to deal with the challenges ofclimate change.
7.1 Sector wise Description of Ongoing Activities
7.1.1 Himachal Pradesh Solar Energy Programme
In the State ‘Himurja’ is set up to significantly increase the use of solar energy in the total energy mix
while recognizing the need to expand the scope of other renewable and non-fossil options such as
thermal energy, wind energy and biomass.
Himachal Pradesh is a tropical Himalayan State, where sunshine is available for longer hours per day
and in great intensity. Solar energy, therefore, has an enormous potential as future energy source. It
also has the advantage of permitting a decentralized distribution of energy, thereby empowering
people at the grass rootlevels.
Subsidies are being given on the
purchase of solar heaters, cookers,
photovoltaic cells which are
becoming cheaper with new
technology. There are newer
reflector-based technologies that ~ g ~
could enable setting up of 4 . – ‘ I ~\‘_
megawatt scale solar heaters for
hotwater. an l,-~|‘| ‘ Illll _ g I .
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conducted for the use solar water g ‘ f) I ‘ I l”l IL _ fill,
heating, streetlights systems to ‘ ‘ _
save energy and reduce GHG T \
emissions in the State.
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Solar Trombe Wall at Tabo Monastery Sarai
While dealing with environmental
NOCs, directives are there to
ensure that the project developers shall install solar space heating systems, use solar street lighting
systems in the State.
It has been emphasized that the projects would be prepared which could draw upon international
cooperation as well to enable the creation ofmore affordable, more convenient solar heating systems,
and to promote innovations that enable the storage ofsolar power for sustained, long-term use.
Himachal Pradesh is the first state in the country to introduce Solar Passive Building technology for
the design and construction of Governmental & Semi Governmental buildings on a large scale. H.P.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 129

State Council for Science, Technology & Environment has formulated a Solar House Action Plan for
Himachal Pradesh in May 1994, which is being supported by Ministry ofNon-Conventional Energy
Sources, Govt. oflndia.
The State Council is also coordinating the Solar Passive Building Programme in Himachal Pradesh in
collaboration with HP Public Works Department H.P. (PWD], HP Housing and Urban Development
Authority [HIMUDA) Board & other organizations.
A Solar House Action Plan for Himachal Pradesh has been formulated under which it has been made
mandatory that all Govt./ Semi Govt. buildings be designed and constructed as per solar passive
housing technology in a phased manner.
Solar passive building technology has been made mandatory in Himachal Pradesh under which all the
departments including Corporations, Boards, Universities, HP Housing Board and HPPWD are
required to incorporate features of solar passive technology in their designs at places above 2000
meters [msl]
7.1.2 Himachal Pradesh Energy Efficiency/ Saving Programme
The Energy (Conservation) Act, 2001 provides a legal mandate for the implementation ofenergy effi-
ciency measures through the institutional mechanism ofBureau of Energy Efficiency [BEE] not only
in the Central Government but also in each State. A number ofprogrammes have been initiated and it
is anticipated that these would result in saving of 500 MW in overall consumption of the energy in
Himachal Pradesh.
In the State Government has initiatedvarious programmes to enhance energy efficiency.
– Launched ‘Atal Bijli Bachat Yojna’ in the State by distributing CFL to the people of State at
free of cost to promote saving of energy as a shift to energy efficient
appliances/equipments.
– Complete ban on use ofcoalfor space heatingetc.
– Developing economic instruments to promote energyefficiency in Himachal Pradesh.
– Committed to harness the entire potential of 22,000 MW of Hydro Power available in
State though the demand of the State is far less than the available potential, so as to
contribute to the country’s clean energy demand for meeting the set goals for reduction
in the GHG emissions.
– Encourage the use ofsolar passive heating systems and promote the use ofbiogas plants.
– Discourage the energy intensive industries that contribute large to GHG emissions.
7.1.3 Himachal Pradesh Sustainable Development Programme for Urban & Rural Areas
The State Governmentis committed to develop in a sustainable manner so as to conserve its beautiful
environs through improvements in management of solid waste, waste water, modal shift to public
transport, construction of buildings and roads, energy efficiency in buildings etc. The State
Government is firm to promote sustainable development, energy efficiency as an integral
component ofurban and rural planning through various initiatives.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 130

i. The State Governmenthas completelybanned the use ofpolythene carry bags, cups, plates
and glasses in the State.
ii. Emphasis has been made for recycling ofwaste materials.
m. Municipal Solid Waste Management is a major component of ecologically sustainable
economic development. Our country already has a significantly higher rate ofrecycling of
waste in the context of ‘kabaris’system as compared to many countries.
iv. The waste water treatment plants are installed and the use of waste water and recycling
options are exercised wherever possible.
v. To save potable water, rainwater harvesting in new buildings has been made compulsory.
vi. The Energy Conservation Building Code, the green buildings which addresses the design
of new and large commercial buildings to optimize their energy demand has been
promoted.
m. Initiatives have been made for better urban planning and sustainable rural development
having effective waste management facilities.
iv. The public transport systems have been strengthened by providing more infrastructures
such as energy efficientvehicles and good road network.
v. Master Plan for the transport shall be prepared for Himachal Pradesh focusing long term
transport plans to facilitate the growth of medium and small towns in ways that ensure
efficient and convenient public transport in touristseasons.
vi. State Disaster Management Plans are being prepared to address issues associated with
extreme weather eventualities in the State such as cloud burst, floods, health hazards etc.
7.1.4 Sustainable Water Management
In Himachal Pradesh availability of water is highly uneven in both space and time. Precipitation is
confined to only about three to four months in a year and varies from about 600 mm in Lahaul & Spiti
district to around 3200 mm in Dharamshala, District Kangra. However, in spite of heavy rains and
snow during the rainy season and the winters, the summer months are periods ofwater scarcity in
many areas as the flow in the rivers and nallahs is quite low and the traditional sources also dry up.
This results in migration of humans and animals to the banks of rivers with perennial flows. On the
other hand, heavy rains regularly cause havoc due to floods. Flash floods also cause damage in the
higher reaches of the State. Thus, to address the issues of drought management in some areas and
flood control in others, the State Government has framed a State Water Policy. Planning and
implementation of water related projects has many socio-economic aspects and issues such as
environmental sustainability, resettlement and rehabilitation of project-affected people and
livestock, public health concerns of water impoundment, dam safety etc., clear guidelines are,
therefore, necessary in these matters in the State.
As a scarce and precious resource its usage has to be planned, along with conservation and
management measures, on an integrated and environmentally sustainable basis, keeping in view the
socio-economic needs ofthe State. In the 2 1“ century, efforts to develop, conserve, utilize and manage
this important Himalayan resource in a sustainable manner have to be guided by the State’s
perspectiveandvision.
The State Government will work in consonance with the National Missions on Climate Change to
ensure integrated water resource management to conserve water, minimize wastage and ensure
more equitable distribution both across and within the State.
STATE STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 131

The State’s Water Policy is being revisited in consultation with the line departments such as Urban &
Rural Development, MPP 8; Power, State Ground Water Authority to ensure basin level management
strategies to deal with the variability in rainfall and river flows due to climate change.
The demand of water for industrial use has so far largely been concentrated in or near the towns.
However, the domestic and industrial water demand in rural areas is expected to increase sharply as
the development programmes improve economic conditions as more and more industry comes up
there. Impounding of water for hydropower generation will also increase, as the potential in this
sector is harnessed. This underscores the need for the utmost efficiency in water utilization and
public awareness ofthe importance ofconservation and maintenance ofwater quality.
Water quality is impacted by untreated or inadequately treated hotel, industrial effluents and sewage
flowing into nallahs and rivers or affecting the surface and ground water. Since it has potential to
adversely affect the health of the populace, special attention needs to be paid to these aspects.
Improvements in existing strategies, innovation of new techniques resting on a strong science and
technology base are needed to eliminate the pollution of surface and ground water resources to
restore the pristine quality.
7.1.5 Sustainable Development to Save the Himalayan Ecosystem
The sustainability of Himalayan Eco-system is of utmost importance. Himalaya has the largest
concentration of glaciers outside the Polar Regions. Geological history ofthe earth indicates that the
glacial dimensions are constantly changing with the changing climate. Last glaciations took place in
the Pleistocene Time. During the peak glaciations, 46 million sq. km., area was covered by glaciers
which are more than three times the present ice cover. The data indicates that during the Pleistocene
Time, the earth experienced four or five glaciations period separated by an interglacial period. During
an interglacial period, the climate was warm and the de-glaciations occurred on a large scale. This
suggests that glaciers are constantly changing with time and these changes can profoundly affect the
runoff from Himalayan Rivers. In order to assess the changes in the runoff from these Himalayan
reservoirs, systematic studies ofthe glaciers and snow covers is required to be undertaken.
Himachal Pradesh is a small hilly state which lies in the North western Himalaya, the youngest
mountain chains in the world. A scientific study carried out on the evolution of the Himalaya suggests
that these mountain chains are rising at the rate of2 cm per year. The State of Himachal Pradesh can
broadly be categorized into three major physiographic sub divisions The Outer Himalaya (the
Shiwaliks), the Middle Himalaya (Lower Himalayas) and the Inner Himalaya (Higher or Great
Himalayas]. The Higher Himalaya predominantly is the snow-clad peaks and remains under thick
cover ofsnowthroughouttheyear.
Five major perennial rivers of Northern India pass through Himachal Pradesh. The major rivers are
Ravi, Chenab Beas, Satluj & Yamuna. The rivers Ravi, Chenab and Beas originate from the glaciated
areas in the State and all the five rivers which passes through the State depends largely on the snow
and glaciers for their discharge dependability during the peak and lean seasons. In order to
understand the runoff from these Himalayan Rivers, systematic studies on snow and glaciers have
been carried out in Himachal Himalaya to estimate the snow and glacier cover available in the Satluj
and the Beas basins. The investigation suggests that there are about 334 glaciers in the entire Satluj
and Beas basins covering a total area of 1515 sq. km. Besides this, 1987 permanent snow fields could
also be mapped from the satellite data covering a total area of 1182 sq.km. Out of the 334 glaciers
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 132

identified, 202 glaciers fall in the Himachal Himalaya, whereas the remaining glaciers are in the
Tibetan Himalaya.
The State Government is to evolve management measures for sustaining and safeguarding the
Himalayan glaciers and mountain eco-systems. An observational and monitoring network for the
Himalayan environment is required to be established to assess freshwater resources and health ofthe
ecosystems. Cooperation with neighbouring States will be sought to make the network com-
prehensive in its coverage.
In Himachal Pradesh, about 90% of rural people practice hill agriculture and their vulnerability is
expected to increase on account ofthreats ofclimate change. Community-based management ofthese
ecosystems will be promoted with incentives to community organizations and panchayats for
protection and enhancement offorested lands. In rural, tribal and mountainous regions, the aim will
be to maintain two-thirds of the areas under forest cover in order to prevent soil erosion and land
degradation and to ensure the stability ofthe fragile Himalayan eco-system.
There is an urgent need to conduct a study on the existing snowfields and glacial fluctuations all along
the Himachal Himalaya and their expected life spans from future perspectives.
In order to undertake studies pertaining to Himalayan eco-system, a Regional Centre for Glacial
Monitoring and Managementneeds to be established in the State.
7.1.6 Programme for Greening ofHimachal
There is a clear indication ofclimate change having a direct impact on the vegetation both natural and
cultivated, and also on the availability ofwater in the rivers and streams. At the same time, land which
is not presently available for forestry being under permanent snow cover could gradually convert in
to grassland/forests.
Himachal Pradesh provides an unmatched contribution to ‘national interest’ in sustaining life
support systems, on the basis ofwhich sustainable development can be realized downstream in the
plains of Northern India. Attention is shifting to environmental services provided by the forests.
These include critical watershed services, biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration and off
course maintaining the landscape beauty. The State has a repository of rich floral and well as faunal
bio-diversity. The floral bio-diversity has become a part oflivelihood practices of our rural as well as
tribal populace in the State. The State also has a significant area above 3000 meters from sea level.
Although trees do not grow much above this altitude, but these unique eco-system supports precious
Himalayan biodiversity. To conserve this exceptional bio-diversity, which include several globally
threatened species, like the Snow Leopard, the Himalayan Ibex, Himalayan Brown Bear, Himalayan
Lynx, Himalayan Tahr etc., Himachal Pradesh has setup a network of national parks and wildlife
sanctuaries, covering approximately 14% of its geographic area.
Ecosystem services, human welfare and economic systems are intrinsically connected. Sustainable
forest management, the new mantra, has emerged to meet societal concerns and tackle conservation
and land-use issues, providing for multifunctional landscapes and looking to eco-regions rather than
boundaries as the unit of analysis and management. It is a movement away from the conventional,
commodity production orientation, towards a holistic, people- centric ecosystem-level approach.
This shift has been necessary to address State’s depleting drinking water sources, global warming
and biodiversity losses. Sustainable forest management represents a new look at forests and forest
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 133

managementin order to meet two major commitments:
1. Protect and restore the forest ecosystem—improve biological diversity, enhance water
supplies, make possible carbon sequestration, meet recreation needs and provide for the
forest dependent communities through improved non-wood forest produce;
2. Encourage profitable enterprises, attracting the investor who sees sustainability as a
viable economic venture.
The role of woody vegetation in sequestering carbon is well recognized. Research to study vegetation
shifts in the forestry sector, to establish whether the crop compositions are changing, or there is the
effect of climate change on biodiversity is urgently required in Himachal Pradesh. Such studies will
ultimately help define the policy on raising and maintenance of forests in the State. The possible
mitigation strategies in forestry that would evolve would be implemented to reduce GHG emissions
and enhance carbon sinks in soils and forests. These would extend to finding of proper energy
solutions to a low-carbon energy economy, explore options to leap-frog to cleaner developmentpaths
and work towards enhancing de-carbonizing potential. Under adaptation, the issues that are in focus
are the vulnerability of higher altitude forests in Himachal Pradesh and possible forest-type shifts
occurring in more than 80% of the forestry grids, likely increased forest fire occurrences and the
anticipated water stress and scarcity in the region that would come under water resource
management.
The State Government has successfully initiated the Sanjhi Van Yojna Scheme by the involvement of
grass root level institutions such as Gram Panchayats, Mahila Mandals, Yuvak Mandals, Ex-
servicemen’s bodies, Schools, Village Forest Development Societies [VFDSs), User Groups, other
Community Based Organisations [CBOs) and NGOs in sustainable management of forest resources.
This involves giving grant of 100 % income from plantations to the VFDSS and Panchayats; grant of
total usufruct rights to the VFDSs; regeneration of degraded forest areas and conservation and
sustainable use ofbetter forests through community involvement. Involvement oflocal communities
in the choice ofspecies to be planted under the scheme; creation and enhancement ofsocial, physical
and financial capital ofthe participating communities for poverty reduction; special emphasis on the
involvement of women in the scheme; recognising that participatory processes are critical to
Sustainable Forest Management in the State. Recognising the link between rural poverty reduction
and the sustained and increasing availability of forest resources and access to them for the rural
communities particularly the poor; the scheme targets pockets ofpoverty in the state.
Forests of Himachal Pradesh known for their grandeur and majesty are like a green pearl in the
Himalayan crown. This life supporting systems are presently under stress due to impact of modern
civilization, economic development and growth in human and cattle population. According to
National Forest Policy, 1988, at least two third i. e. 66% ofthe total geographical area should be under
forest in the hilly states like Himachal Pradesh. However, keeping in view that about 20 % ofthe area is
inaccessible and beyond the tree limit, the State Government aims to bring 50% of the geographical
area under the forest cover. The forests ofthe State have been classified on an ecological basis as laid
down by Champion and Seth, and can be broadly classified into Coniferous Forests and Broad—leaved
Forests. A State wide programme has been launched to enhance ecosystem services including carbon
sinks. Rural campaign for the afforestation through MNREGA has also been undertaken.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 134

The programme on Green Himachal will be taken up on degraded forest land through direct action by
communities, organized through Ioint Forest Management Committees and guided by the
Department of Forests, Himachal Pradesh. Financial assistance for the programme shall be drawn
through the Compensatory Afforestaion Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) to commence
work.
7.1.7 Sustainable Agriculture
Himachal Pradesh is predominately an agricultural State where agriculture provides direct
employment to about 71 percent ofthe total population. The Agriculture sector contributes nearly 30
percent of the total State Domestic Product. The Department of Agriculture is serving the farming
community by implementing various developmental programmes and disseminating the relevant
technology to increase productivity, production and profitability of field crops. The natural
endowments like soil, land, water etc. are being harnessed in such a way that cherished goals of
ecological sustainability, economic up-liftment of farming community are achieved. About 18-20%
area in the State is irrigated and rest is rain fed. The agriculture research is being undertaken State’s
Agriculture University, Palampur. The Department ofAgriculture is, therefore, now concentrating on
agriculture production and soil water conservation aspects and practices. Thrust areas identified for
future agriculture development in Himachal Pradesh are as under:
– Diversification ofarea from traditional crops to commercial crops where irrigation potential has been
created. The farmers are being motivated to produce organic vegetables without the use ofpesticides
and chemical fertilizers.
– Development ofrainfed areas through watershed approach on a large scale for efficient and judicious
use ofnatural resources is being undertaken. Increased funding is being arranged under the RIDF.
– Rainwater harvesting is another area, which not only provides life saving irrigation to the crops but
also recharges the ground water and checks the erosion. The Department is seeking financial
assistance from Govt. oflndia forsmall irrigation tanks/shallowwells and pumping sets etc.
– Increase in maize productivity through high yielding hybrids.
– Adoption ofprecision farming practices (Poly House and Micro Irrigation).
– Organic farming is being promoted as the thrustarea.
– Post harvest managementand efficient marketing system is being encouraged.
— Farm mechanization with special reference to hill agriculture is being given major thrust. This is
necessary to reduce cost of cultivation in view of high cost oflabour. A Technical Working Group has
been constituted to identify new farm implements and machinery, which can be introduced in the
State.
– A strong research extension interface directed towards problems oriented research programmes is
being undertaken. Research projects are beingidentified and funded in the problem areas.
— Extension reforms through public-private partnership are under way.
– Agro processing andvalue addition is being encouraged.
– Emphasis is on increase in productivity and quality.
– Application ofBiotechnologyin the field ofagriculture is being explored.
– Soiltestingand issuance ofSoil Health Cards has been undertaken.
The State Government is committed to impart latest technology to the farmers for increasing
agricultural production in view of climate change threats. This includes ensuring timely supply of all
types of agricultural inputs like improved seeds, agricultural implements, pesticides and fertilizers
etc. The capacity building of the farmers in the sustainable use of irrigation water, soil and water
conservation technologies, trainings on Integrated Pest Management, use of farmers friendly bio
fertilizers, diversified farming systems and to create irrigation facilities to the farmers through
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 135

minor/tank irrigation schemes so as to obtain maximum returns from their land even in the
challenges emerging from climate change in the State are being undertaken.
The State Government is revisiting the functions more effectively to make agriculture more resilient
to climate change. It would identify and develop new varieties of crops especially the thermal
resistant crops and alternative cropping patterns capable of withstanding extremes of weather, long
dry spells, flooding, and variable moisture availability.
Agriculture is progressively adapted to projected climate change and our agricultural research
systems will be reoriented to monitor and evaluate climate change and recommend changes in
agricultural practices accordingly.
This will be supported by the convergence and integration of traditional knowledge and practice
systems, information technology, geospatial technologies and biotechnology. New credit and
insurance mechanisms will be devised to facilitate the adoption ofdesired practices. Focus would be
on improving productivity of rainfed agriculture. India will to spearhead efforts at the international
level to work towards an ecologically sustainable green revolution.
7.1.8 Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change – Towards Carbon Smart Growth
Geological history of earth indicates that the glacial dimensions are constantly changing with
changing climate and these changes can profoundly affect the runoffofthe Himalayan Rivers. On the
basis of study carried out, total 23,315 sq. km. area is under snow in India and the runoff from these
glaciers contributes significantly to the stream flow of the rivers originating in the higher Himalaya.
Therefore, it is important to study the glacial aerial extent and possible changes for proper
management of Himalayan water resources with an aim is to develop ofa model to assess the effect of
climatic variation on Himalayan glaciers and to assess changes in the glacial-melt runoff due to
climatic variations. The studies are being carried out in the Spiti and Baspa basins of Himachal
Pradesh. On monitoring the glaciers ofSpiti river basin, it has been found that a de-glaciation ofabout
10% has occurred between 2001 and 2007 in the entire Spiti river basin. Likewise de-glaciation of
about 22% has been reported in the Baspa river basin. The inventory ofglaciers and permanent snow
fields has been prepared for the Chenab river basin which suggests the presence of4-54 numbers of
glaciers and 768 number of snow fields in Chenab river basin in Himachal Pradesh only. Complete
data base for the glaciers and snowfields in Satluj & Beas basins is available in digital format.
A “Community Led Assessment, Awareness, Advocacy 81 Action Programme [CLAP] for Environment
Protection & Carbon Neutrality in H.P.” has been launched in the State for a period ofthree years with
the aim to develop Himachal Pradesh as sustainable and climate resilient State by mobilising
community’s responsibility for environmental assessment, environment protection and carbon
neutrality. The programme would ensure knowledge of high quality and focused approach into
various aspects of climate change, socio-economic impacts of climate change including impact on
health, demography, migration patterns and livelihoods ofrural communities.
An ‘Environment Fund’ has been created by the State Government to facilitate and support the
environmental protection activities. Private sector initiatives for development of innovative
technologies for adaptation and mitigation would be encouraged through environment fund.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 136

7.2 Sector wise Glimpse of Initiatives Taken
Watershed Development
The fragile Himalayan ecosystem in Himachal Pradesh forms the catchment of maj or Indian rivers the
Satluj, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Yamuna. It is an important source of water that supports about 200
million people in Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. In addition, these rivers are crucial
in sustaining livelihoods and assuring food and water security (for irrigation and domestic use]
across much ofthe northern India besides enhancing agricultural productivity and natural resource
base in Himachal Pradesh.
The watershed development programmes in the State aim at enhancing livelihoods of rural
inhabitants while ensuring sustainable management of land and water resources and furthering
progress on fiscal, administrative and political decentralization to Gram Panchyats (GPs) for
strengthening local governance and participatory development.
The Watershed Development Programmes (WDP] have become a trusted tool for the overall
development of the villages and people living within a watershed area. The Watershed Development
Programme initially envisaged as a measure for poverty alleviation and improved livelihoods has
gained even greater importance in the light of the worldwide recognition of its effectiveness in
combating climatic change.
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STATE STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — Z012 137

Through Watershed Management Programmes, the State is striving to improve the productive
potentials of watersheds and their associated natural resource base through soil moisture
conservation, rain water harvesting, afforestation, pasture development, sustainable agriculture
and horticulture activities and development of the degraded land. lt also develops and strengthens
community based institutional arrangements for sustainable natural resource management, imparts
skills and employment opportunities for non-farm sectors, ensures involvement of village
communities in participatory planning, implementation as well as social and environmental
management.
Soil & Moisture Conservation
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STATE STRATEGY&ACTl0N PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH ~ Z012 138

An End to Fodder Problem through Watershed Development
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Pasture Development, Watershed — Bamned Khad
Rural Participation
It is felt that people’s participation is not only critical during the implementation phase of watersheds
but also ensures conservation and development of Common Property Resources. The State has
consciously created a scenario where the Government is acting as a facilitator and the people at the
grass rootlevel become the real executioner and beneficiary of the programme.
Glimpses of Rural Prosperity- MNREGS
This programme has not only enhanced livelihood security of households in rural areas of the State
but has also helped in strengthening natural resource management through works that address
causes of chronic poverty like drought, deforestation and soil erosion and therefore has encouraged
sustainable developmentin rural areas.
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STATE STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH < 2012 139

