Himachal Pradesh Important Bird Areas

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Important Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh

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Himachal Pradesh (30″ 22′ – 33° I3‘ North and 75° 36′ – 79° 02′ East) is situated in the