Total Sanitation Campaign is another mile stone
for the State. The State has strategized holistic
concept of sanitation including generation of
awareness on the ‘need’ for sanitation amongst
people individually and also as a community.
Rs. 353 crore ‘Pandit Deen Dayal Kisan Bagwan
Samridhi Yojna’ envisages construction of
polyhouses and bringing maximum area under
minor irrigation for which State Govt. is providing
80 percent subsidy to the beneficiaries.
‘Himachal Pradesh Crop Diversification
Project’ at the cost of Rs. 32 1 crore has been taken
in hand to ensure organic farming and production ofvegetables besides creating infrastructure for
agriculture development. It is being implemented in collaboration with Iapan International Co-
operation Agency (]ICA].
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<.&‘-:14 ‘ 4 “” ‘1!»/I W’ ‘ “‘9.v._- »‘:£H if‘ ::_’i’¢’_ V,‘-’ _ ‘. ‘I I . . . ‘§»2 STATE STRATEGY 8: ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 14-0 Organic Himachal The National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture Development emphasizes on promotion ofgood agriculture practices as necessary components ofthe agriculture development approaches for which organic farming is the best known tool. The State has formulated the Organic Farming Policy which takes into account whole gamut of organic farming such as vision, mission, strategy about desired policy revision, awareness raising among stakeholders, organic technological and extension support to the farmers, quality assurance of State produce, organic inputs, demand and supply issues, developing organic supply chains as well as governance and implementation. ‘Horticulture Technology Mission’ programme is being implemented in the State with an objective ofintegrated development ofhorticulture in Himachal Pradesh. Cold Desert turns into a Green Apple Orchard on the Altitude of 9,400 feet Amongst fruit production, “Apple” has given Himachal Pradesh the status of “Apple State of the Country”. To make apple cultivation viable in the face of growing environmental and global challenges, the State is implementing Rs. 85 crore ‘Apple Re-plantation Scheme’, wherein it is envisaged to replace the old and low yielding varieties with value productive varieties in the area of 12,500 acres during next five years. .-‘-;;\~w-,;- –>.”- *1: 1+ ,w .
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,~’ _ . ;- ; -*-*<~3’=T=¥*;~<-,~.-,’r1**??‘*- y – – {- .\_ -7 ” – 1. ‘ ‘ 4 ‘ ‘ ~ U . ,_. .- ‘1’ 4 n ‘ ll. STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 14-1 Mid Himalayan Watershed Development Project The Mid-Himalayan Watershed Development Project is operational in the mid and high hill range of 600 to 1800 metres covering 1 1 sub watershed divisions falling in 10 districts. The project is aimed at reforestation of protect watersheds, improve livelihoods and to generate carbon revenue. The total outlay ofthe project is Rs. 365 crores. – 1” All these schemes are promoting inclusive growth in the rural sector. Adequate livelihood opportunities are being created in rural sector so that the tendencies of population migration to urban areas is checked and environmental problems associated with urban sprawl are contained. 42 ‘ – Id‘-5 I,- ‘i ‘ I‘ ‘I B ‘Q “–‘ ‘ T’ ‘.’- _ _ _ . T “‘ -us; . ~. . ” _’_ .__ ‘ I Z .‘_‘ 1.41,. __ ‘ “.4” ~ . . .1. .—(~,*—. I . ‘ r “’_\ ‘D1: € ‘Q-I‘-r’ >.__-.
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Agriculture
~ The Department of Agriculture is serving the farming community by implementing various
Developmental Programmes and disseminating the relevant technology to increase productivity,
production and profitability of field crops.
– The natural endowments like soil, land, water etc. are being harnessed in such a way that
cherished goals of ecological sustainability and economic upliftment of farming community are
achieved.
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Himachal Pradesh is mainly an agrarian economy based upon rain fed agriculture. The average
cultivated land is about 5.42 lac hectares in the State out ofwhich 80% is rain-fed. The land holdings
are not only small but fragmented and 86.4% farmers fall in the category of marginal and small
farmers.Theirsurvivaldepends upon subsistence farming.
The Government of Himachal Pradesh is laying special emphasis on strengthening ofrural economy
by giving priority to Agriculture Sector. The focus is on diversification of crops, production of high
value crops and raising productivity by dissemination of technology in the fields. About 12 per cent of
the total budget ofthe State is being spent on this sector, which is highest in the country.
STATE STRATEGY 8: ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 14-3

‘Pandit Deen Dayal Kisan Bagwan Samridhi Yojna’ is an all embracing scheme being implemented
by Government of Himachal Pradesh for creating self-employment opportunities and diversification
offarming for strengthening the economic status offarmers.
– 16,500 poly houses would be constructed in 15 lakh square meter area.
~ 20,000 hectare area to be brought under micro irrigation.
– The farmers are being provided 80 percent subsidy for construction of poly houses. BPL
families are being given 90 per cent subsidy for construction of bamboo based
polyhouses.
v An assistance of Rs. 82.74 crore has been provided as subsidy to the farmers under this
scheme so far.
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farming, vegetable production and transfer oftechnology are being undertaken.
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The State is also participating in Rashtriya Krishi Bima Yojna [RKBY) with a purpose to provide
comprehensive risk insurance against yield losses from drought, hailstorm, floods and pests disease
etc in Wheat, Barley, Maize, Paddy and Potato.
Under Biogas Development Programme Rs. 4,000 and Rs.10,000 is provided as subsidy on Biogas
Plants upto 1 cubic meter and more than 1 cubic meter to 4 cubic meter.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 14-4

Organic Policy
‘ Giving recognition and encouragement to the organic
sector in the State.
‘ Creating enabling environment for organic farming in
the State through developing appropriate policies,
plans,and supportservices fororganic production.
~ Develop favourable policies and plans to make
Himachal an organic compost rich State.
~ Undertake steps to make forests, grazing lands and
pastures recognised as organic, certified/ uncertified
areas.
– Create investment environment for organic
agribusiness and organic agrotourism.
Changing Scenario in Agriculture Sector through Organic Farming
The organic farming is emerging as future farming technique in the State of Himachal Pradesh. This
endeavour would not only help in promoting sustainable agriculture production but would also
mitigate the climate change effects by way of reduced GHG emissions, lesser use of chemical
fertilizers and lesser requirements for irrigation. Series of awareness programmes on organic
farming are being organized with an objective to provide one vermi-compost unit to each house hold
farming family. About 4.0 lakh vermi compost units have been set up. 25,160 farmers have been
registered for organic farming.
Soil Health Card
Under the Soil Health Management Programme of the State, Soil Health Cards are prepared and
distributed amongst farmers based on tests oftheir soil samples by District Soil Testing Labs. This will
help farmers to plan cultivation of flowering plants, medicinal herbs or other cash crops as per the
fertility status ofthe soil.
Horticulture
The endeavor is to make Himachal Pradesh ‘Fruit Bowl’ of the country by adopting sustainable
horticultural practices which will help to raise the economy of the State while protecting the
environment.
– Sustainable development ofhorticulture by harnessing the natural resources in the hilly areas.
~ Generationofsourcesforcashincometotheruralpeople.
– Generation of employment opportunities in the pre and post harvest sectors of the horticulture
industry.
~ Provision of nutritive foods in the form of fruits, vegetables, nuts, mushrooms, honey.
– Satisfactionoftheaestheticneeds ofthepeople.
STATE STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 14-5

Horticulture is beingpracticed in suitable areas
and only about 2.18 lac hectares area is under
fruit cultivation. Sizable part of the horticulture
produce is lost for want of proper storage and
processing facilities. The State Government is
aware of the potential and challenges for the
development of horticulture in the State and
treats horticulture as a priority area in the
developmentplans.
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related to production and productivity, post harvest handling, marketing and processing of
horticultural crops as well as backward and forward linkages.
HTM Contributing to Prosperity
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‘ <13- ‘-‘4. STATE STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH e 2012 14-6 Transfer of Technology Realizing the utmost need to make farmers aware Q regarding latest technologies and interventions in the horticulture sector as well as about the threats emerging from climate change on horticulture crops, the e — — — – Department of Horticulture has training cum awareness camps. To make Apple cultivation viable in the face of growing economic, environmental and global challenges, the State is implementing Rs. 85 crore ‘Apple Re-plantation Scheme’, where it is envisaged to replace the old and low yielding varieties with value productive varieties in the area of12,500 acres during the next five years. 1 \ € _ ya ..t .€o§\\\\{_.;”- ‘ .,’-I”- a ;. ‘~..‘»”” “r‘.”’ 1;- * v”‘ “iv-e ‘Ark. . . _‘ .~._‘.___* -_ Glimpse of RKVY Activities N} . 3-.5 ” F -.n\-11’. if ~ To provide financial assistance to the farming community for development of infrastructure supporting horticultural activities for generating self employment, bring in efficiency and increase farm income. – To improve the production and productivity of horticultural crops through hi-tech, diversified, mechanized and organic horticulture. ‘Anti Hail Radar and Gun’ has been established at Khara Pathar in Shimla District on experimental basis to protect the crops from hail. On success, such Radars and Anti Hail Guns would be established in other parts ofthe State. STATE STRATEGY81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH ~ Z012 14-7 Forests The Forests of Himachal Pradesh, known for their grandeur and majesty are like a green pearl in the Himalayan crown. The forests in Himachal Pradesh which host 7.32% of flora and 7.4% fauna ofthe Country are presently under great stress due to impact of modern civilization, economic development and growth in human and cattle population. i Forests at a Glance var lawn The Forest cover in the State, based on interpretation of satellite data of October- 2 6.3 7% of the State’s geographical area. 4 Forest Cover ‘ Nov-Iowa 71051 saw CAI‘!- when Taru|5J9\ “fa 5*? December 2008, is 14,679 sq Kms. which is f-” ‘ t -r\_ KIIIAIOZ ‘F, ‘;. , >\\__} ‘L.
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The state has 38 Forest Types which belong to 8 Forest Type “’?¢_
Groups, viz. Tropical Moist Deciduous Forest, Tropical Dry _
Deciduous Forest, Subtropical Pine Forest, Himalayan Moist ‘ g
Temperate Forest, Himalayan Dry Temperate Forest, Sub
Alpine Forests , MoistAlpine Scrub and Dry Alpine Scrub.
Economic Valuation (In crores)
Biodiversity/Endangered
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Direct Benefits: 7,740 crores Himalayan States need to be compensated for the
Indirect Benefits: 98,924 crores environmental services provided to the
Total Economic Value: 1,06,664- crores downstream regions.
The sustainable forestry, which judiciously manages renewable natural resources and provides food,
income and livelihood for present and future generations while maintaining or improving the
economic productivity and ecosystem services of these resources is need of the hour. The State
Government stands by unequivocal commitment to long-term support of sustainable forestry and
promotion of the stewardship and use of forests and forest lands in a way, and at a rate, that maintains
their biodiversity, productivity, regeneration capacity, vitality and potential to fulfill, now and in the
future, relevant ecological, economic and social functions atlocal, national, and global levels.
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Promoting Carbon Neutrality
~ The State has undertaken many programmes for preserving the pristine Himalayan ecology and
enhancing the forest cover in the State. The efforts of afforestation have resulted in achieving an
ever largest recorded forest cover in the State during the year 2009 that was 14,679 sq. km
covering 26.37% of geographical area of the State.
– ‘]an- ]an Sanjeevani Van Abhiyan’ in the year 2008 ensured the distribution ofmore than 15 lacs
medicinal plants to the rural and urban households of Himachal Pradesh through 5,000
distribution points.
~ To internalize the Ian ]an Sanjeevani programme, the State has further launched two new people
centric plantation schemes, ‘Sanjha Van Sanjeevani Van’ and ‘Apna Van Apna Dhan’ for planting on
private land and community land. Under the, ‘Sanjha Van Sanjeevani Van Programme, 5 1 lac, 46.5
lac and 45 lac plants were planted in the year 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12 respectively.
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~ 1 < ~_w-f:’. ‘ F I 4′! ,‘.’¥’o’gjqg H 1′ Q1‘. /‘_/ 1 s vu‘, I _ . ~ , ‘-1? – . “.’)’Q.¢ ‘ I .,.”-‘.- $19’. _ ..-. 1 _. _.. ‘,1’ -, |;~’~ l. 74 _ __ -..– – _ ‘ » _ . \.\ – ‘=.¢*‘._ , . ‘ – -5 : I .~.T;‘;’ ti. ‘ II .3 . V Peepal —Bargad Plantation For involvement ofelderly people in the plantation drive, the Forest Department has initiated another scheme “Peepal — Bargad Plantation” where Peepal and Bargad plants are being planted in the villages by elderly people in the lower and middle zones of the State. In the year 2009-10, 8,539 plants [Pipal-5,073 and Bargad-3,466) were planted in 4,436 villages. *1-A-mi’ Carbon Revenue: Generating Income through Carbon Credits M – , __ …- ‘ . ‘_ \ . . . ll HP Mid Himalayan Watershed Development Project I \ \ ,1 I I‘ ‘ ~ ’ (Ml-IWDP) After learning from past experiences and considerable success of ml Integrated Watershed Management Programme, Mid Himalayan $7 Watershed Development Project with an objective of reforestation l to protect watersheds, improve livelihoods and generate carbon revenue is being implemented in the State. ~ Operative in 10 districts ofHimachal Pradesh including around 272 Micro-watersheds spread over 602 Gram Panchayats. ~ The project benefits are expected to reach to around 25,000 targetpoor families in the project area. STATE STRATEGY 8: ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 150 Bio-carbon, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Project Bio-carbon-sub project will go long way in protection and supporting our commitment for preservation and protection of environment through sequestration of Green House Gases [GHG) by expanding forestryplantations on mostly degraded land. The impact area of project is 4,003.07 ha covering: ~ Forest land of 3,176.86 ha. ~ Community land of 203.06 ha. ~ Private land of533.15 ha. The CDM agreement will fetch carbon revenue of around Rs. 20 crores for the first crediting period of 20 years. The Community ‘ and private land holders would be benefitted and will earn about Rs. 2,500/-perha. .! i First Asian State to Sell Carbon Credits Himachal Pradesh is the first Indian State to sell carbon credits from community lands under the UN- mandated Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Implementation of Clean Development Mechanism will generate CDM revenues. The revenue from degraded forest and community lands and will be shared with the Gram Panchayats and in turn with the individual families. The carbon revenue is likely to be significant at about Rs. 20 crores for the first crediting period of 20 years. The projectis expected to sequester the emission of8,00,000 tonnes ofcarbon dioxide from 2006 to 2025. lntegrated Watershed Development Project, Swan, Una The State Government is conscious and concerned about damage caused to land, property, human and cattle living along its banks due to reoccurring flash floods. lntegrated Watershed Development Project (IWDP], Swan, Una targets to implement watershed catchment treatments of the 73 tributaries of the Swan River. Q Al ‘\ STATE STRATEGY 8: ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 151 National Bamboo Mission – – The State is also participating in National Bamboo Mission and has got approved a plan of Rs. 1.49 crores for planting of bamboo species in Nahan, Bilaspur, Mandi, Hamirpur and Kangra districts which also include interventions in non-forest areas for generating employment opportunities for skilled and un-skilled persons and promoting marketing of bamboo and bamboo based handicrafts. Green India Mission Under Green India mission which aims to improve the quality and quantity of forest coverwith the help of Gram Sabhas, Women Self-Help ’ *’ Groups and Forest Management Committees and the technical assistance of State Forest Department, a bridge plan for Rs. 1.26 crore has been approved for HimachalforMandi,BilaspunHamirpurand Kangra districts fortheyear2012-13. Van Sarovar The State has taken steps to revive the traditional model of water bodies as well as to recharge the ground water and enhancing soil and water conservation. This will also help in controlling forest fires and actas a source ofwaterto wild animals. – 148 Van Sarovars have been constructed during 201 1-12 under the National Flagship programme NREGA. – 100 Van Sarovars will be constructed during 2012-13. » 0 .. $|»~ \ . t …_ ..-.. -P4, _ _ _ , _ . :1 1.-‘$1 . . . . T J; l,_.- __-w\:- _. ‘ ’ . ‘ L. _»’;*~‘~_ “ ‘ – .53 ‘. –1 ‘J 1′ _ . Iv ‘ ‘ 7.1‘:-‘5 ‘- \ – -‘ , “‘* ‘ ‘ STATE STRATEGY&ACTlON PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH e Z012 152 Programmes through National Medicinal Plant Board To conserve and develop the medicinal wealth of the State, conservation and propagation of medicinal species is also being done.. A medicinal plant project has been got sanctioned from “National Medicinal Plants Board” (NMPB) for Kangra, Kullu, Chamba and Sirmaur districts for Rs.4-00.80lacs. Under the project, 1.96 crores medicinal plants over an area of 1,257 hectares area will be planted in four years with the active involvement of ]oint Forest Management Committees and Village Forest DevelopmentSocieties. Towards ‘Herbal’ State Realizing potential of medicinal herbs as a source of income generation for the people of the State. The State Government is providing impetus to the {Tho W ‘ “’;w7’~*‘ ‘F ‘_””“f L ?‘§?»* >*?o~“%
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cultivation of medicinal plants to make Himachal ‘Herbal State’ of the country. The State Government
has established herbal gardens at Iungal Thalera, Bilaspur and Neri, Hamirpur (Sub Tropical zone],
logindernagar (Mid-Hills/Sub temperate Zone) and Dhumrera, Rohroo (High Hill Temperate wet
zone).
Further, Rs. 969.06 project on “Cultivation, Value Addition and Marketing ofMedicinal and Aromatic
Plants for Rural Upliftment in HP” under SGSY component of the Ministry of Rural Development, G01
is beingundertaken.
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.<. ‘ N . . , |_ ‘ STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — Z012 .|L ‘ Q . I I .- -1 é ‘ ,_b”,. A » _.~: ‘ v .2’ ,§’~f’-ii .~@ ‘”. 1.‘. * Pr-‘ ~’ 5 -”7r~” \ ,;p-;¢-atliiruuinu-‘1 . . ‘ “I” ‘»\ ‘ =;\\ P» ‘,..–—’_._ -. 6 ii» ‘ ‘*7 , ’ -‘ >1 .
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153

Water Resources, Irrigation & Public Health
Himachal Pradesh is endowed with a rich and vast diversity of
natural resources, water being one of them. lts development and
management plays a vital role in agriculture production. Irrigation
& Public Health Department envisages integrated water
management for poverty reduction, environmental sustenance and
sustainable economic development.
Water is the elixir oflife. As a scarce and precious resource, its usage
has to be planned along with conservation and management
measures on an integrated and environmentally sound basis.
Keeping this in view and the socio-economic needs of the State, a
revised Water Policy is being drafted so that safe and portable
drinking water supply to all and community participation in
conservation ofwater resources is ensured.
Managing Water: A Challenging Task
‘~.‘,9-‘F ‘.”.§_ ‘ é it
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~ 7,940 Water Supply Schemes under Rural Water Supply have been completed in the State. Out
of these ,1,526 are lift , 234 tubewells and 6,180 are gravity schemes.
1 Augmentation of Urban Water Supply Schemes of 43 towns prominently viz; Shimla, Kangra,
Manali, Kullu, Hamirpur, Mandi, Dalhousie Solan, and Dharamshala have been completed.
– 26,132 hand pumps have been installed in the water stressed areas ofthe State.
~ 2,217 irrigation schemes have been completed.
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Flood Protection
Flood Protection measures
in the shape of embank-
ments, spurs and wire
crates etc. has been
undertaken at
critical/flood prone areas.
Till now 17,602 hectare
area has been protected
fromthefuryoffloods.
STATE STRATEGY &ACTlON PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 154

To meet the challenges of ensuring quality water supply, the State is implementing National Rural
Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP) focusing on area coverage, sustainability, water quality and
natural calamity. Under this scheme, 219 habitations with an expenditure of Rs. 67.56 crore in State
Sector and 1,596 habitations with an expenditure of Rs. 69.44 crore under Central Sector have been
covered.
.-
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Another Water Supply programme jalmani aims at providing safe drinking water in adequate
quantity to all rural habitations in the State including rural
schools and Anganwadis. Under this programme Simple Stand —
Alone Water Purification System based on UV technology are
being installed in rural schools. For implementation of this
programme, the Government of India has released a total sum
of Rs. 749.05 lacs for providing Simple Stand Alone Drinking
Water Purification system in rural schools.
Irrigation
Out of the total geographical area of 55.67 lakh hectare of State, only 5.83 lakh hectares is the net area
sown. It is estimated that ultimate irrigation potential of the State is approximately 3.35 lakh
hectares. Out of this, 0.50 lakh hectares can be brought under irrigation through major and medium
irrigation projects and balance 2.85 lakh hectares of area can be provided irrigation through minor
irrigation schemes of different agencies. 23,197 hectares has been brought under irrigation in the last
four years. Financial provision has been made for minor irrigation schemes under major and
medium irrigation projects.
COMMAND AREA OF SAHANEHAR MAIOR IRRIGATION PROIECT
STATE STRATEGY81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH < 2012 155

Sewage Disposal
Environment improvement assumes special significance particularly to prevent water pollution of
the rivers and other water bodies and to abolish carrying of night soil on head load and scavenging
system in the State. The State Government has given top priority to connect dry latrine system into
water pour system. Under this programme, sewerage facilities are proposed to be provided in all the
towns of the State. Sewerage schemes of 15 towns have been completed and work on sewerage
schemes of24 towns is in progress.
I0
Sewage Treatment
Towns in the State mostly serve as health resorts, environment improvement, therefore, assume
special significance particularly to avoid pollution of the rivers and other water bodies of the State.
The sewage treatment is of immense importance. The State Government has initiated installation of
38 Sewage Treatment Facilities covering 9 Districts of the State considering the population load in
their respective townships.
Implementation and Strengthening of Rain Water Department N0 “Buildings
Harvesting Structures [RWI-IS ) P’°”ld”d with RWHS
Public Work Department 62
The State Government took initiatives in the year 1999
to conserve its water resources. A decision was taken to
make compulsory the collection of rainwater from the
rooftops ofbuildings in the State. With a view to review
the ground realities and assess the implementation
level in the State, the Government constituted a task
force for “Strength-ening of Rain Water Harvesting
Operation and Management System in Himachal
Pradesh”.
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STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — Z0
.,_ I
‘MAJ ”
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HIMUDA:
Public
Tourism :
HPTDC
Private Hotels
Forest
Agriculture / Rural
Development
Health
Town & Country Planning
Public Buildings
Private buildings
Urban Development
Public Buildings
Private Building
Irrigation & Public Health
Total
12
23
18
137
2
5
3
115
2,441
33
2,371
66
5,276

Integrated & Comprehensive Hydrological Database – Hydrology Project ll
World Bank funded Hydrology Project — ll [HP-ll) is being executed in the State to develop an
integrated and comprehensive hydrological data base. Total cost ofthe Project is US$ 135.01 million
and the World Bank has approved a credit (IBRD Loan] of US$ 104-.98 million to the Govt. oflndia for
the same.
The Project envisages to establish:
– Hydrological Information System [HIS] network comprising of 80 piezometer borewells for
ground water monitoring.
– 35 River Gauge sites, 136 Standard Rain Gauges (SRG) and Autographic/Automatic Rain
Gauges (ARG).
– 6 Climatic Stations and 16 Snow Gauge Stations.
– Network of 16Water Quality Laboratories.
~ 1 State Data Centre, 8 Divisional Data Centres and 40 Sub-Divisional Data Centres.
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Animal Husbandry
Livestock is integral to the sustainability of /_‘
economy of Himachal Pradesh. The “‘<- __ ,
Government of Himachal Pradesh has taken
several steps to strengthen Animal ” “E-Bf” ,4
1*. “?‘“ ‘EL C
Husbandry sector. .
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. Development of requlslte lnfrastructure . ‘ K _ – ‘5“ “_\ ‘
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in State for improving animal _ _ Hy. 15;,» 1’ .__ _‘
roductivity. . _ . 1 ,-A
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v Preservation and protection of livestock ‘< | » ‘ ‘4 * through provision ofhealth care. ‘ ‘ S ~ Strengthening of central livestock farms #9 ‘- A, . . _ a ‘P ‘ (Cattle, Sheep and Poultry) for ) ‘ “T ‘P ‘ 1 . 0, ¢. development of superior germplasm for p {Q _ _ distribution to States. r _‘ Hi-1‘ ‘ u.-:’»_ D ‘x STATE STRATEGY81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH ~ Z012 157 Doodh Ganga Scheme The State Government is implementing Rs. 300 crore ‘Doodh Ganga Scheme’ in the State with an objective to increase income ofthe farmers and to provide selfemployment opportunities. Soft loans up to Rs. 15 lakh are being made available under the scheme. A 25 % subsidy is being given to general category and 33.33% to scheduled caste/ scheduled tribe beneficiaries. Mukhya Mantri Arogya Pashudhan Yojana The Animal Husbandry Department has launched ‘Mukhya Mantri Arogya Pashudhan Yojana‘ to ensure opening of at least one veterinary Institution in each left out Panchayat in the State. Under this scheme 1,272 veterinary Institutions will be opened in a period of three years in a phased manner. 1,012 Veterinary Institutions have been opened this year. Feed & Fodder Development Scheme Rs. 517.50 lacs have been sanctioned for this scheme and Rs. 258.75 lacs have been released for the year 201 1-12 to provide power driven chaff cutters at 75 percent subsidy. 6,900 hand chaff cutters have been provided under this scheme. Bhed Palak Samridhi Yojana The Department has started this scheme for Sheppard of Mandi, Kangra, Chamba, Kullu and Shimla Districts. Loan upto Rs. One lacs is being made available for purchase of sheep and lambs. A 33% subsidy is being given forthis purpose. The State Government is committed to Socio-economic upliftment of Gujjar community and has constituted community specific Welfare Boards to advise State Government in formulation of policies and programmes forthe upliftment ofthe community. – Gujjars have been provided tribal status keeping in view their avocation of rearing animals while moving from one place to other round the year. ~ 15 hostels has been constructed at a cost of Rs. 22.50 crore at education concentrated non-tribal towns forthe benefit of the tribal students. Embryo Transfer Technology Lab and Hilly Cattle Breeding ’ ‘9 ‘ Farm established at Palampur. A State of the Art Multidisciplinary Veterinary Hospital is being established at Palampur. Under the ‘Shepherd Insurance Scheme’ 17,000 shepherds have been given insurance cover. Intake capacity of Gosadan at Khajjian increased to 500 by spending Rs. 1.75 crore. More Gosadans are being set up in the State. STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 158 Fisheries Goals & Objectives: To increase fish production in the State by judicious management of all the culturable water resources. To develop reservoir fishery of the State with an aim to increase per hectare production from the open impoundments. To protect and conserve reservoir and lacustrine fisheries resources of the State. To promote game fisheryin the State with particular emphasis on promotion of Tourism. To promote commercial farming of Rainbow Trout in the high altitude areas. To promote aquaculture in the State. To generate employment opportunities in fishery sector. STATE STRA’l‘EGY&ACTl0N PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH 2012 Sustainable & Renewable Energy Coal remains a predominant energy source for power production in India, catering to production of 70% oftotal domestic electricity. Energy demand in India is expected to continue increasing over the next 10-15 years. The oil and gas fuel has also started contributing towards power generation, even though the coal is expected to remain dominant fuel for power generation. India currently has a peak demand shortage of around 14% and an energy deficit of 8.4% and to cope up with that India is contemplating to achieve a overall target of 215,804 MW power generation. To manoeuvre these shortages, the State Government is keen to optimally produce the hydro-power, known to be cleaner form of energy. The State is the major provider of clean energy—hydropower for the country. The State has an identified hydro-power potential of around Z3 GW (15% of the total hydro potential in the country) out of which around 8 GW has already been harnessed. This corroborates the national objective of realizing 40% of the total installed capacity through renewable energy in the country. This low carbon ‘green energy’ will further help to alleviate power shortage in India’s northern power grid while being a vital source of non-tax revenue for the State. The State Government is striving to develop Himachal Pradesh as a power surplus and climate resilient State ofthe country. l-lydropower Potential of State State Government is targeting to tap over 70% of hydropower potential of the State by 2020, essentially adding 10 GW to the current potential. The State has already identified projects for commissioning on Satluj, Yamuna, Beas, Chenab & Ravi basins during 12th and 13th Five Year Plans which will _ _ add 5,621 MWto the existing capacity. Basin “N “mm Rm” Rnmml in HP “Yd” P°“”*” Pf ab°“‘ ” ’ g ~i”4>
8,000 MW against total *_“ I {,1} I ZR.
potential of 23,000 MW Y’“”‘“““ I811 . 2
in five River Basins has Sam“ @0355 ‘ _
beenharnessed. Be“ 5339 _’ . 4 . ‘ ‘
Ravi 2,952 , “T” ‘
Chenab 2,973 ‘ *” mufu ‘ ‘
Others/self 570 ll-P
identified 4
Total | 23,000
STATE STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH 7 2012 160

—–—- —-—~-—- —–~————~~- Small, Micro & Mini-Micro (572) Projects are
,_ being promoted to produce about 10,131 MW
_ ofHydro-power.
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Sustainance through Ecological Flows
~ Himachal Pradesh is the only state to have mandated the release and maintenance of 15%
minimum lean flows downstream ofdiversion structure to maintain riverine ecology.
~ Real Time On-Line Continuous Flow Measurement & Data Logging Devices for the
implementation of ecological flows and managing erosion, sedimentation & catchment
degradation.
~ Global Positioning System (GPS) based photo monitoring ofmuck dumping ofthe hydel projects.
Scientific Environment Management in Hyde] Projects
The environment management, by and large, of hydro projects mainly lays focus on scientific Muck
Disposal and implementation ofEnvironment Management Plan
Scientific Muck Management
Management of muck and restoration of
muck disposal site is implemented as a part -»
of Environmental Management Plans of the “-Q-‘ ;;_
hydro power project s and is monitored by
the State Pollution Control Board and State
Department of Environment, Science &
Technology.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 161

Ushering Local Area Development
– Local Area Development Fund (LADF) is currently being implemented in about 25 projects with
an estimated Rs. 1600 million (33 million USD) that has been either spent or deposited with Local
Area Development Committees (LADC] by the developers as per Ministry of Environment &
Forest, Govt. oflndia provisions of 1.5% project cost for LADF.
– The investment in hydro sector in last 5 years has been around Rs. 10,000 crore and out ofthis Rs.
1,500 crore is spent/being spent on the local area development activities in the project affected
areas.
~ Provisions have been made for mandatory expenditure of more than 5% project cost towards
Catchment Area Treatment (CAT) plans, afforestation activities and environmental protection &
management.
~ Cash transfers of 50 million rupees (or $1 million) to project affected peoples by 2014. The
benefits due to this will be spread in 8 Districts ofHimachal Pradesh and it is estimated that this
benefit will be ranging from Rs. 3,000 to Rs. 1,50,000 depending upon the density ofprojects and
population in the area.
A Novel Initiative
On social sustainability, the Government of Himachal Pradesh has undertaken action to adopt a new
revenue sharing scheme that pays annuities to the local communities living in the affected villages
during the operational life ofhydropower projects.
This is a bold policy where the Government ofHimachal Pradesh, leads, perhaps globally. Under this
new policy, annual revenue equivalent to 1 percent ofpower sales from the project will be distributed
to households in the projectaffected area.
This will be in the form ofannuity payments through cash transfers made directly into bank accounts,
to minimize risks ofleakage. The Bankaccounts will be created for households who do not possess an
account at an established financial institution. The funds will be given to project affected persons
[PAPs] and there would be additional transfers to “Below Poverty Line” (BPL) families. The scheme
involves distributing 85 percent of the available funds to all affected families (PAPs]. The remaining
15 percent would be transferred as an additional supplement to BPL families.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 162

Integrated Catchment Area Treatment Plan
Asastep forward to existing CatchmentArea Treatment (CAT) ‘ 1 P
Plans and institutionalization of CAMPA, the State ‘ “Q
Government has switched over to integrated and basin ‘ ‘ ‘
catchment area treatment approach, among otherthings: 8
~ T0 ensure a scientific and need based approach to the ‘~ I
treatment of catchments wherein all the stakeholder can . I
contribute to catchmentarea development. _ ‘
v Cumulative mitigation measures for the soil erosion and q . _
landslidehazards.
~ Tocumulativelyredresstheproblemofsiltanddebrisload.
~ Checking the sediment load from the tributaries directly
discharging into the reservoir.
– Combining protection of the direct draining catchments
from scouring/ sloughingand slips.
Q7’ _
Cumulative Environment Impact Assessment (CElA)
Studies
Realizing that the isolated impact assessments do not
provide a sustainable answer to the environmental
impacts emanating out of developmental activities, the
State Government has prudently moved ahead for 1 ‘ –
undertaking cumulative impact studies for redressal of ,\ “” ,4 :_ _
environmental concerns in totality by taking river basin 5
_ –
as a unit. -~ ‘-
it
Carbon Credits -F‘
Green Houses Gases and phenomenon ofGlobal Warming
impacts our Glaciers, Agriculture and Horticulture, Forest
wealth, Hydro- Electric Projects and Tourism. Through
various initiatives we expect to earning Carbon Credit
revenue through CDM from the followingprojects.
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Project Expected CER s _.) 3 , ‘D M ~ 1,‘
Mid Himalayan Water Shed 41,979 Annually
Development Project
Public Sector l-lydro – Power Projects
a) Sawra Kuddu 26,41,660 Expected in 10 Years
Hydroelectric Project
b) Integrated Kashang HEP 55,83,918 Expected in 10 Years i
27 Private Hydroelectric 31,63,014 Annually for a period
Projects of 10 Years
STATE STRATEGY 8: ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 163

Optimising Renewable Energy in the State
Government is committed for harnessing renewable sources of energy in the State. Wind Solar Hybrid
System of 12 KW (10 KW Wind Aero-generators and 2 KW Solar Photovoltaic Panels; investment of
Rs. 41.30 lacs) has been installed at Pooh, District Kinnaur during 2008-09 with an objective to
facilitate the Military Operations at high altitude near Line of Control [LOC), China.
~ Two sites for establishment ofSolar Power Plant of3 MW have also been identified.
~ The proposal for establishment of Wind Power Plant as joint venture with the Independent
Power Producers is in pipeline.
Atal Bijli Bachat Yojna [ABBY)- A Step
Towards Energy Saving & Efficiency
The State Government has introduced CFL
for energy conservation through the ‘Atal
Bijli Bachat Y0jna’ by distributing 4 CFL
bulbs free of cost to every family in
Himachal Pradesh, which consequently
resulted in saving of 270 MU power every
year and earned an additional revenue of
Rs. 109 crore to the State. The State
Government is creating awareness in
masses about the energy conservation
need.
“Energy Saved is Energy Generated”concept mooted by the H.P. Government has helped in energy
conservation and its alternative usage.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 164
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Use of Solar Energy
The traditional energy source for heating
purposes has been the fuel wood, coal or the
electricity, the demand of which is considerably
large. The carbon emissions resulting out ofuse of
coal & fuel wood for heating during winters causes
environmental degradation. The State
Government is discouraging the use of fossil fuels
for the purpose of space heating during winters
due to environmental concerns. Use of Solar
Energy is being prioritized in the State to off load
the pressure on hydro energy and as a safeguard to
carbon emissions.
Solar Initiative
.4
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. jg
Himachal Pradesh is the first State in the country to introduce Solar Passive Building Technology
forthe design & construction ofGovt. & Semi Govtbuildings in the State.
The State Council for Science, Technology & Environment is co-ordinating the Solar Passive
Building Programme in Himachal Pradesh in collaboration with HP Public Works Department, H.P.
(PWD), HP Housing and Urban Development Authority (HIMUDA), TCP 81 other organisations.
Through an institutionalised mechanism, the State Government is ensuring mandatory inclusion
ofsolar energy techniques in all construction works in the State before making recommendations
for Environment Clearance.
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STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 165

Solar Thermal Programme
The State has so far distributed 32,54-8 box type solar cookers, 83 dish type solar cookers and
installed 9,53,64O LPD capacity solar water heating system on subsidized rates especially in the
remote and farflungareas.
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Solar Photovoltaic Programme
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– Solar Photovoltaic Street lights are provided to far flung areas where grid connected electricity is
not available or is insufficient or where it is not economical to provide grid connected street lights
and to the areas which are socially & economically remote.
v A Solar Power Plant of 6.5 kWp and 2x 1000 LPD Solar Water Heating System is being installed at
H.P. Secretariat, Shimla.
Carbon Smart Industrial Growth
The vision of Sustainable Industrial Growth of Himachal Pradesh envisages an industrial
development, which is inclusive and is in harmony with the environment. During last few years, the
State Government has initiated several policy amendments, provided concessions, offered
incomparable services/infrastructures and created investment friendly environment, which have
started yielding results in terms of setting up of more industrial units and enhancing employment
opportunities for the local people.
sari”.
STATE STRATEGY81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH ~ Z012 166

Contribution to Economy
– The emphasis has been laid on a faster growth of manufacturing sector, which is a key area of
employment generation. The manufacturing sector today employs more than 2.66 lakh persons
and contributes to 11.7 percent (2009-10) ofState Domestic Product.
– During the last few years, the industrialization in the State has made significant progress. Today,
Himachal Pradesh has about 38,790 (38,302) Small Scale and 488 Medium & Large Scale]
Industrial Units with an investmentof about Rs. 16,287.27 crores.
~ Till 1977-78 there were only about 5,700 SSI units and about 10 Large and Medium units
employingjustafewthousand people.
v The share ofindustries in SDP has increased from 1.1 percent in 1950-51 to 5.6 percent in 1967-
68, 9.4 percentin 1990-91, 10 percentin 2008-09 and 11.7 percentin 2009-10.
Growth in Industrial Share to SDP in
Himachal Pradesh
14 –
\__ /-_ 11.7%
12 – ‘H—‘ ‘\
v_ 4
m___‘ .,1o%~
10 _ _ -_ _ 9.4%
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1950-51 1967-68 1990-91 2008 D9 Z009 10
Year
Red, Orange & Green Types of Industry
Types of industrial units falling under Red, Orange & Green categories as per their environmental
pollution potential.
Category Small Medium Large Total
Red 747 75 182 1004
Orange 2274- 189 134 2597
Green 2689 108 91 2888
Total 5710 372 407 6489
Note: The table excludes a number of industries exempted from
environmental consent mechanism.
STATE STRATEGY8: ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH ~ Z012 167

Thrust lndustrial Enterprises
Major industrial enterprises in this category
include enterprises of non—polluting nature
such as horticulture produce including hops
and tea, mineral water bottling, electronic
enterprises including computer software and
information technology except assembling,
medicinal herbs and aromatic herbs,
handicrafts, enterprises to manufacture
industrial products by any biotechnology
processes and processing laboratories or
research & development activity related to
processing, scale-up, other innovations and
products in the field of biotechnology, and
precision industries etc. Q
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__<. ‘IA Environment friendly PolicyAmendment Negative List of Industries Major industrial enterprises in this category are of polluting type including tobacco and tobacco products including cigarettes and pan masala, thermal power plant [coal/oil based), coal washeries/dry coal processing, inorganic & organic chemicals, tanning and dyeing extracts, cement clinker and asbestos raw including fibre, manufacture of pulp-wood pulp, mechanical or chemical [including dissolving pulp), plastics and articles thereof, production of firewood and charcoal, mini steel plants induction/ arc/submerged furnaces, and/or rolling mills etc. Translating the above vision into action, the State Government amended the Industrial Policy in December 2011 to promote environment friendly development in the State and encourage cleaner production. Salient features ofthe amendment are as under: ~ Promotion of cleaner production and environmental management system consistent with internationally recognized standards. – Disincentive to industries on negative list. – Promote public dis closure of pollution status at the unit and cluster level. The focus of the Industrial Policy is now on dispersal of eco-friendly & local skill and raw material based industries to the interior areas of the State by granting incentives, depending on their location. “1 _ . ‘I 9&5 ‘ __:’§’ ‘. l..\‘ ‘ STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — Z012 168 In Support of Traditional Industry ~. In‘ In order to protect the traditional products of Himachal Pradesh, the State Govt. has obtained registrations for Kullu Shawl, Kangra Tea, Chamba Rumal and Kinnauri Shawl under Geographical Indications [Registration and Protection] Act, 1999. Geographical Indicators The registration under GI Act will check the unauthorized use of these products, which will result in socio-economic growth ofthousands ofweavers/ farmers/ artisans and traders ofHimachal Pradesh. The Geographical Indications (Gls) right can be used by all the producers from the geographical region covered by the particular geographical indication. , 7 Y . Q ‘ v ‘_‘.~.|X:”‘ ‘Q » r K . Q ‘ i ‘.’ fir 4* 1 t , Chamba Rumal [GI No. 79] ‘\°. 1 ‘- lw. ” :14 ‘( \‘JL7; I 0‘ ‘ ‘J’ \ N 4′ ’53?‘ y–I ;4‘sn””” I F \ 5 0 Q _ J rt (5 . ‘.». 5 , g . Kangra Paintings W Kangra Tea [GI No. 26) STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 169 Treatment of Industrial Effluents . . . . . .F\>\|.’1,*‘ _
~ The State Government 1s accordlng top pr1or1ty for settlng up of ‘-
a Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) through a Special
Purpose Vehicle [SPV) namely M/s Baddi Infrastructure Ltd, ..__ ‘W; 1-_\ –
formed by Baddi Barotiwala Nalagarh Industrial Association .‘ ‘ ,’._‘ =_
[BBNIA],Baddi, DisrtrictSolan, Himachal Pradesh. \__ “ff ,-_ . I ~- _
v The CETP shall serve 990 industries present in 9 industrial ‘\/._.\ 2
areasin Baddi-Barotiwalaindustrialcorridoit ““”“ L. . 2;
~ The proposed site of CETP is present near the industrial area at “- ‘ ‘ ,2-‘-‘ .5
village Kainduwal in Solan District. The total cost of the project “,’~,‘\
is around Rs. 53.80 crores. ‘ ~ “‘-
– Setting up of the CETP is a step towards reducing and abating
environmental pollution in the area and because of this infrastructure, more and more industrial
units including ancillary units will strive to set up their units in this industrial area. This will give
further impetus to growth process resulting to greater employment opportunities to the local
people.
– The environmental clearance for the CETP project has been received from the MoEF, GOI and work
willnow be started.
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Monitoring of Water Quality “”
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– Surface water quality monitoring is Q ;‘ ” _
conducted four times a year for 189
locations selected on major rivers viz. ‘– _ ‘
Satluj, Beas, Ravi, Yamuna, Parvati, Sirsa, ‘ ‘ ‘
Markanda&Sukhnaandtheirtributariesin ‘/’ ” ‘
theState.
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major rivers and its tributaries, 18 – ._=»~ ,, “”‘ “‘\
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locatlons ll’l major 1ndustr1al towns for the O I
monitoring of ground water and 55 –
locations on Hydel projects. \_G_
Zero Discharge Plant 100% of plant waste water is treated on site and used for gardening in a
Baddi Plant
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STATE STRATEGY 8: ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 170

Treatment of Industrial Effluents
Primary Clarifier
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l;’-£5 , ..,<-1-.1 ¢ T I IP \ ‘—— ‘ _ 2 I.‘ ETPs in operation > 1: m *~ .
_< ‘\ ‘ * ._ ‘ ‘ ‘1’ .‘ ‘ ‘d .‘ _ X _ v ;4i ‘ Fifi 5-‘=-SIT k .~ QA Biological Treatment Secondary Clarifier ___- _.-0.‘ _: ~t_:.’_-ii STATE STRATEGY8: ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH ~ Z012 Tertiary Treatment In addition to the three conventional treatment comprising of physico—chemical and biological treatment, initiative has been taken to introduce tertiary level of treatment in the industrial units particularlythose in Baddi-Barotiwala area. – \. QQ Treatment of Sewage So far 35 sewage treatment plants with cumulative treatment capacity of 79.66 mld have been commissioned and provided. In all, 10 municipal solid waste processing facilities are being set up at different towns for better disposal and management of sewage and municipal solid wastes in the State. The Sewage Treatment Plants have been installed in hotels above 25 rooms capacityoutside the municipallimit. __¢ A Water Conservation Initiative by a Textile Unit at Nalagarh STATE STRATEGY& ACTION PLAN ow CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH ~ 2012 172 Monitoring of Air Quality It has been ensured that air polluting industries comply with the air quality standards, which are being monitored regularly under Air Quality Monitoring Network ‘ i‘. ~’.?Q;” I 1’ I’ ~ The Ambient Air Quality Programme is operational with the objective to find the current status of pollution, to study the trends and to undertake remedial action as a resultofincreasingindustrialization/urbanization. v The parameters such as Suspended Particulate Matter [SPM), Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter /‘ac J‘ fj ” -c . _,1 \- I ,- __ , . [RSPM], Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx] and Sulphur Dioxide (S02) are being monitored with the help of Respirable Dust Sampler on the basis of three days per station per week for 24- hours at 8 Towns/Cities covering 14 numbers of locations in the State. M1 Quality oi ilvlmlo-1 IIMID OIL HIM LICK LII csoc -. aux 4:-c mac C3: siazizizzziz //\ 5′ F. K bii Iii SCI nu $556 ~::e ZISC C3.‘ k% – /”k -2% r~_Q- 4* _\ 1 \ ‘ 1 ‘ ‘1 \ * ‘ ‘,- klf .~ -L _‘ ‘I ‘-1 “N *5‘ 3′ Ambient Air Quality‘\’.’y T “J Monitoring Network Q L ‘.\¢4l’ ‘ um-nryu 04-an qwwommq __;»- mméfimé —-no: no — VJ iv-4 run iv-J so: —»:> vziim z’:,:w\ um
RSPM recording partial decline after 2009 at the RSPM recording partial decline after 2009 at the
Bus Stand Ridge
Online Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring Station (CAAQMS) by ACC Plant Gaga]
v Installation of Continuous Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Station [CAAQMS). It has helped in
measuring the continuous online ambient air conditions and helped in taking the pollution
mitigation steps as and when required.
~ Continuous Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations are contemplated in all major cities and
industrial towns of the State.
Online Monitoring Locations in HP
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STATE STRATEGY81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH ~ 2012
173

Air Pollution Control
Wet Scrubbers and Cyclones
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Bag House Filter ‘ 7 Bag Filters
Air Pollution Control
System in a Boiler
1,‘
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STATE STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH ‘ 2012
1

Hazardous Waste Management
The Common Treatment, Storage,
Disposal Facility (TSDF) at village Majra,
Tehsil Nalagarh, District Solan is
operational since Iune, 2008 for
scientific disposal of landfillable
hazardous waste.
ii
Till March 2011, about 2427 units
generating hazardous waste have been
identified. Out of which 1862 are
operational as on 31“ March 2011 and
responsible for generating hazardous
waste under Hazardous Waste
(Management, Handling & Trans-
boundary Movement) Rules, 2008. Of
them authorization was granted to 1862
units.
A total of 27,786 MT of landfillable hazardous waste has been disposed off in TSDF by various
landfillable hazardous waste generating industries.
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Management of E-wastes
~ Guidelines for the Environmentally Sound Management
of E-Wastes and Guidelines for Environmentally Sound
Mercury Management in Fluorescent Lamp have been
issued by the MQEF/CPCB in 2008. This is being pro-
activelyimplemented.
The aspect of E-waste generation in the state and its
management is being taken up on priority, beside the
management of mercury from the CFL lamps and its
disposal requires awareness and proper central
disposal facility.
STATE STRATEGY81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH ~ Z012
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B10-medical Waste Management
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T1ll March 2011, 555 Health Care facilities were inventorised and covered under Biomedical Waste
(Management & Handling) Rules, 1998 which includes 233 Government and 322 Private health
institutions.
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. <7? ,< aw ..‘g_ 7 as r ., _ “’5 ~’1‘*“’&’ *‘#a‘= . . . __ . \ – Z , . / Syrillleneslrnver lndneriwr F Municipal Solid Waste processing facilities towards Green Himachal Eight number of waste processing facilities (composting plants] are functional, wherein approx., 80-90 tons ofmunicipal solid waste from 10 number ofmunicipalities is pr0cessed/ day. Total waste generation is approx. 300-350 tons/day within the area ofjurisdiction ofmunicipal limits. The establishment ofcomposting plants of five more municipalities has also been proposed. Besides technical assistance, financial assistance was also provided for establishment of waste processing facility at MC Nahan. STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH 9 2012 new fluvial Pit =1 = cm: Nnilmal x’\ Incinerator =1 MC Shlmlz l _ _. _‘.‘?_;r:. _;(\,~g§ 176 Municipal Waste Management Root Zone Technology Q ‘ Redressal of Public Complaints / Representations The State Government ensured that surveillance and monitoring becomes a regular event to maintain a constant vigil on the environmental quality and impact thereofon the people. The concerned regulatory authority not only keep liaison with the people but also take prompt action for mitigation ofthe public grievances. During the years 2008-11, the State Pollution Control Board took remedial action on 64-1 public complaints / representations that were received during these years. Surveillance and Monitoring of Industrial Pollution (Compliance) This part ofthe function is very crucial for the operation and maintenance ofthe pollution control systems installed by the industrial units. This assumes greater significance because if the pollution control systems are not properly operated and maintained, this will cause water and air pollution due to release of effluents and emissions. As part of surveillance & monitoring activity, the State Board collected samples and inspections were conducted to ensure compliance to norms and environmental standards. STATE STRATEGY&ACTlON PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH ~ 2012 177 Application of e-Governance in Industrial Pollution Control HIM-XGN web-portal has been launched to facilitate the entrepreneurs for online application and data uploading for effective and transparent environmental governance: ~ Fully web enabled consent mechanism 1””‘“”°””””””‘“”””‘°””””°”””””‘”””‘ _ adopted since 5-06-2009 to introduce “;°;’° _!’€ – transparency and accountability in consent ‘5’-‘ ‘ 1* tvqf’ ,1 t J administration. _-“‘- _._ ~ . .l=I;ii-I – Online real time monitoring of emissions ‘ ‘l ‘= 2:‘ ‘ 9 . andairqualityinCementPlants. – -1-»..-..-.. .-1. ~ »-.. -—., – ~ . ~ Online real time monitoring of 15 % minimum flow in the rivers mandated for i-= .‘ ‘ ‘ ‘- i L ,‘§~” “‘ _ ‘..- Hydro power units. 3 >
~ GIS based Surveillance & Monitoring for “‘“”” ‘ ’ ~. 2-
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— . I .
Hydro projects is being conceived. »§f_-E-Y ~ Video Conferencing facility with the E —1335] !. ‘
Regional offices. __,_ _ –
lnitiatives by the Industry
– Entrepreneurs are also coming forward to help us to achieve our stated objectives of effective
environmental governance.
~ ACC Gagal (Barmana) has adopted Root Zone technology, which is the nature’s answer to the
modern industrialized world’s water pollution problems.
– Wetland plants called reeds have been grown in specially designed beds, which provides eco-
friendly mode to use nature to T‘
“Protect Nature” as the net
work of Rhizomes and
naturally occurring bacteria D ‘- – ‘ j
associated with their root » Li]
structure help in breaking ‘
down oforganic solids present
in the waste water.
– Gujarat Ambuja, Darlaghat &
ACC both have started co- ,
processing solutions to local . I 4’ ~ ‘ . – _.
_ _ _ _ _ _ iv’. _,. .¢~¢__. _ _ _ _ ..
municipalities and industries , ‘–_ ‘ av ‘ > . – ,~a _ ‘Qa-
alike to dispose off their – -.\~‘~‘-:s;§?~1\:’..-‘.“ “-1
hazardous and non-hazardous :\.__ ’ ” ‘ ‘ ‘ l ‘ ‘. . ‘.;’.,=;ir’ 2?“ ‘
. . . – _ ~ __ ,¢_ _’ ‘ _‘ _
wastes in kilns in the most »- If \ x , __ —~ – _§_ 1 __
environmental friendly and ~ i
ecologically sustaining
manner.
‘I ‘LAM -H-.–u
STATE STRATEGY& ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH A Z012 178

Dumping Sites
In order to promote green roads, the State Government has prioritized the identification ofdumping
sites for scientific disposals ofroad debris/muck. In total 273 such dumping sites have been identified
and are beingputto use.
Ls
Eco-Tourism
In order to to achieve the dual objective of /_ Community Based Ecoroumm
resource generation and the protection of our I ””“‘“”‘””‘““‘“”””
fragile Himalayan ecology, the efforts are to » ~-
encourage tourism in the relatively lesser ‘._“>'{-:;‘§;~._\-.”;r
explored parts of Himachal Pradesh. The
involvement of local community would help in “”1-”;.’-‘.
keeping the natural pristine environs intact – ‘ , ___ _ _ _
while enabling tourists to enjoy the exclusive I ‘ _ (I -‘ _, ».( ‘ l – ‘
naturalHimalayanretreat. ‘ / “§& ” -_. ”
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Home Stay Scheme, is a unique environment ,,, ,_V.___ f__ } .
friendly scheme, which provides secure and I \’ ,‘ .’-T?“ . – ” ‘ .
comfortable Home Stay facilities of standardized ““’ >
_ _ _,__ .,- ._,..,._.c,.. s
services to the tourists and to supplement the ___“__ :_f_‘_:_:‘_‘f_“_’§’j_“;:I_‘f‘_‘:‘_:_:
availability of accommodation in the rural tourist -_..». II 2“.’S.”..” I…”I’.‘l”.1.’.’.” .1‘;
. . . . _____,__ ….-……..-..;.-……_ ……
destinations, besides generating employment I – –~- -~ —‘ — –
__ _ _ _ .,,_,,_,_.__ ….-. 1 -.-…. M. ~…~ ..
opportunities and adding economic values in the .._,,,.___, ;‘,‘_,”;;’,;’_*’ “‘””‘ ““ “” »
interior, remote and rural areas. ‘Home Stay’ ‘1‘_”_,””” …_,. .. .. -… ..-.. -. .-.
scheme is pivotal for promoting rural tourism in
the State. Himachal is now being recognised as ‘A
Destination forAll Seasons &All Reasons’.
STATE STRATEGY&ACTlON PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH a 2012 179

Towards Sustainable Tourism Development-Tourism Master Plan
Recognizing the potential of the tourism sector and the
contribution it could make in the State’s GDP, the GoHP in extension . ‘*9
to its Tourism Policy has seta mission ofmakingtourismthe prime :1-:2-__ .___ _ ._
engine of economic growth. The State Government, in its -|’
___ endeavour of becoming a carbon ,,,,_uwM°,,_°q,,m fl“
neutral state, has focused at “””‘”I”‘°’Y°v””‘\ –
. . . . . _ 0|Hin\J:hAlPIl6l\h
expanding tourism activities having
low carbon footprints. The
Government of Himachal Pradesh is
in the process of formulating a long
term Tourism Master Plan so that
tourism development remains in
harmony with the environmental conservation. We aim to develop
sustainable and environment friendly high-end tourism in the
State. The Tourism Master Plan would suggest strategic
interventions required to de-congest the present tourist
destinations by diverting the tourism traffic to new places with
higherrevenueyield.
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Effective Environment Management Practices
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Actions for Present and Future Generation
The State is very much conscious of importance of
our State’s strategic location in the Himalayan
Region. In view of State’s ecological fragility and
sensitivity the State has realization towards our
immense responsibility for downstream populace
besides for our own present and future generations.
The State Government is committed for promotion
of sustainable development in the State in an
economically, socially and environmentally sound
manner and has repeatedly through real actions
expressed its resolve to protect and enhance its
natural resources and followed the path of GREEN
GROWTH in all sectors of governance.
STATE STRATEGY 8: ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 180

The State Government through
participatory governance is
dealing with issues related to
environment degradation and
pollution including impacts of
climate change on various
sectors ofour economy.
In order to have the status of
environment of our eco system
and environment at the macro-
level, the Government prepared
and released its State of
Environment Report during the
year 2009.
‘State of Environment Report [SoER)’ of Himachal Pradesh is an innovative interactive report. It
allows the user to view data on environmental issues and challenges.
Sum» of I-Im irmunom Rt-pon
(SoliR) |lllIl2l(‘ll2|l Pnul:-sll ’ ‘
~\
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012
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181

Key Objectives
State ofEnvironment reporting has been undertaken in order
to understand, describe, analyze and communicate
information on the conditions and trends in the environment
and accordingly frame strategies to mitigate challenges. The
objectives have been:
~ To identify gaps in the State of knowledge of
environmental conditions and trends, and recommend
strategies for research and monitoring to fill these gaps.
v To provide early warning ofpotential problems, as well as
allowing for the evaluation ofthe possible scenario for the
future.
~ To report on the effectiveness of the policies and
programmes that has been designed to respond to the
environmental changes.
v To assess the State’s progress towards achieving
ecologicalsustainability.
Environment Master Plan for Himachal Pradesh
l__‘,-:-—
Following Themes have been
included in the Report:
– Physiography of Himachal
Pradesh.
~ Agriculture and Allied
Activities [Horticulture and
Animal Husbandry).
– Bio-Diversity.
– Energy.
– Land Use.
– Forest.
– Health Transport.
– Industries and Mining.
– Tourism and Culture.
– Water Resources.
~ Environmental Pollution.
and Management.
~ Society & Environment.
~ Natural Disasters and
Climate Change.
4
I –
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In order to ensure the sustainability ofenvironmental heritage and natural resources and to develop a
long term perspective of achieving environmentally sustainable development, the Government of
Himachal Pradesh has undertaken the preparation of Environment Master Plan [EMP) for the State.
The key objectives of the Environment Master Plan are to enable the State of Himachal Pradesh to:
~ Simultaneously address issues of ecological and environment restoration and bring convergence
along with the development activities taking place in the state;
– Engage and ensure close coordination with all the concerned development departments, both at
the state and Government oflndia level;
~ Decide future financing ofinvestments for development in a sustainable manner, and
~ Develop suitable institutional arrangements in order to implement the Government of Himachal
Pradesh’s policies and strategies.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 182

Through this initiative, the State Government is able to achieve following:
– EstablishBaselineconditions.
– Conduct a Spatial Vulnerability
Assessment and formulate Planning – M _‘
Principles. f_’-_- 7*. i‘ ‘\
~ Develop Public Consultation and I 4 ’\§§ ¢\ _
Communication Strategy for the v ‘ i
DepartmentofEnvironment. . ‘—- ‘
– Develop Sectoral Guidelines for High ‘ ‘l’~__, by“ _ g.
FootPrintSectors. ” ‘4 ‘J I‘-
– Develop an Institutional Mechanism “” i
forimplementationoftheEMR _ .” ‘.’ _ –
– Establish need for Training and -T Q __¢ 1- _- _
CapacityEnhancement. I1‘ ‘ – –
– Develop Monitoring and Evaluation _., A ,___‘_;.~
Protocols. “–H
.. _ J “ ‘ F:
It is one of the unique initiatives in the A ‘
Country towards Sustainable 1.‘?-\ ~ “P ‘3 .
Development and Planned Green Growth. .. .. , . -. ‘ _ 1 ‘.
Overall, the Environment Master Plan has ‘ ’“”””‘ D-~‘~*” f‘ I ‘3’ – ‘I – – ,] _
been envisioned as guide tool to provide Z51-L105,‘-99*;
strategic direction with respect to all encompassing .- ‘ “”‘ ‘ 3
environmental issues. This plan would be a platform for _ –
engagement among implementing agencies, developmental agencies and the 1
local government, to take action w.r.t. environmental issues of local concern on
priority. The Environment Master Plan would also act as a tool for monitoring environmental
performance andprogress.
513′
pl
Vulnerability Assessment of Himachal Pradesh
— ~’-“-77′-“7′”‘-’T”‘-|-“—
The Vulnerability Assessment of all the districts at tehsil and
sub tehsil level has been carried out with the objective of
correlating the baseline data and information and identify
critical and vulnerable areas / issues at tehsil level. Perhaps this
study was the first of its own kind, which the Government of
Himachal Pradesh ensured during the year 2009-2011, as to
formulate planning approach, as an optimal combination of ”
“bottom up” (inclusive of community inputs) and “top down”.
The assessment of vulnerability in the context of natural systems and quality oflife is an important
and integral part ofthe Environment Master Plan.
A spatial vulnerability assessment has been carried out and accordingly the planning principles have
been formulated.
STATE STRATEGY81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH ~ Z012 183

While deriving the vulnerability assessment our experts have correlated the baseline data and
information and identified critical and vulnerable areas/ issues related to the specific sectors viz;
infrastructure, natural resource management and services besides their associated sub sectors:
~ Priorities have been fixed for optimal decision-making.
v Vulnerable areas or hotspots have been Identified. Q
~ Mapping ofhot spots have been done withidentification oftrade offs.
~ Planning approach has been formulated. i
\
Current Environmental Vulnerability Status ‘ 1
The scenario projection is quite helpful, acts as healthy ‘
source of information for deriving the priorities for optimal – €
decision-making, identification of vulnerable areas i.e. –
physical areas or hotspots; and policies which exacerbate
environment deterioration in these areas. Mapping of hot
spots and identification of tradeoffs, Categorization of areas
based on impacts and associated environmental risks and
establishing criteria for the same has been set through this
endeavour.
Environmental & Social Sectoral Guidelines
Based on environmental status and vulnerability assessment out comes, action plan has been given
for each and every sector for Policy level, Plan level and Programme level interventions to be taken
by the various stakeholders to ensure sustainable development of the State and to usher the State on
path of Green Growth.To mainstream environmental concerns into the State’s development agenda in
the next three decades and beyond and to attend the emerging environmental challenges for
achieving the green growth; environmental and social sectoral guidelines have been prepared for 16
major sectors in Himachal Pradesh.
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STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 184

State Centre on Climate Change, Himachal Pradesh
The Centre endeavours to achieve the following objectives:
v Guide State growth through a qualitative change in direction that enhances ecological
sustainabilityleading to further mitigation ofgreenhouse gas emissions.
~ Recommendappropriatetechnologiesfor ’. ___
both adaptation and mitigation of
greenhousegases. ‘ r
– Protect, preserve and enhance the forest
cover and the biodiversity for effective
carbonsinks.
~ Monitoring of glaciers, mass balance,
retreating trends & up-dation of
inventories.
~ Coordination with different universities,
research institutions, Govt. departments,
NGOs etc. to pursue theme based specific
research on climate change and its
impacts. — , I
~ Awareness amongstvarious stakeholders 55° – a u – 1 ‘
for taking appropriate measures in
combating the impact ofclimate change.
– Evolve strategies and policies for implementation through public and private institutions.
~ Awareness modules at the different platforms forthe mitigation of natural disasters.
~ Strengthen capacity building in disaster management.
v Polices and inputs to the State governmentin the field of disaster management.
Actions Being Taken
The Government of Himachal Pradesh has initiated many programmes for dealing with the
challenges ofclimate change. The initiatives and action can be categorized into the following broader
areasas:
~ State specific Action Plan on Climate Change.
~ Institutional framework to deal with different facets of climate change.
~ Catalyzing research on critical areas on developmental & livelihood.
– Strategy and action plan for generating awareness and education.
v Adaptation measures to combat the impact ofclimate change.
~ Creation ofcentralized database.
~ Managingwater sources.
~ National and international initiatives for dealing with the impacts of climate change on livelihoods
ofpeople.
‘ Working towards achieving and sustaining the goal ofmaking Himachal Pradesh the first Carbon
Neutral State of Country.
– Use of remote sensing technology for the better management of climate induced, other natural
hazards and the natural resources.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 185

A Step towards Prevention of Forest Fire and Reduction of Green House Gas Emissions
Dry Pine needles are susceptible to fire and poses fire hazard to the forests.
– Every year thousands of hectares of forests are turned into ashes | I p
because ofPine needles incidents. – – k
– B
vs;
+
1.
1
~ Pine needles also obstruct the green grass to grow as natural . ” -l
phenomena. ‘ ,,
~ Removal of Pine Needles from the forest will help to save our . __~ \
National Property. . ‘4
. \ Q. –
– Encourageregeneratlon of newgrowth. __ _ ‘s 1.
~ Fulfill the grazingneeds. ‘ ‘ – P . , ‘.
~ Prevent the forest fire.
~ Create the Income generation activity for community earning on an average Rs. 150/- per quintal
(Rs. 800/- per day) for collection ofbio-mass.
Forest Department through Ambuja Cement Foundation has taken initiative and identified 3,000 ha
area in Kunihar Forest Division for collection of pine needle bio mass mobilizing Self Help Groups,
Women Groups/Yuvak Mandals and local rural communities for collection.
Steps for building Green Economy
Himalayan Chief Minister’s Conclave- for ‘Himalayan Advocacy’
In view of the fact that the ‘hilly states’ lacks in collective ‘advocacy’ at National level on issues
concerning sustainable hill development and that such issues do not receive attention at the national
level due to geographic, demographic, political reasons, we decided and acted to convene a
‘Himalayan Chief Ministers’ Conclave -Indian 7
Himalayas: Glaciers, Climate Change and Livelihoods at V ” C ‘ .
Shimla to create a common plate form to resole and _ 0
create collective advocacy on Himalayan issues at the
national level. A resolution – ‘Shimla Declaration’ on
Sustainable Himalayan Development was released with r . – .
the aim to protect and conserve Himalayan eco system.
lIhIly|nChMlllnlsl0n’¢0l\dli|
itbl fin-1 %¢&§lu~
4 4 ‘ ,
l I
. E stablishment of a Himalayan S ustainable Release of State ofEnvironment Report, l-LP. by Sh.] airam Rgmesh,
Development Forum [HDSF] ; the then Hon’ble Union Minister for Environment xi Forests
~ Settingup State Councils for Climate Change; U“dePe“de”‘ Ch“rge]’ 0°“ °H”“““’
I Catalyzing research forpolicyaction;
~ Payment for ecosystem services;
– Managingwater resources for sustainable development;
v Challenge ofurbanization;
~ Green transportation;
– Dealingwith impacts ofclimate change on livelihoods;
– Decentralized energy security;
~ Managing growth ofeco-friendly tourism and pilgrimage.
Shimla Declaration: ,
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 186

ESTABLISHMENT OF STATE CENTRE ON CLIMATE CHANGE to better comprehend the dynamics of
climate change, coordinate the research and to evolve management measures with the active
involvement of experts.
Foundation Stone Ceremony of State Centre on Climate Change
Dr. R. K. Pachauri, D.G. ,TERl: Guest of Honour.
The State Government has introduced CFL bulbs for energy
conservation through the ‘Atal Biili Bachat Y0jna’ by
distributing 4- CFL bulbs free of cost to every family in Himachal . ‘
Pradesh. This would result in a sizable reduction in energy 1
consumption. ‘ –
COMMUNITY LED ASSESSMENT; AWARENESS & ADVOCACY PROGRAM (CLAP] for Environment
Protection &Carbon Neutrality.
0 Environment and carbon footprint assessment.
~ Environment protection / improvement and carbonfootprintreduction.
.18-re‘
t..¢.,….,.. cf:-:§___ ‘ \_’ 85*
“ wm= a . Energy – ‘
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Thematic Areas under Clap ‘ 6
– as
E ll u _.
= 1. Pawan TARA Air Testing Kit
r — 2. Biodiversity Survey
3. ]al TARA Water Monitoring Kit
4. Laboratory Support
5. Paper Recycling Plant
STATE STRATEGY 8: ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 187

Achievements
– Environment Assessment exercise in about 400 Panchayats undertaken.
‘ Carbon footprint for Panchayats calculated and advocacy issues identified and advocacy
undertaken.
‘ Selection of Eco—Sensitive Panchayats in all the Districts on following criteria:
– High Population
~ Nearness to Highway
~ Industrial Area
– Number ofVillages
Q Eco-Sensitivity of area (like Dumping area, water quality and Protected areas]
N
‘ /
L_._ ..’
Afforestation Scheme viz. Sanjeevani Van- Sanjha Van for the promotion ofmedicinal herbs for the
conservation of biodiversity.
To make Himachal a Herbal State, a new ambitious programme ‘]an-]an Sanjivni Van Abhiyan-2008’
was launched in the State. Under the programme medicinal plants have been distributed.
STATE STRATEGY 8: ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 188

lourney of Plastic from Waste to Wealth
Shredded plastic
waste
plastic waste
Shredding of
plastic waste
u ‘Q
Plastic waste ‘
collection 0
Mixing of shredded
‘ plastic waste with
hot aggregate
Road laying f
process ‘
rrying to road
laying site
A Way Forward — To make the State Carbon Neutral
The Delhi Sustainable Development Summit (DSDS), organized annually by The Energy and
Resources Institute (TERI) since 2001, is an international undertaking that provides a platform for
the exchange of knowledge amongst important heads of the State and Central Governments,
academicians, and policy makers on all aspects of sustainable development.
The theme of DSDS 2012 was protecting the Global Commons: 20 years post Rio. The debates at this
DSDS revolved around the commons and took stock ofthe situation since the Rio summit of 1992.
STATE STRATEGY&ACTl0N PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH ~ 2012 189

New Partners
TERI will establish a Regional Centre in Himachal Pradesh in collabor ti
a on with State Centre on
Climate Change, Government of HimachalP d h ‘ ‘
ra es to study the various facets of climate change.
;! Q ‘
g@ , – Q
I “-§ . . –
Application of Remote Sensing in Environment Management
“I”
in-mu llIfl(fl1lI manna.
Natural Resource Mapping
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Disaster Management—Parechhu Lake Monitoring
Environment Awareness & Education
In order to preserve, maintain and enhance the pristine environment of the State, the Government
has acted very proactively and initiat d ‘
e number ofprogrammes for the conservation and protection
ofour environment.
The State Govt. initiated School Environment Audit Scheme for Eco-Clubs to improve their
environmental performance. To sensitize the general public about menace of littering, State
Government launched a Eco— Monitoring Scheme. The State Council is also effectively implementing
National Green Corps programme through 3000 Eco-clubs across the state and National
Environment Awareness C ‘ ‘
ampalgn through NGOs, Mahlla Mandals, Gram Panchyats etc.
STATE STRATEGY &ACTlON PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – Z012 190

-_: 4 ___ 1 _ _¢._
iq-. HIMACI-U\L PRADGSH
Q‘? _ unmqiunn mimu nap
noun hluolnnq lull‘. tlnnls and
Climate Induced Hazards & Other Natural
Disasters
The State ofHimachal Pradesh, which forms a
-:91 ..-, _|-1 ndflnqnlmdmqjmuldolil
n
–v
“ ° H.‘ \
_ .,¢., ~
~ ~–
_ — _ part of the Western Himalaya, is
‘ ’ ~’ ‘ environmentally fragile and ecologically
‘~ \” vulnerable. The State being part of the
‘ Himalaya is seismically very active and is
highly vulnerable since 32% of the total
geographical area of the state falls in very
high damage risk zone as Zone -V and the
remaining in Zone -IV. Occurrence of natural
hazards emanating from the effects of
climatological variations are a matter of
immediate concern to the State, as every year
the State experiences the fury of nature in
various forms like cloud bursts, flash floods,
landslides, snow avalanches, and droughts.
was
man
_/‘F’ 2;
Hazard Vulnerability of the State
Natuml Hazards Man-Made Hazards
‘ – Earthquakes Accidents
Landslides Electric Fires
‘ Snow Avalanches
‘ ‘ Forest Fires
Dt0L\ghtS Building Collapse
Hailstorms Serial Bomb Blasts
History of Disasters in l-limachal pradesh
Flash floods/Cloud bursts Festival related Disasters
Landslide Area
History of Damage
Maling (1968).
This slide damaged 1 Km NH—22 and is still active.
Kinnaur (Dec.19BZ)
This occurred at Sholding nala collapsing 3 bridges and 1.5 of
road was vanished.
Jhakri (March 1989)
At Nathpa almiit soo m of road was damaged mia to this slide and is
still active
Luggarbhati on 12 Sept.1995
55 (39 as per official record) were buried alive during the slide
Location
| 32°15’ N, 76″15’ E “‘ ‘ _ ,
Date
Landslide
| 4“ Apri|,1905
Time
| osizo hrs., IST
Magnitude
| 8.0 Richter Scale
Intensity
| x on MM Scale
Causalities
| 20,000 persons
Area Shaken
| 4,1s,oo0 sq.km
Emlhquohnmlhn Hula in ‘mt lddyoon
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4
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STATE STRATEGY 8: ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 191
191

Date 84 Place Damage
Formation of lake In Satlul River due to Nathpa rock fall.
Revenue loss of Rs.45 mllllun.
Flash Floods & Landslides in Kullu valley. Damage to the time
of R5.759.8 million.
Flash flood in the Sitlhlj valley, water level increased L|ptO so feet
O3—lu|—73
4“ & 5“ sepi.1995. knllii valley
on the night of 31*‘ liily at l“
August 2000, sarliij valley
above the normal. The flash flood was termed as the one that
eeeiirs once in 51,000 years.135 penple and 1573 cattle lost
their lll/E5. The tutal I055 was R5.1455.Z5 crure.
Due to inese flash floods, 21 people lclstthelr llves, 21 penple
Slifféffid major inmries and 9 were reported missing.
1s‘”liily zoos, Gharsz valley in
KUllU district
1 Flash-Floods
2s‘”liine zoos. Satluj river due to breach in the
Parechhu lake in l’lbetarl catchment.
10 km stretch of NH—ZZ between Wangtoo and Sumdo was
washed away. Total loss was Rs. 610 crore
Year Road Accidents Persuns Killed lniured Persons
v
5*?‘
5
~0
T? TFvT_fiT4—
S _—4¥4_—4—i
– ’44
1. 1 ‘ – .-
\‘ V __, ‘?”;’-v_r< p _ 2,22s -(T ‘ 1 “‘ r ‘ zonz os zasa ; 2003 on z 507 e zen 1—D2 204 695 257 920 ass ass 945 ssa 1195 3192 3 9’17 4 Jsa | 4674 | 4833 4see 4367 4637 5550 _ -2 \ ‘I 4‘. 2oo4—os 2752 2005 ms zonseov zoo? os zone 09 200110 1% . . . v_.d!.~.~ .-_ . Q- Accident ‘? ‘i ‘ 1.‘ ‘Q’. X1″‘ff-fl ‘ — zsuv 2155 2906 2546 1409 Persons Persons killed Persons nzs s – – ‘ ism” AW“! involved iniurea isle R Q Avalanche ’ \_ _. _ vi \n in W Q neimbe 5 w M \D nnaur 144 119 ‘v Ti? Y I T T Ullu ahaul s. simi 391 293 N vi H1 N ni U! nimla m Air Crash stanllnde pumab Governor sh” Surendm A human stampede at the temple 0fNa|na Devi Nath and nine members ni liis family were killed when the criverninenvs 5\ipcr»Klng – – – _ L f Pg v Y ‘ i L4 . ‘ .- . , aircrafi crashed mm lilgll Other Hazards occurred on am August2UDE.162 people died when they were crushed, trampled, or forced over the side ofa ravine hy me movementofa large panicking crowd. Possibility nfsuch instances is always uiere irrliere is any lainry ‘ V . as 7,” – mountainsinhadweatheron ’14 ‘ – {I I ‘ ~ |nly9,1994ml-liinaelieil P‘ Air-Crash _ . ‘ Pradesh. Actions being taken for Managing Disasters on the part ofthe management. In order to reduce the vulnerability of State, the Government of Himachal Pradesh is committed towards disaster management as one of its topmost priority area. Considering the topographical conditions, the Government is working to strengthen the preparedness level so that the post disaster effects are not only minimised but also reduced to a great extent. The actions which are being taken to fulfil the mandate ofdisaster managementare: – Hazard RiskVulnerability Assessment [HRVA) ofthe state. Formulation of State Disaster Management Plan. Finalisation 0fDistt. Disaster Management Plan (DDMP). Establishment of State Emergency Operation Centre (SEOC) & District Emergency Operation Centre (DEOC]. Assessment ofcurrentlevel ofknowledge, aptitude & practices in DM ofvarious stakeholders. To examine the current construction practices in Hamirpur Distt. & suggestions of mitigation measures. Constitution ofState Disaster Response Force [SDRF). 0 STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 192 Initiatives taken by the Government for Disaster Management As far as Disaster Management in India is concerned, there is a paradigm shift from the earlier charity approach to a professional way of handling Disaster Management. The Government of Himachal Pradesh has already taken various initiatives for handling disaster at pre disaster level forbetter management. – State Disaster Management Authority [SDMA) & State Executive Committee (SEC) to coordinate response in the event of any disaster situation or disaster in the State. ~ District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA] to coordinate . response at District Level. . – Awareness material developed and circulated throughoutthe State. ~ TrainingNeedAssessmentfor allstakeholders in DM ~ State DM Policy. \\ \ v Strengthening of 100 Companies ofHome Guards with Search & Rescue [SAR) Equipments. v Strategy for capacity building for Masons, Bar benders & Carpenters for safe construction practices at Panchayat level. ~ Capacity building throughout the State at various platforms for different stakeholders. ~ Issuing ofguidelines to all departments about: – Trainingofficer/officialsinDM. – Preparation ofDM Plans. – On -site 8; Off -site Emergency Plans for industrialunits. l[ \\’ //l \ \l\ l/f‘ – Mock-drills in schools for Fire & Earthquakes. Protection and Expansion of Protected Area To conserve the entire range ofbiodiversity in situ, the state has ’ established a network of protected areas, comprising 2 National Parks and 33 Wildlife Sanctuaries. Regulatory mechanismforwildlifeconservationhasalsobeenputinplace. The State has about 13.6% of the total geographical area under Protected area, which is significantly higher when comparison is made with other States and with national percentage. National Parks (2) Wildlife Sanctuaries [33] Recorded taxa of higher plants S! Recorded species of mammals Recorded species of birds Recorded species of reptiles Recorded species of fishes Recorded species of aquatic fauna STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 1440 krn2 5562 kmz >350O
77
4-63
44
80
4-36
193

With a view to conserve the total range of wildlife available in the state, the Government of Himachal
Pradesh has declared 32 areas, covering all the agro-climatic zones in the state and having significant
ecological, geomorphological and biodiversity value as Wildlife Sanctuaries . The State also has two
prestigious National Parks.
Sanctuaries of the State
| District
| Bilaspur
| Bilaspur
| Chamba
Pongdam Lake
Some of the important Wild life Na¢i°”al Park District Are“ _ -‘I‘f
( Km’ ] — \
Great Kullu 765
Sanctuary Area Himalayan
(Km: l National Park
“°”‘”d5aga‘ 10° PIN Valley Lahaul 675
Shrl Nalnadevi 123 National Park & Spiti
Kugti 379 Total Area 1440
Kalatop-Khajjiar Chamba 69 National Parks
307
Kangra
Dhauladhar
Kangra
94-4-
Rakchham—Chhitkul
Kinnaur
304
Rupi- Bhaba
Kinnaur
503
Kibber
Lahaul 8:
Spiti
| 1400
Nargu
Mandi
ShikariDevi
Mandi
Daranghatil Sr ll
Shimla
Talra
Shimla
Water Supply Catchment
Shimla
10
Churdhar
Sirmour
66
Simbalbara
Sirmour
19
Renuka
Sirmour
4
Chail
Solan
Due to the conservation and
are flourishingin protective
a»:
~\
R
Cold Desert Faunal wealth-
Snow Leopard, Ibex and Snow Cock.
protection efforts of State Government, many floral and faunal species
and safe environment ofthe state.
Cold Temperate regions of the state
form natural habitat of Musk Deer,
Himalayan Tahr, Brown Bear, Monal
and Western Tragopan.
05%-Q
The lower reaches of the state abound
with Sambhar Deer, Barking Deer,
Wild Boar, Ghoral and Leopard
amongst mammals and pheasants
including Cheer and White Crested
Kaleej.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 194

Wet Lands
Management and development of lakes has been given priority by the State. Lakes in Himachal
Pradesh, besides being a favorite tourist destination attract thousands of tourists, not only acts as
natural resource for the local people but also the source of income. These lakes are in peril due to
anthropogenic pressure and overall deterioration of surrounding environment, therefore, the efforts
have been made to prepare and cover the major lakes under the lake conservation programme of
Ministry of Environment & Forests. Initiatives for lake conservation are being undertaken through
education and mass awareness.
The State Government has ensured and established good practices viz. compulsory door to door
household waste collection in and around the lake areas. Carrying of polythene carry bags, plastic
items, chips packets etc. has also been banned in and around the lake area.
1-i
Wetland Conservation Programme Strengthened
Wetlands in Himachal Pradesh – Formulation of ManagementActions Plans for Renuka,
Chandertal, Khajjiar and Rewalsar with the active
92 Wetl“‘ndS(>2’25 ha) participation of the local community and different
– 88 Natural Wetlands . .
_ 7 Man made Wetlands organizations / stakeholders.
~ Organized experts visits to the wetlands and to
‘ These Wetlands Covers about 1% ofthe enhance the capacitybuilding of stake holders.
total geographical area.
‘ Mai°mY °fWefla“d5 are high altitudes – Initiated the process for generation of base line
wetlands. . . . . . .
information with spatial and non spatial techniques.
Designated Wetlands “f HP – Soil conservation works through Forest Department.
Ramsar Sites
– Renuka [Sirmour]
‘ P°”g Dam(Ka“g““) __ – Awareness and education through NGO’s and local
~ Chanclertal [Lahaul & Spiti] bodies
– Deweeding and desiltingworks.
Nati““alwetla“d$ – Awakening of local community on importance of
~ Rewalsar (Mandi) . . . .
_ Khajjiar mhamba) maintaining is/etlands and encouraging feed backs for
improvemen .
STATE STRATEGY &ACTlON PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 195

\
, 1 _
Values of Wetlands
~ Recharge of Ground Water
– Habitat for Wild Life & Aquatic life.
– Source of Economical activity.
v Socio-cultural, aesthetic and recreational value.
v Irrigation Purposes.
With the active participation of the local community at the planning,
implementation and monitoring levels:
v We are conserving and restoring the habitats for migratory 8:
resident species ofbirds in the area.
– We are conserving the indigenous fish species to make the fishery
sustainable livelihood forthe local community.
~ Adopting the organic farming practices in the peripheral of the
wetlands.
~ Generating livelihood practices and enhancing the ?_g
incomes ofthe local people from wetlands. — ‘
v Conserving soil and water as the major components of
environment.
~ Evolving practices of eco—t0urism in the region.
~ Making the tourists more sensitive to the values of
nature.
STATE STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH e 2012 196

Sustainable Wetland Management Practices ensured
In view of threats to Wet land Eco system in the State, the Government has initiated various
programes and steps to protect the pristine wetlands in the State. These include preparation of
Guidelines for Camping in the Wetland regions, Do’s and Don’ts for Tourists, Guidelines for ‘Mindful
Travel’ in the State sensitive areas, banning of vehicles in eco sensitive zones etc.
Threats to Wetlands:
— Unplanned and Unregulated
Tourism
– Tourist season coincides with
peak biological activity
– Infrastructure
– Tremendous Grazing pressure
– Lack of awareness among the
stakeholders
– Emerging Threat of Climate
Change
– Lack of Coordination among
various developmental agencies
New Programmes initiated in I-limachal Pradesh
In order to build-up environment consciousness in the young minds of Himachal, the Govt. of
Himachal Pradesh has launched two flagship programmes – Environmental Audit Scheme & Eco-
Monitoring Scheme for eco-clubs. The Schemes have been introduced in 346 Eco Clubs ofthe State.
Environmental Audit Scheme
~ Encourage schools to improve their environmental
performance.
– Monitor the existing environmental performance in
a participatory and transparent way.
– To help school to prepare an inventory of their | ‘ \‘ . _
resources and systematically collect information ‘- ‘
abouttheir environmental performance. ‘5 . ;
~ Train and build capacity of students, teachers w.r.t. . \
environmentAuditofthe
school.
OI
Eco-Monitoring Scheme
– Sensitize the public on the menace of littering
through eco clubs members ofschools.
STATE STRATEGY&ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE I-IIMACHAL PRADESH ~ Z012 197

~ Generate awareness amongst general masses about littering and prohibition of the use of
polythene bags.
1 Provide aid in effective implementation ofban on littering under H.P. Non Biodegradable Garbage
ControlAct, 1995.
Strengthened National Green Corps Programme [Eco-Club)
To sensitize students on environment conservation and protection, the State Government has
established, 3,000 Eco—Clubs in the schools evenly spread in all districts ofthe State. The objective of
the programme is to spread environmental awareness and carry out action based programmes for
protection and improvement of environment.
“O
“11
Inculcating Environmental Protection in Building Blocks of Our Society
Nine Point Environment
Protection Code- Morning Oath
NINE POINT ‘ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION CODE’
I, hereby, pledge to conserve and protect the natural resources and
environmentofl-Iimachal Pradesh and in doing so:
~ Iwill respect all living things.
~ I will plant, conserve and protect trees and I will conserve paper
by doing my rough work on slate or black board.
l will conserve water at all times by ensuring that no one in my
house keep taps unnecessarily open during brushing, washing
hands, shaving and bathing.
~ l will conserve energy by always switching off the lights and
appliances when not required.
~ l will never use plastic carry bags and shall go for shopping only
with a cloth or jute bag.
‘ I will avoid use of non-biodegradable disposable items like
disposable cups, plates and spoons.
. \ ~ I will dissuade people and the safai karamcharis from burning dry
_ ‘ leaves, garbage and request them to use leaves, biodegradable
‘ ” I _ waste for composting or mulching.
I will not litter on streets, hill slopes, in neighborhoods, gardens,
into our rivers, nallas, and water bodies and request all to
dispose-offthe waste in dustbins or at designated places.
I will ensure segregation of waste and to give only segregated
‘ I l waste to the door step collectors.
\ \ ___
-if /
Q3
f
.“ fll
f\&
T/,
-” 5’
D I)
I will follow ‘Environment Protection Code’ and say with pride
that ‘I am building a Clean, Green 8: Beautiful I-Iirnachal.‘
\

/
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 198

Aryabhatta Geo-informatics & Space Application Center (AGiSAC)
Establishment & inauguration
_ The State Government has taken the initiatives of setting up Aryabhatta Geo-
, ‘ informatics & Space Application Centre (AGiSAC) under the aegis ofState Council for
, V ‘ Science, Technology & Environment with an objective to facilitate the use of
1 Geo—informatics for developmental planning and decision making in the State.
Objective
The objectives for setting up this State Centre is to facilitate decentralized planning, objective
decision making, Monitoring & Evaluation of Government Schemes & Programmes, to set up
integrated natural resources data management system, to provide services/consultancy based on
specific user needs in the field of Remote Sensing and GIS and to promote the use of SATCOM
networks for distant interactive training and education in the State.
Key Functions
~ Developmental Planning/ Decision Support Applications/Yes/No Decision
~ Advisories /Alerts
– Surveillance / Regulatory Applications
v Monitoring & Evaluation of Developmental
Works/ Schemes _ I HT’
. … fl% —
Applications for Departments ‘ 7″ –
_ £41 __
Applications undervarious level ofdevelopmentfor IT “WT T 4*
Departments of Agriculture, Education, Energy, , ~ E-‘~
Environment, Fisheries, Horticulture, Food & Civil
Supplies, Forests, Industries, Health, Social Iustice 81 /
Empowerment, Irrigation & Public Health, Tribal – .\
Development, Public Works Department, Rural ‘ I .41.
Development, Tourism, Town & Country Planning,
Urban Development, Revenue and Himurja etc.
n-IIQO
v
.q-
.
mu-14‘-1
STATE STRATEGY81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH ~ Z012 199

Himachal Pradesh Environment Fund
Objectives:
Environment protection, conservation, restoration and mitigation works etc. Including efforts to
reduce carbon footprints in the environmentally vulnerable areas.
Development of environment infrastructure for environment protection, eco restoration,
mitigation etc.
Awards to individuals, organizations institutions etc. of proven track record that have
rendered/rendering valuable services to the Nation/ State in protection of environment for
recognition oftheir contribution forthe cause ofenvironmentprotection.
Relieffor environment protection in exceptional cases forthe following categories
– Environmental losses sustained as a result ofnatural calamities.
– Grants to villages proactive for environmentprotection and reducing carbon foot prints.
– Grants to schools, institutions, organizations showing proactive role in environment
protection and conservation.
Environmental educational activities, awareness programmes.
Any other case not covered by any of the above categories and where the Environment Fund
Administering Committee is satisfied with regard to the genuineness of the demand of grant for
environmental protection, conservation, mitigation and restoration.
Rs. 51 lacs have been received as voluntary contribution towards H.P. Environment Fund.
Two proposals have been short listed for funding under H.P. Environment Fund during 2010-11
namely “Restoration and revival of traditional watermills through up-gradation” by WWF India
for Rs. 4.96 lacs and Malana Ajeevika Vikalp Agro-Hort Growers Marketing and Development Co-
operative Society for Rs. 6 lacs.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 ZOO

Adaptation & Mitigation Measures for Reducing Sectoral and 8
Regional Vulnerability
As explained above, the major sectors ofState’s economy are likely to be affected to some extent by the
impacts of climate change. This framework focuses on sectors and regions where there is a
significance for social, economic, biophysical or cultural outcomes; decisions to be made in the next
few years, which could be affected in the long term by climate change impacts; and actions which
have a high level of potential to capture the benefits from early adaptation planning.
There are many inter-relationships within and among the vulnerable sectors and regions. For
example, impacts of climate change on water resources will further affect environmental flows for
biodiversity, agriculture, irrigation for agriculture and water supply for urban settlements and
industry, hydro power etc. Early adaptation will be influenced by the extent to which climate change
factors are incorporated into sectoral and regional planning.
Sectors dependent on natural resources are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Increasing
temperature, changing precipitation patterns and water resources availability, increasing
atmospheric levels of CO, and water acidification will impact on sustainability of major sectors like
agriculture, forestry and fisheries. The impacts will vary across regions and among the different
industrysubsectors.
8.1 Agriculture- Horticulture
The Agri- Horticulture sector of the State is highly dependent on climate. About 90% of rural
population in the State depends on this sector for their livelihood. Seasonal weather variability in
conjunction with climate change will have long-term effects on agricultural production, agribusiness
investments, and regional prosperity.
The costs of the impact of climate change on agriculture could be considerable; for example, should
there be an increased frequency of severe drought this would leave considerable social impact on
rural communities. Adaptation can reduce these costs building on the experience of dealing with
climate variability.
Effective adaptation actions would provide farmers with added resilience and coping ability in
circumstances ofa changed climate system. Information on how seasonality will alter due to climate
change will also assist the agriculture industry to adapt.
PotentialAreas ofAction:
a] Implement the relevant components ofthe National Agriculture Mission, as has been released
by the Government oflndia.
In particular:
– support research to improve understanding of the implications of climate change for
agriculture at the State, sectoral and regional levels, including:
a. vulnerabilityassessments ofregions and agriculturalactivities;
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b. effects of climate change on seasonal variability and reliability, and on climate
extremes [e.g. droughts, rainfalls] affecting agricultural production; and
c. understandingbarriers to adaptation and opportunities to adapt.
~ increase resilience of farming systems and regions to climate change, and help
agribusinesses identify where changes may be needed for the long-term investment
strategies;
– enhance current programmes and structures to incorporate climate change adaptation
considerations into natural resource management, rural support and adjustment, research
and development and plant and animal health, pest and weed policies and programmes,
and environmental management systems.
– develop decision support tools, pilot adaptation options, inform and encourage
adaptation, and engage industry in participatoryresearch, communication and review.
Important ongoing development initiatives need to be strengthened to reduce vulnerability to
climate change, including developing agricultural markets, reducing distortions and subsidies in
agricultural policies, continuing trade liberalization policies, enhancing social protection and
microfinance, preparing for disasters and, critically, mainstreaming climate change in agricultural
policies.
Though these aforesaid initiatives may not be enough instead, the adaptation will require
improvements that take existing development policies above and beyond their current capacity.
Innovative policies include:
~ changing investment allocation within and across sectors,
– increasingthe focus on risk-sharing and risk-reducing investments,
– improving spatial targeting of investments,
– eliminating existing detrimental policies that will exacerbate climate change impacts, and
– reducing greenhouse gas (GHG] emissions from agriculture and increasing the value of
sustainable farming practices through the valuation ofcarbon and other forms ofagricultural
ecosystem services such as water purification and biodiversity.
Key components ofnew and innovative adaptation measures to climate change include:
~ changes in agricultural practices to improve soil fertilityand enhance carbon sequestration;
~ changes in agricultural water management for more efficientwater use;
– agricultural diversification toward enhanced climate resilience;
– agricultural science and technology development, agricultural advisory services, and
information systems; and
~ risk management and cropinsurance.
8.2 Water Resources
Himachal Pradesh is not only important water source for its own habitats but is also serving other
States for the purpose ofdrinking water supply, irrigation and power generation. Rainfall and stream
flows are highly variable. The climate change presents significant additional challenges for the
managers of water resources in Himachal Pradesh. In a changing climate, droughts are expected to
become more severe in the State. The potential for replenishment of groundwater is expected to
continue to decline and water quality is also likely to be affected. Rainfall is likely to be concentrated
more in extreme rainfall events affecting water availability (both surface and groundwater), water
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quality, the balance between environmental and consumptive demand and allocation, as well as the
design and the safety ofdams.
Improved knowledge is needed to assist water managers to understand the wide range ofimpacts the
climate change will have on surface and groundwater resources and the demand for water. The
adaptation to changed water availability could require the sourcing of additional water supply and
retrofitting water infrastructure, with the associated costs. It could also mean new ways of managing
water.
The National Water Mission and other water management frameworks are central to dealing with
reduced water availability due to climate change. Information on climate change will be essential for
the water managers.
Potential Areas 0fActi0n:
a) Research to address key knowledge gaps, current and projected demographic changes, and
socio-economic analysis of impacts about climate and water resource, initiatives needed to
implement the National Water Mission and other water management initiatives.
This will include research on:
~ high quality projections ofclimate variables relevant to demand and supply/ allocations of
water resources;
~ understanding of impacts of climate change on water resources and dependent
ecosystems; and methods and approaches for integrating climate change related risks
into water management.
~ identify vulnerable river bed areas and apply appropriate planning policies, including
ensuringthe availability ofland, where possible, for migration ofecosystems.
b) Work with the water intensive industry to ensure that climate change impacts and risks are
incorporated into water resource and infrastructure planning and management including:
~ assessing the implications ofchanges in extreme rainfall events for water infrastructure;
~ preparation of hand book on rainfall, precipitation and updating estimates of probable
maximum precipitation and rainfall extremes for use and to reflectlikely climate change;
~ jurisdiction ofdam safety authorities to review major dam safety policies to accommodate
the impacts ofclimate change.
– assess the vulnerability of infrastructure, settlements, and environments of significance
using biophysical and socio-economic scenarios and inundation modeling.
8.3 Forests
Climate change could have significant impacts on the forests of the State, through slower growth rate
due to reduced water availability, raised temperatures, increased bushfires and wind damage and
disease pressures and through growth fertilization by higher atmospheric CO, levels. Frequent or
extensive damage to production forests can significantly reduce the sustainable supply oftimber to
capital intensive processing industries with consequences that last for many years. Climate change
may also impact on the species that can be grown productively in plantations in different regions
influencing costs involved. Much forest land has multiple uses, and climate change may also impact on
wateryields and biodiversity and ecotourism values offorests.
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Potential Areas ofAction:
a. Develop a Climate Change and Forestry Action Plan under the National Green India Mission.
This would include:
– identifying key impacts, vulnerabilities and research priorities;
– developing strategies in collaboration with hydro industry; and
– developingcommunicationstrategies.
b. Support research to address major knowledge gaps about the impact of climate change on
forestry and the vulnerability of forest systems. This may include assessing implications of
climate change for native and plantation forests used for timber production; the capacity of
forest systems to sequester carbon; the role and impacts of forests in natural resource
management; and social and economic aspects offorests and forestry.
8.4- Bio-diversity
Ecosystems are likely to be adversely affected by increasing temperatures, changes in rainfall
patterns, the spread of pests and weeds, changed fire regimes etc. Higher temperatures, possible
changes in precipitation patterns, glacial chemistry are likely to affect Himalayan ecosystems. The
impacts on bio-diversity will affect ecosystem services such as water, soil qualityand cover.
Reducing other stresses on bio-diversity, such as overuse and pollution, is likely to ameliorate species
loss, system degradation and range contraction due to climate change. Healthy ecosystems are more
resilient to climate change impacts and are able to ‘bounce back‘. Some ecosystems are particularly
vulnerable such as high altitude wetlands, alpine areas, rainforests, fragmented terrestrial
ecosystems, pastures etc. Environmental flows ofkey riverine systems for the sustenance of ecology
are also vulnerable, with increased competition for diminishing water resources. However, there has
been no systematic analysis ofthis vulnerability across the whole set ofassets.
Potential Areas ofActi0n:
1. Review ofthe State Biodiversity Policy, functioning ofthe State Biodiversity Board.
2. Establishing a State Specific programme of research on the impacts of climate change on
biodiversityand ecosystem processes. The research will address:
i. Terrestrial, aquatic and riverine ecosystems with a focus on:
– analysis ofchanging distribution and phenology;
~ the interactions and combined impacts of climate change and other threatening
processes;
~ identification of critical thresholds for natural ecosystems and approaches to
increase their resilience to the impacts ofclimate change including connectivity;
and
ii. The implications of climate change for existing strategies, such as the planning for
threatened and migratory species and ecological communities.
3. Provide practical guidance on how to integrate existing and emerging knowledge about
climate change into management of disturbance regimes (for example, fires, floods, invasive
species] in areas managed for biodiversity conservation.
4. Assess the vulnerability of State forest cover, Ramsar Wetlands to the impacts of climate
change. Regular reviews of management plans for each reserve, wetland will explicitly
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 Z04

consider vulnerability to climate change impacts and plans will include actions, where
necessary, to reduce vulnerability or manage impacts.
5. Finalize and implement key steps in the Climate Change Action Plan.
8.5 Ecosystems
Climate change is likely to affect perennial aquaculture, fisheries through increasing temperatures,
changes to water currents and nutrients, changed rainfall patterns. There are specific and different
threats to local fisheries and aquaculture. Aquaculture is likely to be impacted by climate change
through higher temperatures, water availability and river bed township impacts. Greater precision in
assessing vulnerability of trout fish stocks to climate change is needed to ensure sustainability of
commercial fisheries. Initial estimates show that the trout species could be particularly vulnerable.
Climate change is expected to make interpretation and use of historical fisheries management data
more difficult.
Potential Areas ofAction:
a. Develop a Climate Change and Fisheries Action Plan, to be considered under Himalayan Eco
System Mission that includes:
~ identifying risks associated with climate change for the sustainable use oftrout fish stocks;
~ determining ways of distinguishing climate change impacts from the impacts of other
environmental and management factors;
~ developing strategies in collaboration with industry and community stakeholders; and
assessingthe impacts and risks ofclimate change on aquaculture.
b. Support research, in association with hydro industry and research providers, to address major
knowledge gaps about the impact of climate change on fisheries and aquaculture. This may
include analysis of the impact of changing climate, rising temperatures, river water quality,
currents on the distribution and abundance ofriverine species; vulnerability and resilience of
riverine systems; productivity; and social and economic systems using riverine environments.
8.6 Health
Risks to the health from climate change include increased transmission ofvector-borne, food-borne
and water-borne diseases. Floods, bushfires, and changes to industry, land use and climate events
such as drought can result in adverse mental health consequences within rural communities, along
with a range of other health risks (e.g. from freshwater shortages, increased exposures to heat and
dust, and changes in local food availability and affordability).
The vulnerability assessment indicates that changes in climatic conditions can have three kinds of
health impacts viz. health consequences of changes to ecosystems and biological processes (e.g.
mosquito-borne infections, agricultural food yields], direct impacts (e.g. cold and heat-waves), and
the many health consequences that occur when populations are disrupted or displaced. Health
impacts due to climate change will affect some regions, socioeconomic groups and demographic
groups more than others. For example, older people are more susceptible to extremes oftemperature.
Many rural and remote communities have less capacitythan larger settlements to deal with the health
impacts of climate change. Any geographic extensions of mosquito-borne infections are likely to
impinge more on majority ofpopulations.
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Potential Areas ofAction:
a. The Health Department to develop and implement a State Action Plan on Climate Change and
Health thatincludes:
– research on climate change impacts on physical and mental health and identify key
vulnerabilities;
– identifying the capacity of the public health system and hospital system to plan for and
respond to these vulnerabilities including links to emergency services and health disaster
management policies; and
– incorporating the potential for climate change impacts on health into community and
public health educationprograms.
b. Develop and implement heat/ cold wave warning and response systems.
c. State health institutions to carry out research activities with a focus on research on climate
change and health.
d. To assess, and develop strategies to address, the impact of climate change on water borne
diseases.
8.7 Tourism
The impact of climate change on infrastructure and the natural environment has the potential to
affect the tourism industry. In some cases this could result in social and economic impacts in regions
with a high dependency on tourism as a source ofincome and employment. However, the impacts will
depend on the relative attractiveness of different destinations and the potential for alternative
attractions in the current tourism areas. As tourist attractions, areas such as the snow, wetlands, the
landscape, pastures, alpine areas, are particularly vulnerable.
Potential Areas 0fAction:
a. The Tourism Department to develop action plan in partnership with hotel industry and other
stakeholders which would include:
– assessment of the impacts of climate change on tourism and tourism values (physical,
social and economic] and on the relative impact ofclimate change on the different forms of
tourism; and
– developing adaptation strategies for nature based tourism including tourism based on the
use of natural and cultural resources, specific tourism regions, and the industry more
broadly.
8.8 Urban Planning
The physical infrastructure and the social and economic fabric ofsettlements are likely to be affected
by climate change, especially by changed frequency of intensity of extreme weather events. Urban
infrastructure such as buildings, roads, bridges, railways are normally designed for a life span of 20-
50 years. Planning decisions for development and the replacement or restoration of long-lived
infrastructure, need to take account of the different climate in the future including higher
temperatures and changes to precipitation, watertables and humidity.
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Increasing urbanization in river bed areas, hilly areas and urban expansion into regional areas are
likely to increase the exposure ofpeople and infrastructure to the impacts of climate change. People
living in remote areas may be more vulnerable. The impacts will vary depending on the form of the
settlement, geographic considerations and the nature ofthe local economy.
Adaptation measures include planning to reduce vulnerability and/or increase resilience, and using
codes and standards that take into account the impact ofclimate change on frequency and duration of
rainfall, storm water handling capacity, changes in snow fall patterns. The finance and insurance
industries will help to manage society’s risk from weather related damages.
Climate change impacts on settlements will depend upon a wide range oflocal factors, including the
form of the settlement, the nature of the local economy, and geographic considerations such as
elevation and proximity to the terrain. Integrated assessment is an approach to understanding
climate change impacts and adaptation options at the local scale.
However, decision makers need additional information about the vulnerability of major
infrastructure, including energy systems, transport systems, communication networks and building
stock, in orderto develop adaptation strategies.
Potential Areas 0fAction:
a. Research to address key knowledge gaps about human settlements and climate change
impacts, including information needed to effectively implement actions in relation to
planning, codes and standards and major infrastructure.
b. All jurisdictions to evaluate and share relevant information about the extent to which planning
and development systems promote decisions that increase resilience to the impacts ofclimate
change.
c. Discourage decisions that increase vulnerability, and consider changes where appropriate.
d. Analyze and revise urban planning systems including revision and development of green
codes, standards and guidelines to increase resilience to climate change including:
v To consider climate change as part ofperiodic reviews;
– Review standards used for building, plumbing and electrical standards and
specification for the development. Include a particular focus on green standards
related to green buildings and utilities.
v Review information used to determine vulnerability of settlements, land to climate
related hazards [flash floods, forest fires, landslides) and develop new or revised risk
management guidance to take into account any projected changes as a result ofclimate
change.
– Review to also take into account the contribution of ‘urban forests’ to modify the
impact ofclimate change in the urban environment; and
~ Revision of guidelines for management treatment, disposal, storage of rain water and
sewerage.
e. Identify and address the impact of climate change on major infrastructure including hydro
power dams etc:
v Identifying priority infrastructure assets that may be vulnerable to climate change and
coordinate with the owners on business continuity plans take this vulnerability into
account; and
~ Analyze the vulnerability of electricity, transport, communications, water
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infrastructure and other key infrastructure to climate change, and develop appropriate
risk management strategies to reduce this vulnerability. For example, the review could
consider road connectivity and encompass existing transport infrastructure, planned
transport infrastructure and transport infrastructure management and planning. A
review of the electricity supply infrastructure could consider possible effects from
projected increases in temperature and changes in rainfall patterns and the changes in
energy demand due to climate change.
f. Develop capacity and tools for the planning sectors including insurance etc.
8.9 Disaster Management
Climate change is likely to increase the risk ofnatural disasters in Himachal Pradesh. Flash floods and
GLOFs, landslides are a feature of State’s variable climate. However, climate change is likely to
increase the frequency and/or severity of extreme events. The high concentration of people and
infrastructure in urban areas, especially along the river and river bed lowlands are likely to result in
severe economic losses with changing exposure to extreme events. Remote settlements can be
particularly vulnerable to natural disasters due to inadequate health infrastructure, road
connectivity.
Natural disasters already cost very heavily excluding death and injury costs. It is likely that climate
change will increase the frequency or intensity ofsome climate-driven weather extremes.
Climate change impacts need to be factored into natural disaster management risk reduction,
emergency services planning, and recovery management, especially for areas more vulnerable to
extreme events. Community awareness and developing a culture ofpreparedness in conjunction with
emergencyservices will contribute to effective adaptation responses.
PotentialAreas ofAction:
a. Set up State Level Disaster Management Authority and make it functional with suitable TORs
addressing Climate Change risks.
b. Undertake research to improve knowledge on the nature and expected extent of changes to
existing risk profiles as a result ofclimate change for key events such as, flash flooding, GLOFs,
hail damage, forest fires and landslides.
c. Incorporate climate change impacts into planning for natural disaster response management,
in particular the risk and changing behavior flash flooding, GLOFs, hail damage, forest fires,
landslides and extremes in temperature. This mayinclude:
~ Incorporating climate change issues in the review of the Natural Disaster Mitigation
Programme and proposals submitted underthe Programme; and
– Improving information for emergency services and communities to encourage awareness
ofclimate change and adaptation responses.
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Climate Change Strategy for Himachal Pradesh 9
In view of past and current scenarios as explained w.r.t. losses due to extreme events and climate
change, the State’s immense geographic diversity append to the complexity of developing and
implementing appropriate climate risk management strategy. Within the country the impacts will
vary across States, sectors, locations and populations. The climate projections for the country suggest
that impacts are likely to be diverse and mixed, with some regions experiencing more intense rainfall
and flood risks, while others will encounter sparser rainfall and prolonged droughts. Amongthe more
substantial effects is a projected spatial shift in the pattern of rainfall towards the areas under snow
line or already having heavy rains, while in some regions water scarcity may increase thereby
affecting land fertility and unproductiveness. The climate variability and climate change poses huge
risks to life and threat to endanger the sustainability ofthe country’s fast growing economy.
The Himalaya has the largest concentration of glaciers outside the Polar Regions and some of the
prominent rivers ofthe Northern lndia originate from these Himalayan reservoirs. Geological history
ofthe earth indicates that the glacial dimensions are constantly changing with the change in climate.
Monitoring of seasonal snow cover depicts the melting and the retreat of snow in the month of
December at an altitudinal range ofmore than 4,800 mts., in Baspa valley implying thereby that global
warming has actually started affecting the snow glacier melt and run off patterns in the Himachal
Himalaya as well.
An analysis has been carried out on various sectors viz. agriculture-horticulture, water resources,
forests, biodiversity, energy, health, tourism, urban development, transport, industries, mining etc.
which indicates that the trends are not favorable and the climate risk management actions are not
sufficiently met due to lack ofknowledge and resources, but still the steps are being taken at different
levels to adapt to the existingtrends and mitigate the adverse impacts to the possible extent.
Being the most eco sensitive and fragile nature, the impacts ofClimate Change manifest most, leading
to significant impact on agriculture and horticulture production, water resources, forests and these
impacts are likely to adversely affect large percentage of population depending on these natural
resources/activities in future as well. There is in fact a greater need for sustained efforts for the
adaptation measures in the State.
Himachal Pradesh is known for its dominant rural/ tribal population, traditions and culture. To retain
and sustain traditional cultural originality ofthe people ofState and to maintain their developmental
graph is indispensable for the State. The options available are to be realized through various strategic
interventions by different public authorities at the State and Local levels. The purpose of Climate
Change Strategy for Himachal Pradesh is twofold:
– Takingintoaccounttheprevailingdevelopmentalprocess-itsachievementsandlosses.
– Identification of solutions and actions, as may be required at various levels such as
regulatory, institutional, programme, policy, and plan.
As the climate changes, so must the State respond. To effectively address the challenges that a
changing climate will bring, climate adaptation and mitigation actions must complement each other,
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – Z012 209

efforts within and across sectors must be coordinated. These approaches have been viewed as
alternatives, ratherthan as complementaryand equallynecessaryapproaches.
The Department 0fEnvironment, Science & Technology has worked out strategies for climate change
adaptation and mitigation, and to develop the necessary tools to effect adaptation protocols. Now
closer coordination is needed to implement these approaches. The strategy for Himachal Pradesh has
been developed using a set ofguiding principles:
– Involvement of all related stakeholders in identifying, reviewing, and cultivating the State’s
adaptation strategy.
– Give priority to adaptation strategies thatinitiate, encourage, and enhance existing efforts that
improve economic and social well-being, public safety and security, public health,
environmental justice, species and habitatprotection, and ecological function.
– Prioritizing adaptation strategies that modify and enhance existing policies rather than
solutions that require new funding and new staffing.
– Recognizing the need for adaptation policies that are effective and flexible enough for
circumstances that may not yetbe fully predictable.
– Use the effective reliable data base in identifying climate change risks and adaptation
strategies.
– Recognize sustainable scientific data base collection and knowledge about climate change is
evolved continuously.
– Establish and retain strong partnerships with central, state, and local governments, tribes,
private business and landowners, and non-governmental organizations to develop and
implementadaptation strategy recommendations over time.
9.1 Approach
A collaborative approach is proposed to deal with the emerging situation. The climate change impacts
cuts across jurisdictional boundaries of various sectors and will require governments, businesses,
nongovernmental organizations, and individuals to minimize risks and take advantage of potential
planning opportunities in a collaborative manner. This is the simple means by which the far reaching
effects of climate impacts can be addressed efficiently and effectively while avoiding potential
conflicts. The Comprehensive State Adaptation Strategies explained subsequently emphasize the
need for collaboration and identifies issues where cross-sector relationships are necessary.
9.2 Goals & Objectives
The fundamental purpose and goal of the strategy is to begin a state wide, ongoing, and committed
process of adapting to a changing climate in the context of other changes in the environment,
economy, and society. To achieve this goal, the adaptation strategy pursues the following specific
objectives:
– Identification and synthesis of climate change risks: We need to synthesize to the greatest
extent possible how temperature rise, extreme weather events, precipitation changes, seasonal
shifts, will exacerbate existing water supply and quality, air quality, habitat loss, human health
risks, fire and floods etc. and to assess how these changes will impact the state’s economy,
infrastructure, society and environment.
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– Develop criteria for prioritizing identified adaptation strategies: The applicability of these
criteria may vary across sectors, and should ideally include but not be limited to social,
environmental, technological, manpower, institutional, policy, and financial /economic
considerations.
– Identification of sector-specific and cross-sectoral adaptation strategies to reduce
vulnerabilities and built climate resilience: To make strategies which helps to (a) improve
preparedness for climate change impacts and extreme events, (b) avoid, prevent, or minimize
climate change impacts to agriculture, public health, biodiversity, land, forests, and
infrastructure, [c] enhance the state’s response capacity in case of extremes, and (d) facilitate
recovery from impacts and extremes in orderto enhance the state’s resilience.
– Cross-cutting supportive strategies: Identify governance efforts [such as policy or changes in
regulations, procedural adjustments, etc.] and resources needed to enable the development and
implementation ofidentified adaptation strategies.
9.3 List of Prioritized Adaptation & Mitigation Options
9.3.1 Adaptation
“T0 develop a package of adaptation measures, aimed at protecting the health of people, water
resources, agri-hortiproduction, urban and ruralinfrastructure and hydropowergeneration. ”
To achieve this, it is essential to first define future climate change vulnerability scenarios in State’s
priority sectors, with the aim of assessing the environmental, socioeconomic and health impacts of
this phenomenon. This information will allow climate change adaptation measures to be defined on
the regional and sector levels. Described below are the actions set out under this vision that will be
undertaken to establish and execute measures to adapt to the climate change impacts in the State.
Adaptation, Mitigation to the Impacts of Climate Change
– Analysis ofClimate Scenarios at the Local/ Regional Level.
– Determination oflmpacts and Climate Change Adaptation Measures in following sectors:
Direct: Agricultural- Horticulture
Water Resources
Forest,
Biodiversity
Indirect: Energy, Hydro Power
Health.
Tourism
Housing, Urban Infrastructure
– Formulation ofa Regional Plan for Climate Change Adaptation and Related Sectoral Plans.
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9.3.2 Mitigation
“To work toward becoming a low-carbon/carbon neutral economy as a means ofpromoting sustainable
development in Himachal Pradesh as well as a means ofcontributing to national efforts to reduce GHG
emissions. ”
To achieve this goal, the State must first analyze its options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions
and then assess various mitigation scenarios. Options for reducing GHG emissions include increasing
the availability of carbon sinks [biological absorption of GHGs] or reducing the level of emissions
released into the atmosphere, ideally in sectors such as energy generation, transport, mining and
agriculture, which contribute the large amounts of emissions in the State. This being the case, and
with the objective of evaluating Himachal Pradesh potential for GHG mitigation, the Action Plan
recommends the guidelines detailed below:
– To carry out/update Greenhouse Gas Emissions inventory.
– Mitigation Assessment Studies & Implementable Actions.
– Generation of mitigation scenarios in Himachal Pradesh.
– Formulation ofa State Plan for mitigation of Green House Gas Emissions and related
Sectoral Plans.
9.3.3 Capacity Building
General Guidelines for Capacity Building: “T0 inform the population about environmental problems
and, in particular”, to raise awareness about the effects ofclimate change and to encourage education,
awareness and research on thissubjectin HimachalPradesh.”
The above vision for the production ofquality and accessible information on climate change will help
formulate the State’s position on this issue.
The actions described below will be carried out under these general guidelines in order to build
capacities for comprehensively addressing climate change in the long-term as well as to reinforce
capacities already present in the State.
– Creation of a State Fund for research on biodiversity and climate change.
– Evaluation ofthe technical and economic feasibility ofestablishing a basic Comprehensive
Regional Network [Atmospheric and Terrestrial) for Monitoring and Studying Climate
Change.
– Creation of a state level Glacier Registry.
– Strengthening the institutional framework in Himachal Pradesh for addressing climate
change.
– Design ofinstruments to promote the development, transfer and adoption oftechnologies
for climate change mitigation and adaptation.
A core element of the implementation strategy is that all research studies that will be
conducted in the State, weather funded through State Action Plan on Climate Change or
through other sources, will be coordinated by State Centre on Climate Change.
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9.4- Strategic Framework forAdaptation & Mitigation
The Strategic Framework for Adaptation & Mitigation worked out is as per Table-23 & 24.
Table-23: The Strategic Framework for Adaptation & Mitigation
Area Objectives
Adaptation to the
Impacts of Climate
Change
Mitigation of
Greenhouse Gas
Emissions
Creation and
Promotion of
Capacities in the Area
of Climate Change
Evaluate environmental and socioeconomic impacts of climate
change in Himachal Pradesh.
Define adaptation measures.
Implement and follow-up on adaptation measures.
Analyze alternatives for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in
H imachal Pradesh.
Define mitigation measures.
Implement and follow-up on mitigation measures.
Promote public information and awareness about climate
change.
Encourage education and research on climate change.
Improve systematic climate observation.
Generate high-quality, accessible information for decision-
making.
Build institutional capacities for mitigation and adaptation.
Develop and trans fer technologies for mitigation and
adaptation.
Prepare, regularly review and update State’s greenhouse gas
inventory.
Actively participate in the National Climate Change agenda.
Support national co operation on climate change.
Establish synergies with other conventions beingimplemented
at national level.
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9 5 Short Term Adaptation Strategies
Table-24-: Short Term Adaptation Strategies
Strategic Entry Point
Action
Indicator
Comprehensive –
State Level
Adaptation Planning
lnstitutio nalization ofadaptation to climate
change and reducing greenhouse gas
emissions into state planning processes,
budgets, and policy development.
Establish a framework for promoting
collaboration within and among different
sectors to implement climate change
adaptation strategies and to promote
comprehensive state adaptation planning.
Set up three levels of co ordination-
Implementation,
Monitoring& Evaluation, and
Coordination.
Efficiencies are realized and
impacts are minimized.
Level ofcoordination set up
in each line organization.
Integration of Land –
Use Planning and
Climate Adaptation
Planning
Prepare guidelines to guide agencies to
evaluate the impacts oflocating
developmental projects in areas susceptible
to disastrous conditions.
Incorporate climate adaptation
considerations into the urban and rural
planning process es.
in centives to communities fltat are most
vulnerable andare prepare them for likely
climate change impacts.
Make land use planning integral part of
development process.
Address climate change in the long-term
vision and development goals of general
plans.
Coordination and consultation mechanisms
need to be established and/o r strengthened.
Effectively address the vulnerability,
resilience, and future growth ofareas prone
to climate change impacts.
identify critical infrastructure such as roads,
power projects, and water/wastewater
pipelines that may be affected by climate
change extreme events.
lnventorize sources of water that may be
reduced due to increased temperatures,
decreased glacial snowpack and dependent
wetland storages.
Prepare state blueprint for planning process
thatidentify areas vulnerable to climate
change.
Regulation in urban, rural
expansion in sensitive areas
Road map identified to
address local level
vulnerabilities in an
integrated and
comprehensive manner.
Local, state, and other
jurisdictions do not work at
cross purposes.
Improve Emergency –
Preparedness and
Response (hpacity –
for Climate Change
Impacts. –
To assess emergency response capacity,
minimize exposure to climate extremes.
To undertake anticipatory planning
[prevention and preparation].
To update the State Disaster Management
Plan, to strengthen consideration of climate
impacts to hazard assessment in planning,
implementation priorities, and emergency
response.
Sectors starts periodically
reviewing their changing
capacity needs.
Limited co ns equences of
un fores een events.
Preparedness and
emergency response
capacity built
Reduced strain on
emergency services.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012

Sr. Strategic Entry Point
No.
Action
Indicator
D. Strengthen the
climate change
research and science
programs
To develop a strategic plan that identifies
priority state climate adapmtion research and
monitoring needs; proposed resources and
timeframes to implement the plan; and
potential for research co ftmding and
collaboration wifli local, state, and national
agencies, universities and other research
Centre on Climate Change
research and development
set up.
Planning pro cess linked to
climate change research
and science.
Enhanced adaptive capacity
institutions.
– To develop a comprehensive research project
catalogue and continue to biannually publish
key state sponsored climate research. Such as
on glacier-society-economic sector
interaction
– To develop a Local Level Climate
Vulnerability Index to ensure the best
available science informs climate adaptation
decision making.
– To develop a more systematic approach to
funding risk reduction efforts.
ofsecto rs developed.
H1machalPradesh has a unique opportunity to confront the problem ofclimate change synergistically
with sectoral development agendas that will create opportunities to address local needs such as:
Formulating and strengthening the State Environmental Policy by reducing local pollutants
and other negative environmental externalities and implementing measures to reduce
greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to climate change. Based on the potential synergy
between national issues and the local agenda, a major challenge for the State Government is to
integrate climate change into its public policies and management instruments that address
issues such as:
– conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and natural resources,
– water resources management through river basin management, among other
importantissues in this area,
– glacier protection,
– energy generation and use,
– publichealthimpacts,and
– educationforsustainabledevelopment.
Advancing sustainable development and poverty reduction through the transfer of
technologies that mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and enable adaptation to their expected
impacts. This will help to improve the socio-economic and environmental conditions of
communities or parties directly affected by this phenomenon.
Increasing participation in the carbon market through the Clean Development Mechanism,
which is crucial for accelerating the introduction of environmentally friendly technologies
that reduce emissions ofgreenhouse gases and local pollutants.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 Z15

9.6 Recommendations
The recommendations outlined below have been developed based on substantive feedback drawn
from review ofvarious policies, drawing on the expertise ofdifferent sectors and individuals offering
different perspectives on effective approaches to climate adaptation.
It is recognized that implementation ofthe proposed strategies will require significant collaboration
among multiple stakeholders to ensure that these are carried out in a rational, yet progressive
manner over the long term. These strategies distinguish between near-term actions that should be
done by the end of2012-15 and long—term actions to be developed over time.
Key recommendations include:
1. Promote sustainable development through climate change related adaptation and mitigation
actions.
2. Prepare sector specific adaptation plans, guidance manuals, or criteria for the management
and regulation of urban and rural development, health, water supply, hydropower
developmentsubject to significant climate change by 2017.
3. To assess the risks to the State from climate change and recommend strategies to reduce those
risks building on State’s Climate Adaptation Strategy.
4. Empowering local communities and stakeholders to promote integrated watershed
management as an instrument for rural poverty reduction through improvements in the
productivity and climate resilience of natural resources.
5. To develop a plan for expanding existing protected areas or altering land and water
management practices to minimize adverse effects from climate change induced phenomena.
Extensive research activities w.r.t. land and aquatic habitats which significantly susceptible to
climate change need to be undertaken.
6. Reviewing of its water management practices and uses as the climate change is likely create
bigger competition for limited water supplies required for the drinking water supply,
agriculture, ecology & environment, and hydropower. To work out and implement strategies
to achieve at least 5-10 percent reduction in per capita water consumption by 201 5.
7. To expand surface and groundwater storage, implement efforts to fix water supply, quality, and
ecosystem conditions, support agricultural water use efficiency, improve state-wide water
quality, and improve ecosystem conditions and stabilize water supplies.
8. Soil conservation activities are required to be enhanced in the State.
9. All significant state development projects, including township, hydropower, industry projects,
must consider the potential impacts oflocating such projects in areas susceptible to hazards
resulting from climate change.
10. To develop plans for an increased use of renewable energy; harnessing solar, wind power to
meet out the energy demand from projected population growth with greater energy
conservation.
11. To adopt alternatives study approach that avoids significant new development in areas that
cannot be adequately protected (planning, permitting, development, and building] from
extreme events of climate change. The most risk-averse approach for minimizing the adverse
effects of temperature rise, river bed water level rise and storm activities is to carefully
considerwhile developing new areas which are vulnerable to these aspects.
12. To assess mitigation and adaptation strategies that includes impacts on vulnerable
populations and communities and assessment of cumulative health impacts including
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 Z16

assessments ofland use, urbanization, hydropower development, industrial development and
transportation proposals that canimpact health.
13. To prepare long term plans for dealing with health impacts which are likely to increase with
climate change with a view to develop and to build resilience to increased spread of disease
and temperature increase.
14. Ecosystems evaluation analysis and issuance of state policy on payment for environmental
services based on pilots.
15. Sustainable Management offorests as per agreed methodology for REDD+.
16. Preparation and implementation of Basin wise Integrated Catchment Area Treatment
(BICAT].
17. To develop effective fire fighting plans in view of emerging extreme climate change risks.
Enhanced fire risk in forest areas from climate change will likely increase and impact on the
biodiversity, public health and safety risks, property damage, fire suppression and emergency
response costs to government, watershed and water quality impacts, and vegetation
conversions and habitat fragmentation.
18. Expansion & consolidation of Community Led Assessment, Awareness, Advocacy and Action
Program (CLAP) for Environment Protection and Sustainable Development in the State.
19. To broaden and fund the research beneficial to policy makers, planners on climate change
impacts in Himachal Pradesh, focusing on linkages with international, central funding
resources, developing vulnerability studies, and synthesizing the latest climate information
into useable information for local needs through differenttools.
9.7 Cost-benefit Analysis to Assess Environmental, Social & Economic Costs of
Identified Options
Cost-benefit analysis is often used in government systems to evaluate the desirability of a given
intervention or for selecting an option. It is heavily used in today’s government systems. It is an
analysis ofthe cost effectiveness ofdifferent options in order to see whetherthe benefits outweigh the
t Th ‘ ‘ t th ff ‘ ftll ti l ti t tll t t Th ‘E db f’t
cos s. ealm1s ogauge ee iciencyo eop on re a ve o es a us quo. ecos san ene 1 s
of the impacts of an intervention are evaluated in terms of the public’s willingness to pay for them
[benefits) orwillingness to pay to avoid them (costs).
Uncertainty
– Reversibility
– Flexibility
– Adaptive Management
Equitl’ Economic Valuation
‘ Dlfiributional lmPaCt5 – Discount rates and time horizons
– Monetaryand nowmonetaryapproaches
u Mitigation &AdaptatiOn
_ Ancillary Benems – Economy-wide impacts at cross-sectoral
– Limits ofAdaptation linkages
. Public as opposed to private
adaptation
For example, the adaptation options proposed include improving water resources management,
optimizing agricultural production and increasing the efficiency of irrigation systems. The water
allocations from water resources, covering generation ofhydropower, water for human consumption,
water for agricultural production, water discharges control. Identified adaptation options include
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 Z17

improving infrastructure to enhance water quantity and quality, improving storm and sanitary
sewers, domestic and industrial wastewater treatment, raising public awareness and integrated
watershed management.
Options have been categorized as policies, strategies, planning or operations. While the first two
groups of options are assumed to have minimal costs and could be part of the regular budget, the
second two are expected to have considerable costs in the short, medium and long term. The costs of
immediate actions to enhance integrated water resources management are estimated to be higher
but certainlyhave potential to deliver cost effective later.
Biodiversity and ecosystems is one area of action in Himachal Pradesh where consideration of
externalities and non-monetary values is paramount in an assessment of costs and benefits. For
example, the construction ofhydro power, irrigation dams does bring significant short term benefits
to communities living upstream, such dams constrain the development opportunities for
communities living in downstream of such area, downstream communities not paid in part to their
effects on local ecosystems. Once all projected costs (losses in fisheries habitat, in quality of
agricultural land and in water purification capacity of downstream] and benefits (irrigation and
hydropower generation upstream] are taken into account, a net economic cost could be workout.
9.8 Assessment of Adaptive Capacity & Feasibility of Implementing the Options
Key components ofadaptive capacityinclude the abilityto generate, access and interpretinformation
about climate change and its likely impacts; suitable methods for identifying and assessing potential
adaptation strategies; appropriately skilled people; adequate financial and other resources;
governance systems with sufficient flexibility and foresight to embrace adaptation planning; and
willingness to adapt. Knowledge and methods will need to span a range of disciplines, including
climate science, biophysical sciences, engineering, social sciences and economics, and planning.
Inter-disciplinary studies shall also be important.
There are substantial gaps in our knowledge and we need to improve the synthesis and dissemination
of information for decision-makers. Decision makers need improved information, guides and tools
which are tailored to their field and scope of operation to enable effective adaptation. Based on the
adaptive capacity of various regions of the State, general anticipatory adaptation options have been
indicated which should be adopted as per the local level circumstances. The response matrix for these
options is summarized in a Table-25.
Complementary and Conflicting Adaptation and Mitigation Actions
rmrmrabm Acfibxii . ‘ r ;’ Imhvawabiaaxuinu
Favourable for Mltlgatlombut ‘
Unfavuurable fnrAdap|ati0n
Efforts
– Energy Demand Management – Forestry with No n~Native – Meeting Peak Energy Demand – Develop mentin
– Energy Efficient Buildings Species with Fossil Fuels Floo dplains
Favourable foradaptatlon, but
Unfavour-able for Mitigation
Efforts
– Water Conservzxion – Urban Forestry (shade
– Biodiversity-Oriented Forestry trees) with High Water
– “SmartGrowfl1″ Demand]
– Developmentin Cooler – Some Bio-fuels Production
Regi ons
– Wastewater Recycling and
Des alinatio n
– Groundwater Banking
– Increased Air Conditio ner Us e
– UseofDrainagePumpsin Low
Lying Areas
Source: Beds
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012
– Traditional “Spraw l”
Development
Development in Hotter
worth and Hanak (Z008)

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9.10 Instruments to Supplement lmplementation- A Roadmap
In view of the current financial and economic positions, emerging crisis such as pressure on water
and natural resources etc. shall create even greater challenges due to climate change in times to come.
These problems shall make more evident than ever the need to transform the way in which we live,
produce, operate and consume. There is a necessity to move towards green economy, sustainable
patterns of agriculture practices and consumption and sustainable growth. Green economy
represents a genuine opportunity to positively input the system of national economic relations to
promote long-term sustainable growth and make the financial and economic systems face
environmental reality, through the integration of environmental considerations into these systems.
The State of Himachal Pradesh has always taken the challenges ahead critically and has initiated
various programmes, activities for sustainable and inclusive growth. The State has adopted a strategy
for sustainable growth by way of promoting a resource efficient, greener and competitive economy.
Developing Himachal Pradesh as a green economy is an effort to enhance the environmental pillar of
sustainability.
In order to move the State on the path of green economy, the actions are needed at all levels, by all
stakeholders. There is a need of commitment and understanding at local level as well. Developing
State as a ‘green economy’ can he achieved by integrating number ofinterlinked elements such as:
– Green Public Procurement: It represents a clear opportunity for the Governments to show in a
very practical way their political will to move towards a green economy. Adopting it as a modern
policy instrument has a huge potential to catalyze change towards greening all sectors of
economic activity, mainly industry and services.
– Green Iobs: It represents a huge opportunity to reduce unemployment while enhancing the
protection of the environment. It requires an enhanced support and commitment both from
governments and from the private sector.
– Promote Small Scale and Medium Scale Industries: This has a potential to be a key factor in the
process of expansion of
green economy. Because ‘ /
of their size and .
dynamism, these are
more likely to adapt
faster than large
companies to the new
environmental
standards. Improved
regulatory frameworks,
easier access to
international markets
and supporting
incentives with cleaner
technologies.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 Z22

Enhance Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility: This needs to be further
promoted at the local level as a key element in ensuring long term public and user reliance,
poverty reduction and reduction ofthe environmental impacts ofeconomic activities.
Conservation of State Biodiversity and Ecosystem: These services are important fundamental
basis for a greener economic and social development. There is a need to recognise the value of
biodiversity and ecosystem services reflected in the marketing ofgoods and services.
Resource Efficiency: It aims at supporting the shift towards a resource efficient and low carbon
economy that is efficient in the way as it uses all resources, in order to decouple economic growth
from resource and energy demand, reduce CO, emissions, enhance organic agri-horti produce and
ensure greater clean energy contribution to grid.
Research and Eco-innovation: It aim at R&D activities, policy on the likely climate change
challenges that our State shall face, such as hydropower, natural resource efficiency, health,
tourism, agriculture and land use and demographic changes.
Sustainable Consumption Patterns and Agriculture Production: it is a very important issue,
which can make a substantial difference in moving towards sustainable patterns of production
and consumption.
Promotion and Consumption of Locally Grown/ Manufactured Products: Traditional
products and their cultural values must be conserved, bringing in a policy level intervention. lt
mustbe further promoted as a way to both alleviate poverty and contribute to the reduction ofCo2
Payment on Eco services: Keeping in view the fact that the state is facing numerous challenges
on the fronts such as green house gas emissions, deteriorating air quality, increasing trends of
pollution of its rivers and water bodies, melting glaciers, deforestation and land fragmentations
etc because of various developmental initiatives, introduce new market based concept which is
coming to the forefront whereby the beneficiaries ofthe environmental commodities and services
have to pay fortheir use.
Introduce Green Tax for Tourism: The State is looked upon as a storehouse of the natural
wealth, lush green meadows, mountain peaks clad under thick layer of snow, enriching
picturesque, dense forests and clean air and water, population expanse and tourist influx has to
some extent taken its toll on the environmental health of the hill states, therefore, options of
instruments like Green Tax need to considered forthe State.
Hydropower Generation Taxing to be linked with development of catchment’s:
Hydropower, by the nature of its resource (water) and the non-combustion way in which it
captures and converts the energy offalling water into electrical energy via the water turbine and
generator set, lowers the amount of carbon dioxide emitted during the production of electricity.
One can easily assess the annual reduction in carbon dioxide emissions and identify the potential
hydropower capacity that can be developed further given the various environmental, legal, and
institutional development constraints for levying the Carbon Tax in the State besides linking it
with development ofcatchment’s areas.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 Z23

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9.12 Cost of Implementation
The Government of India has indicated and committed in various national communications that the
adaptation and mitigation measures shall have to be implemented all throughout the country without
any compromise. The Government oflndia has specifically asked to furnish the State Action Plan on
Th
Climate Change (SAPCC) for consideration underthe 12 Five Year Plan for funding.
Where possible, the strategy and action plan identifies the indicative costs associated with specific
measures but it is recognised that the overall costs ofthe strategy will be spread across the economy
as a whole associated with adaptation and mitigation and indeed are likely to impact in some way on
every household. Itwould clearly be impossible to attemptto quantifythe total cost.
However, the measures in the strategy also present opportunities for savings across the economy,
right down to the individual household. Energy efficiencies, in particular, will reduce living costs for
households and improve the profitability of enterprises, competitiveness and employment
opportunities. More importantly, it is quite certain that, for society as a whole, the costs of inaction
would greatly outweigh the cost of action. lt, therefore, makes economic sense to invest now in
placing ourselves on a low carbon path or carbon smart path for the future. Guidance manual can be
prepared for the Government Departments and Offices on appraising the costs and benefits of
greenhouse gas mitigation policies. These will be used in conjunction, where appropriate, with
existing guidelines for departments and Offices on other issues.
‘Q-L
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– ‘-s .
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012 Z33

9.13 InstitutionalArrangements for Steering Climate Change Strategy & Action
Plan
In Himachal Pradesh in order to respond effectively to the challenges of climate change, the State
Government has constituted a State Level Governing Council on Climate Change, under the
chairmanship of Chief Minister. The Council has broad based representation from key stake-
holders departments to monitor the targets, objectives and achievements of the Eight National
Missions specified under National Action Plan on Climate Change. The State Governing Council also
provides guidance on matters relating to coordinated national action on the State’s agenda and
review of the implementation of the National Action Plan on Climate Change. The State Level
Governing Council chaired by the Chief Minister also provides guidance on the matters relating to
national level negotiations including bilateral, multilateral programmes for collaboration, research
and developmentin the State ofHimachal Pradesh [Annex-l].
Besides, an Executive Council under the chairpersonship of Chief Secretary, Himachal Pradesh has
also been setup having involvement of almost all stake holder line Departments with the objective of
implementation and monitoring ofthe directives ofthe State Governing Council on Climate Change.
The Department ofEnvironment, Science & Technology to the Government of Himachal Pradesh acts
as a Nodal Agency to coordinate and deal with the climate change issues. The Department of
Environment, Science & Technology, the State Council for Science, Technology & Environment, State
Centre on Climate Change would continue to evolve strategies and programmes, based on new
scientific and technical knowledge as they emerge and in response to the evolution ofthe multilateral
climate change regime including arrangements for national and international cooperation. Further,
the Department shall monitor and assess State’s progress in addressing climate change issues and to
increase awareness in all sectors ofthe opportunities and challenges presented by the transition to a
carbon neutral economy.
The Government would ensure that the implementation of measures at sectoral level will be the
responsibility of the relevant Government Departments and agencies. On Climate Change, a team
comprising ofsenior officials from relevant Government Departments will be notified to coordinate
the implementation of the Strategy.
A Centre on Climate Change has already been established in Himachal Pradesh which will act as a
nerve centre for climate change data base and actions. This Centre is being catered and supported for
its GIS applications need by the Aryabhatta Geo-informatics & Space Application Centre (AGiSAC].
Further, Working Groups and Sub-groups will be established, as necessary, to secure implementation
of specific measures that require enhanced policy coordination across sectors and may involve
appropriate expertise from State level agencies. Other existing cross-departmental arrangements
and structures will also be utilised as appropriate, to secure the implementation ofthis Strategy and
Action Plan on Climate Change.
The Department ofEnvironment, Science & Technology (DEST) will work in close coordination with
Local and Regional Authorities, through existing coordination arrangements, to secure
implementation ofspecific aspects ofthis Strategyand Action Plan at the local level.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 Z34

Institutional Framework for Steering Climate Change Strategy & Action Plan
State Governing Council
Guidance Negotiations at National Level Programmes] Funds Research & Development
Executive Council
Implementation & Monitoring
Department of Environment, Science & Technology
NODAL AGENCY
§[akgh(]]dgr Ofganizatiqns Centre on Climate Change State Council for Science & Technology
Subgroups uf c°°”‘fi”“d°”= Repository of
Experts Researth Climate Change
Organizations Database
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH — 2012

Annex-I
Government of Himachal Pradesh,
Department of Environment and Scientific Technologies
H.P. Secretariat, Shimla-2
>k*>k>|< No. STE-F[1]-12/2008 Dated: Shimla-2, 29-08-2008 NOTIFICATION There is a global threat of climate change is being felt strongly and India is not unaffected. This threat emanates from accumulated greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere, anthropogenically generated through long-term and intensive Industrial growth and high consumption lifestyles in developed countries. The climate change may alter the distribution and quality of India’s natural resources and adversely affect the livelihood of its people and also the State ofHimachal Pradesh. The Government of India has prepared a NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE [NAPCC) which would address the impacts of climate change. It would also focus on sustainable development with emphasis on environmental objectives. In order to achieve the objectives ofthe above mentioned NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE [NAPCC) and dovetail State’s initiatives with the Centre, the Governor, Himachal Pradesh is pleased to constitute the State Level Governing Council on Climate Change in the following manner:- 1. Hon’ble ChiefMinister, Himachal Pradesh Chairpeffifln 2. Hon’ble Minister for (Power & Non-Conventional Energy EXQCUUVB Member Sources], H.P. oo\1c\o-|:z>-to
. Hon’ble Minister for (PWD and Revenue), H.P. Exeeutive Member
Hon’ble Minister for (TCP and Housing), H.P. Executive Member
. Hon’ble Minister for (Urban Development], H.P. Executive Member
. Hon’ble Minister for [Irrigation & Public Health), H.P. Executive Member
. Hon’ble Minister for [Agriculture & Horticulture), H.P. Executive Member
. Hon’ble Minister for [Transport], H.P. Exeeutive Member
Contd… P-2/-
s-ms STRATEGY .2. ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 236

#2 #
9. Hon’ble Minister for [Forest, Env. & Scientific
Technologies) H.P.
Executive Member
In addition to above, it would comprise of following members:-
10. Secretary [Forests], H.P.
11. Secretary [Urban Development], H.P.
12. Secretary [Agriculture & Horticulture), H.P.
13. Secretary [MPP & Power] to the Govt. of H.P.
14. Secretary [Irrigation & Public Health], H.P.
15. Secretary [PWD and Revenue) to the Govt. H.P.
16. Secretary [TCP and Housing), H.P.
17. Secretary [Transport], H.P.
18. Secretary [Env. & Sci. Technologies], H.P.
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member Secretary
The overall objective of the Governing Council would be to monitor the targets,
objectives and achievements of the National Missions specified NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON
CLIMATE CHANGE (NAPCC). The respective Missions shall be taken care of and attended by the
individual departments who shall strive to attain the listed objectives with in a stipulated time frame
and ensure its vertical integration with the National Missions. The Governing Council shall meet twice
in ayear.
The Governor, Himachal Pradesh is further pleased to constitute Executive Council
which will monitor the directions and other related matters of Governing Council in the following
manner:
1, Chief Secretary, Himachal Pradesh ChHiFIJeT50I1
Executive Member
. Secretary [Forests], H.P.
. Secretary [Urban Development], H.P. EXQCHUVB Member
Secretary [Agriculture & Horticulture], H.P. EXeCl1tiVE Member
. Secretary [MPP & Power] to the Govt. of H.P. Executive Member
Contd… P-3/-
s-rmz smrrscv & ACTION PLAN on cum/ma CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 237

#3#
.*°9°.\‘9‘
Secretary [Irrigation & Public Health), H.P.
Secretary [PWD and Revenue) to the Govt. of H.P.
Secretary [TCP and Housing], H.P.
Secretary [Transport], H.P.
10.
11. Pr. Chief Conservator of Forests, H.P.
12. The Director, [MPP & Power] to the Govt. ofH.P.
13. The Engineer-in-Chief, PWD, U.S. Club, Shimla, H.P.
14-. The Director, Town & Country Planning Deptt., Shimla-9
Secretary [Env. & Scientific Technologies), H.P.
15, The Chief Executive Officer-cum-Secretary, H.P. Housing
& Urban Development Authority, Shimla-2
16_ The Engineer-in-Chief, Irrigation & Public Health
Department, Shimla-1
17. The Director, Department ofAgriculture, Shimla
18. The Director, Department ofHorticulture, H.P. Shimla
19. The Director, Department of Transport, H.P. Shimla
20. The Director (Urban Development), Shimla-2
21, The Director, Department of Environment & Scientific
Technologies, H.P.
Executive Member
Executive Member
Executive Member
Executive Member
Executive Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member
Member Secretary
The Executive Council shall meet at least once in quarter but can also meet as per the
need and contingencies.
By Order
[Harinder I-lira]
Pr. Secretary [Env. & ST] to the
Government of Himachal Pradesh
Endorsement No. : As above. Dated:
Copy forwarded for information and necessary action to:
1. The Secretary to Governor, Himachal Pradesh, Shimla-2.
2. The Pr. P.S. to the Chief Minister, H.P. Shimla-2.
3. The P.S. to the Cabinet Ministers, H.P. Shimla-2.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – Z012
Shimla-2. 29-08-2008
Contd… P-4/-
zss

#4#
4. The P.S. to the Chief Secretary to the Government of H.P., Shimla-2.
5. All Executive Members and Members of the above-mentioned Governing Council ancl
Executive Council.
6. The Director, Environment & Scientific Technologies, Narayan Villa, Shimla-2.
7. The Member Secretary, H.P. State Environment Protection and Pollution Control Board,
Paryavaran Bhawan, Below BCS, New Shimla-9
8. The Member Secretary, H.P. State Council for Science, technology and Environment, SDA
Complex, Kasumpti, Shimla-9.
9. Guard file.
Ioint Secretary [Env. & ST] to the
Government of Himachal Pradesh
>k***
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012

The Way Forward 1 0
The anthropogenic interventions in pursuit of developmental activities are necessary for coping up
employment, energy and resource utilization pressures needs to be curbed with matching
compensation as opportunity cost. The regional cooperation (among Himalyan States in IHR] and
where needed cooperation with countries in the area of Himalayan ecology would certainly help
mitigate the vagaries of climate change in a holistic sense.
The experience gained so far enables the State to embark on an even more proactive approach. The
previous section presented the strategy that Himachal Pradesh will undertake for implementing its
State Action Plan. However, implementation would require effective coorditnation and cooperation
with other National Missions under National Climate Change Action Plan (NAPCC] and move
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STATE STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH ~ 2012 Z40

Although the Vulnerability Assessments have been carried out at block level but in order to give an
orientation towards action, it would be necessary in the times to come to expand this Vulnerability
Assessment format to the panchayat level so as to facilitate the comprehension of cause and effect
relationship amongst different components and implement actions at the ground level.
Various programmes that can be taken up in consonance with the National Action Plan on Climate
Change are as follows:
10.1 National Solar Mission
Under National Solar Mission, use of solar energy for power generation and related applications is
emphasized. Where ever necessary for the purpose of system balance or ensuring cost-effectiveness
and reliability, the promotion to integrate other renewable energy technologies such as wind,
biomass etc. is proposed. Himachal Pradesh is a tropical Himalayan State, where sunshine is available
for longer hours per day and in great intensity. Solar energy, therefore, has a great potential as future
energy source. It also has the advantage ofpermitting a decentralized distribution of energy, thereby
empowering people atthe grass root levels.
The Government may also initiate to provide support for research, development and deployment of
emerging technologies such as solar and wind power. Other constraints to the development of
renewable energy need to be also addressed. The Government may also support co-firing ofbiomass
in power generation as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and introducing additional
diversity into power generation.
1 0.1.1 Solar Thermal Power Generation
Electricity generation from renewable sources provides the most effective way of reducing the
greenhouse gas emissions from power generation in the State. The Government ofHimachal Pradesh
has to, therefore, targets for the contribution of renewable energy for power generation. To promote
the use of renewable energy sources in the State, R&D collaboration, technology transfer, and capacity
building with respect to use ofrenewable source ofenergy needs to be encouraged.
10.2 National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency in Industry
The Industry sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions mainly through heavy consumption of
energy, direct fossil fuel combustion for heating and emissions that arise in the course of various
industrial production processes. The sector is also the main source ofemissions ofindustrial gases, in
particular through use in refrigeration, air conditioning and in the electronics sector.
A number ofprogrammes have been initiated and it is anticipated that these would result in a saving
of5O0 MW in overall consumption ofthe energy in Himachal Pradesh. Analysis needs to be also made
to assess the potential for various forms ofdistributed electricity generation, and the implications for
the electricity transmission and distribution networks.
The natural gas network needs to be explored for the Industrial areas, wherever it is cost-effective and
economic to do so. A programme for the natural gas transmission and distribution network not only
needs to be put in study but also there is a need to prepare an action plan in this regard.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 Z41

There is also a need for a comprehensive Energy Efficiency Action Plan to deliver a significant
reduction in energy demand for Himachal Pradesh. Programmes need target energy efficiency across
all sectors, including industries, with the public sector setting example with energy efficiency.
There is a need to work with stakeholders to ensure the smooth implementation ofthe environmental
regulations in Himachal Pradesh. The use ofvehicles with air-conditioning units that use a refrigerant
known as HFC-134 a (which has a global warming potential of 1300 times that ofCO2) is a particular
concern and needs to be phased out.
The Industry Energy Management Action Programme [EMAP] needs to be evolved for those
industries thathave no mechanism for energy audits. There is often significant untapped potential for
energy efficiency gains in this sector that are not being realised due to less awareness, ignorance,
resource and time constraints. IEMAP shall provide advice for management of such sources and will
reduce energy consumption to engage industry in energy efficiency actions with profits.
The Industry sector is increasingly recognisingthat strong environmental performance makes a good
business sense and firms may wish to communicate that their adoption of the superior energy
performance practices also demonstrates their commitment to addressing climate change.
The Government may also examine options to enable the planning system to play a more active role in
encouraging renewable energy uptake in the industrial, commercial and agricultural sectors. As a
general rule, it is intended that where possible, exemptions from planning requirements will be
provided. Where planning considerations relating to specific technologies or sectors preclude
exemption, there is a need to provide guidance to planning authorities. Where exemptions are
provided, the Government may ensure that these complement existing supports provided for the
installation ofrenewable technologies.
Increasing consumer awareness ofclimate change and the greenhouse gas emissions associated with
products placed on the market will require businesses to address changing expectations of the
environmental impact of their products and services. The integration of environmental
considerations into business planning shall be made fundamental to the future success of the
business sector.
To support the adoption of eco-efficient technologies and practices in industry with the aim at
improving the strategic capability of unit, in particular in the management of their environmental
issues, and developing and exploiting the market opportunities that improved environmental
performance needs to be encouraged.
To support a wide range of projects to improve the level of research and development work on
environmental technologies and eco-innovation in Himachal Pradesh needs to be encouraged in
Industry sector to prevent and minimise the impact ofindustrial activities on the environment.
Himachal Pradesh needs to work towards implementation of various GHG Mitigation Options in the
Industry(s] viz.
~ Sector Specific Technological Options
~ Cross-cuttingTechnological Options
v Fuel Switch options
In view of this, there is also a need to work out potential for emissions reduction, apply policy and
regulatory options to achieve the set goals.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 Z4-2

10.3 National Mission on Sustainable Habitat
The Government’s endeavour is to develop in sustainable and inclusive manner so as to conserve its
beautiful environs through improvements in management of solid waste, waste water, by
undertaking modal shift to public transport, construction of green buildings and roads, energy
efficiency in buildings etc. Further, the State Government is committed to promote sustainable
development, energy efficiency as an integral component of urban and rural planning through
various initiatives.
Furthermore, development strategies, plans and programs cause environmental impacts which, in
some extreme cases, may even undermine development efforts. It is, therefore, ofutmost importance
to integrate environmental concerns from the earliest stages of the definition and programming of
development cooperation all the way through implementation, monitoring and evaluation.
The State is also working to integrate environmental concerns into its development policy and
planningprocessesin the pastfewyears.
1 0.3.1 Promoting Energy Efficiency in Residential & Commercial Sector
The Govt. of India and/or Government of Himachal Pradesh can think to incentivize the
installation of mirco-renewable technologies for homeowners. These include solar panels,
heatpumps,windturbines,andbiomass etc.
There is a need for expeditious switch over to low-energy light bulbs from traditional
incandescent light bulbs which are extremely efficient as CFL bulbs use 80% less energy for
equivalent light and last up to 15 times longer. Although its initial cost is high, they are more
economical for the consumerin thelong run.
To deal with GHG’s emissions, the option ofintroducing an environmental levy on the use of
incandescent bulbs can be though to reduce their price advantage and to encourage
consumers to switch over to CFL bulbs. The intention is to alter consumer behaviour rather
than to generate revenue, but any income from this environmental levy can be channelled
through the State Environment Fund to support climate change awareness and action
initiatives. It is estimated that emissions savings of up to 230,000 tonnes or more could be
achieved if every household replaces 6 conventional bulbs with CFL bulbs. Further, such
savings could be achieved in non-residential buildings as well through energy audits.
Electronic smart meters have demonstrable potential to deliver benefits for energy
consumers, including more flexible tariffs offering greater choice and energy saving
opportunities, and remote meter reading resulting in reduced costs and full accuracy. These
meters can also facilitate the incorporation of on-site generation at consumer premises,
including renewable generation. Installation of smart meters for all electricity consumers in
both new and existing housing sectors can be explored.
Consumer information plays a key role in driving energy efficient behaviour. The energy
savings awareness initiatives can be initiated through sustainable energy campaigns. These
campaigns can be organized and sustained over regional and community level as well as
across other economic sectors.
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Efficiency of appliances and energy labelling of appliances enables consumers to compare
energy consumption ofproduct alternatives. This will encourage the consumers to go for more
energy efficientappliances.
Suppliers and distributors need be directed to produce the labelling material and to ensure
accuracy. Retailers are also required to ensure that all display models carry the correct energy
labels. Energy labelling needs to be underpinned as the eco-design directive, which provides a
formal mechanism for establishing product standards for energy efficiency. Energy efficiency
improvements, including water heaters and boilers, computers, fridges, freezers, dishwashers
and washing machines needs to be promoted.
Low income households require coordinated action to ensure that homes which are subject to
fuel poverty have access to cost-effective heating, hot water and lighting through the
installation of energy efficiency measures necessary interventions in this sector needs be
initiated.
A special derive to reduce energy consumption and thereby to reduce greenhouse gas
emissionsneedstobeadoptedas:
~ To convert the heating systems in some large State buildings from their existing
electric, fossil fuel burners [oil/naturalgas] to possibly solar systems.
~ Energy awareness —Pilot staff energy awareness campaign in some office buildings
with a target to reduce energy consumption at least by 10% through local energy
conservation campaigns, energy workshops and close monitoring ofthe performance
ofheating/air conditioningequipments.
~ Energy efficient design for new buildings — The scope for improving energy efficiency
in new buildings is very significant and by having energy efficient designs in new
buildings can considerably improve the energy efficiency of the building over their
entire lifetime with little or no additional construction costs.
1 0.3.2 Management ofMunicipaI Solid Waste
There is a need to regard waste as a useful resource. This can be reflected in our commitment
to develop a recycling option for plastic, papers etc. and the priority are given to the diversion
of waste from the landfills. The adoption of such techniques has a positive side—effect in
reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
Emissions from the waste sector consist mainly ofmethane from the anaerobic decomposition
of solid waste that has been deposited in landfill sites. Small amounts ofmethane and nitrous
oxide arise from wastewater treatment. Improved landfill gas management/capture for
power generation can be explored which may contribute in the reduction of methane
emissions.
Management of non—biodegradable waste is regulated through a set regulation in the State.
The strategy for biodegradable municipal waste is required as an integrated waste
management approach. Through this approach, the preferred options for dealing with
biodegradable municipal waste are required to be put in place with a specific focus on the
prevention and minimisation — avoiding generating the waste; recycling — mainly ofpaper and
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 Z4-4

cardboard but also of textiles; biological treatment — mainly of kitchen and garden waste
including composting; and residual treatment — thermal treatment with energy recovery or by
way of mechanical-biological treatment. Significant energy savings derive from recycling
activity can also be explored.
1 0.3.3 Promotion of Urban Public Transport
Transport plays a pivotal role in supporting economic growth and balanced regional
development and there has been a strong correlation between economic growth in and energy,
fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector.
There is a need to develop a sustainable transport system that will promote economic
competitiveness by removing infrastructural bottlenecks and to achieve a diverse fuel mix,
while increasing social cohesion, access to peripheral rural areas and reducing environmental
impacts, including greenhouse gas emissions.
10.4 National Water Mission
In Himachal Pradesh, the availability of water is highly uneven in both space and time. The
precipitation in the form of rains is confined to only about three to four months in a year and varies
from about 600 mm in Lahaul & Spiti district to about 3,200 mm in Dharamshala, District Kangra.
However, in spite of heavy rain and snow during the rainy season and winters, the summer months
are periods of water scarcity in many areas as the flow in the rivers and nallah is quite low and
traditional sources also dry up.
1 0.4.1 ManagementofSurface WaterResources
River Basin Planning & Coordination: Comprehensive planning across a river basin may allow
coordinated solutions to problems ofwater quality and water supply in the State; for example,
enhanced coordination of facility system operations or expansion of the conjunctive use of
groundwater and surface water can improve water yields, which can help to alleviate
droughts. Planning can also help to address the effects ofpopulation, economic growth, and
changes in the supply ofand demand for water. The MPP & Power Department ofthe State and
IPH Departments need to improve their coordination and planning for allocation of river
water to anticipate climate change.
Further, there is a need to adopt contingency planning for drought management. Plans for
short-term measures to adapt to water shortages could help mitigate droughts. Planning
could be undertaken for droughts of known or greater intensity and duration. The cost of
developing contingency plans is relatively small compared with the potential benefits.
Additionally, plans could be effective in managing current climatic variability, as well as future
climate change.
There is also a need to use desirable inter river basin transfers. Transfers of water between
water basins may result in more efficient water use under current and changing climate
scenario. Transfers are often easier to implement than fully operating markets for water
allocation. Transfers also can be an effective short-term measure for responding to regional
droughts or other problems ofwater supply.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – Z012 Z45

STATE ST
Maintain options to develop new dam sites. Keep options open to develop new dam sites,
should they be needed. The number ofsites that can be used efficiently as reservoirs is limited,
and removing structures once an area has been developed may be very costly. Thus,
development in potential dam sites should be limited or only allowed under terms that would
permit conversion to dam sites.
1 0.4.2 Management& Regulation of Water Resources
In the present times, there is a need to allocate water supplies by using market-based systems
which allows water to be diverted to its most efficient use. Other mechanisms, such as prior
appropriation, may result in inefficient allocation ofwater supplies. Market-based allocations
are able to respond more rapidly to changing conditions of supply and also tend to lower
demand, thus conserving water. Consequently, market-based allocation increases both the
robustness and the resiliency of the water supply system. In addition, it improves the
economic efficiency ofthe allocation system underthe current climate scenario.
Reducing demand can increase excess supply, creating a greater margin of safety for future
droughts. Demand for water may be reduced through a range of policies that encourage
efficient water uses including education, voluntary compliance, pricing policies, legal
restrictions on water use, rationing of water, or the imposition of water conservation
standards on technologies. Reduced demand may increase current capacity to cope with
drought.
10.4.3 Up-gradation of Storage Structures for Fresh Water & Drainage System for Waste
Water
Marginal changes may be made in the planned construction ofwater resources infrastructure
such as reservoirs and flood control works to adapt to increased variability in runoff or to a
need for greater storage capacity. In planned construction, a marginal increase in the size of
dams or marginal changes in the construction of canals, pipelines, pumping plants and storm
drainages can be considered. This change may be much less expensive than adding capacity in
the future.
Polluting water that is unfit for drinking or for other uses can, in many respects, have an effect
similar to reducing water supply. Reducing water pollution effectively increases the
sustainable and healthy use ofwater. In turn, a larger water supply increases the safety margin
for maintaining water supplies during droughts. In addition, reduced runoff from climate
change will most likely increase concentrations ofpollutants in the water column. lfpollutant
load are lower, water quality standards are less likely to be violated.
Redirecting growth away from sensitive lands and towards less vulnerable areas is one option
to reduce the risks associated with a river basin, and also to reduce vulnerability to severe
cloud bursts, storms thathappen under current climate conditions.
1 0.4.4 Conservation of Wetlands
Efforts should be made to maintain wetlands that are more likely to be affected by less rains
and water tables. Wetlands are valuable natural areas that are difficult to re—create; therefore,
RATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 Z4-6

current and future efforts are warranted to protect these areas. ln setting priorities for
protecting wetlands, the likelihood of surviving a wetland, migrating landward should be
considered. Protecting wetlands will also improve water quality, flood control and fish and
wildlife habitat underthe current climate conditions.
Permanent shore-hardening structures, such as protection walls need to be banned or
discouraged in moderately developed areas. Limiting permanent stabilization ofthe shoreline
will allow a gradual retreat in a natural way.
Permanent or temporary camping structures, such as huts, tents may be banned or
discouraged around moderately developed areas and as well as in eco sensitive zones.
Limiting trafficking near to the wetlands will allow a gradual natural maintenance of the
wetlands. Exposure ofthe wetland to pollutants due to solid wastes, vehicles etc. may destroy
the natural retreat systems of the wetlands.
Public participation can help the authorities, in preventing the waste from entering the lake.
They can generate income and employment by converting the waste in to manure. The schools
are educatingtheir students about waste management practices.
Lakes in Himachal Pradesh, besides being a favourite tourist destination attract thousands of
tourists and serves as a natural resource for the local people. The lakes are in peril due to
anthropogenic pressure and overall deterioration of surrounding environment. The efforts
should be made to prepare and cover the lakes in the lake conservation programme ofMinistry
ofEnvironment & Forests, Gol, besides the initiatives for lake conservation through education
and mass awareness. An establish practice of compulsory door to door household waste
collection can also be introduced in and around the lakes areas. Carrying ofpolythene carry
bags, plastic items, chips packets etc. can also be banned in the lake area.
10.5 National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem
Himachal Pradesh is a small hilly state lies in the North-western Himalaya, the youngest mountain
chains in the world which are still in the building phase. A scientific study carried out on the evolution
of the Himalaya suggests that these mountain chains are rising at the rate of 2 cm per year. The
Himalayan ecosystem is vital to the ecological security of the lndian landmass, through providing
forest cover, feeding perennial rivers that are the source of drinkingwater, irrigation and hydropower,
conserving biodiversity, providing a rich base for high value agriculture and spectacular landscapes
for sustainable tourism.
It is imperative on parts of States to continue and enhance monitoring of Himalayan ecosystem, in
particular the state of Glaciers. It is also important to empower local communities, in particular
through the Panchyats to assume greater responsibility for conservation of mountain ecosystems and
management ofecological resources.
Emphasize can be given on followingmeasures:
– Adopt appropriate land use planning and watershed management practices for sustainable
developmentofmountain ecosystem.
– Adopt best practice norms for infrastructure construction in mountain region to avoid or
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 Z47

minimize damage to sensitive ecosystem and despoiling oflandscape.
– Encourage cultivation of traditional varieties of crops and horticulture by promotion of
organic farming enabling farmers to realize a price premium.
– Promote sustainable tourism through adoption of best practice norms for tourism facilities
and access to ecological resources, and multi-stakeholder partnership to enable local
communities to gain better livelihoods while leveraging financial, technical, and managerial
capacities of investors.
– Take measures to regulate tourist inflows into mountain regions to ensure that these remain
within the carrying capacity ofthe mountain ecology.
– Consider these unique mountains as entities with “incomparable values”, in developing
strategies fortheir protection.
10.6 National Mission for Green India
Himachal Pradesh provides unmatched contribution to the ‘national interest’ in sustaining life
support system, on the basis of which sustainable development can be realized downstream, in the
plains of North India. Attention is shifting to environmental services flows provided by the pristine
forests of the State. These include critical watershed services, biodiversity conservation, carbon
sequestration and ofcourse maintaining landscape beauty.
Gender specific policies are required to help cope with the loss of control over natural resources,
technologies and credit to deal with seasonal and episodic weather and natural disasters. There is a
need to re—design the existing tourism policy to produce alternative mountain specific tourism
models focusing on environmental sustainability. Forest departments need to be more proactive in
influencing policies of other sectors such as road construction, transportation, power and industries
which impinge on conservation issues.
1 0.6.1 Forest C0ver& Density
There is a need to formulate a separate and distinct forest policy for Western Himalayan States
in view of their vulnerability to climate change, critical role as watershed States for the
northern India plains; and unique ecosystem and forested landscapes rich in biodiversity.
There is an urgent need to establish long term monitoring plots across representative eco-
zones, together scientific data on climatic and biological parameters, especially in Reverine,
Alpine and Shivalik ecosystems.
There is a need to map climate change driven adaptation in natural resource use and livelihood
patterns across eco-zones and for developing ofa database on carbon sequestration potential
offorest flora in these forests.
Further, there is a need for periodic assessment of carbon stock including soil carbon under
different ecosystems and effective deployment ofnew and advanced technologies, such as, GIS
remote sensing, climate change modelling in natural resources management.
There is an urgent need to incentivize the community involvement in some mainstream Forest
department activities, including forest protection, afforestation and fire fighting etc.
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 Z4-8

1 0.6.2 Biodiversity Conservation
Conservation ofbiological diversity needs to guide afforestation programmes and not carbon
sequestration potential alone. Re—orienting afforestation programmes with a focus on species
that help mitigate man-animal conflict. Furthers, there is a need to revisit forestry operations
to realize full water conservation potential of forests leading to development of “water
sanctuaries”.
1 0. 6.3 Paymen t for Ecosystem Services
By not integrating and extending the concept and practice of Payment for Ecosystem Services
[PES] within the States to compensate for forgone land use and occupation options can
adversely impacting the environment. There is a need to impress upon the Government of
India to move beyond ‘Green Bonus’ to adequately compensate these States for ecosystem
services flows. There is a need to re-orient the developmental interventions by adopting
watershed as the unitforplanningand fund flows.
10.7 National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
Himachal Pradesh is predominately an agricultural State where agriculture provides direct
employment to about 71 percent ofthe total population. The Agriculture sector contributes nearly 30
percent ofthe total State Domestic Product. The actions in accordance with National Missions shall be
taken up in following manner:
1 0. 7.1 Increase Efliciency oflrrigation
Improvements allow greater flexibility by reducingwater consumption without reducing crop
yields. This will also help in adapting water resources. Many farming technologies, such as
efficient irrigation systems, provide opportunities to reduce direct dependence on natural
factors such as precipitation and runoff. In evaluating an improvement to irrigation systems,
the additional benefit ofreducingvulnerabilityto climatic variations and natural disasters can
be considered.
10. 7.2 Dry IandAgricuIture
The new mantra is to avoid monoculture and encourage farmers to plant a variety ofheat- and
drought-resistant crops. Further, growing of single crops such as maize increases farmers’
vulnerability to climate variability. If the probability of droughts and heat waves increases
with climate change, such vulnerability can also increase. One adaptation option is for farmers
to plant a wider variety ofcrops so as to reduce the risks ofcrop failure.
1 0.7.3 Risk Management
Encourage management practices that recognize drought as a part ofa highly variable climate,
rather than treating drought as a natural disaster. Farmers can be given information on
climatic conditions, incentives can be offered to adopt sound practices of drought
management, and farmers can be discouraged from relying on drought relief. This type of
policy is particularly useful if farm disaster relief and other government subsidies distort the
market and encourage overly risky expansion of farming into marginal lands. Review tying
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 Z49

subsidies or taxes to type of crop and land. Commodity support programs or tax policies may
discourage switching from one cropping system to another that is better suited to the changed
climate.
Therefore, efforts to stabilize farm supply and to maintain farm incomes should avoid
disincentives for farmers to switch crops, rotate crops, and use the full land normally planted.
This policy approach will increase the efficiency of current farming practices and will also
increase the ability of the system to quickly recover from the climate change.
Seed banks that maintain a variety of seed types provide an opportunity for the farmers to
diversify, allowing them to both counter the threat of climate change and develop a profitable
specialization.
Development ofmore and better heat- and drought-resistant crops will help fulfil current and
future food demand by enabling production in marginal areas to expand. The improvements
will be critical because the State and Country’s population continues to increase, with or
without climate change.
1 0. 7.4Access to Information
Many practices, such as conservation tillage, channel dykes, terracing, contouring, and
planting vegetation to act as windbreaks, will protect fields from water and wind erosion and
can help to retain moisture reducing evaporation and increasing water infiltration. Using
management practices that reduce dependence on irrigation will reduce water consumption
without reducing crop yields and will allow greater resiliency in adapting to future climate
changes.
1 0.7.5 LiberaIizeAgricuIturaI Trade
Lowering trade barriers will result in higher levels of State agricultural production both under
the current climate and under the projected climate change scenarios. Farmers will receive
information on changes in National market conditions faster than if trade barriers are not
lowered.
10.8 National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change
The State of Himachal Pradesh intends to take forward the areas as envisaged under this National
Mission for a broad based effort that would include the following key themes:
– Research in key substantive domains ofclimate science.
– Regional Climate Modelling.
– Strengthening of observational networks and data generation.
– Creation of research infrastructure.
1 0.8.1 Climate Modelling &Access to Data
The IPCC-AR4 addressed the global trends on climate change, but detailed analysis is lacking for India
and its regions due to difficulties in obtaining database related to climate change. For this purpose the
State make intervention in followingareas:
STATE STRATEGY 81 ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH – 2012 Z50

1 0.8.1.1 Enhanced Research on Climate Modelling
There is a need to develop high resolution regional climate models that simulate regional
climate change, in particular monsoon behaviour by pooling institutional capabilities and
computational resources. The State needs to encourage regional data re-analysis projects.
1 0.8.1.2 Promoting DataAccess
Different line organisations, research institutions are carrying out various climate change
related studies and generating data. lt needs to be ensured that all such institutions may
appoint a nodal officer who should be made responsible to provide access to such data base.
The concept0f’registered users’ also needs to be introduced in the State.
1 0.8.1.3 Human Resource Development
Institutional assessment with respect to required skill needs to be carried out at State, regional
and local levels so that necessary measures can be undertaken for enhancing the quality and
quantum of human resource which would be required in future.
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STATE STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH e 2012 ZS1

Reporting & Review 1 1
A detailed reporting template will be developed to monitor implementation of the measures in this
Strategy and Action Plan. This will form the basis of an Implementation Status Report which will be
published annually.
The Department of Environment, Science & Technology [DEST) through State Centre on Climate
Change (SCCC] and the State Council will coordinate the preparation of this annual report. It is also
proposed to lay the reportbefore the State Legislative Assembly. This report will also update emission
projections and quantifications of emission reduction measures and detail the further measures
which have been introduced orwhich are in the process ofdevelopment.
STATE STRATEGY8: ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE HIMACHAL PRADESH ~ Z012 252

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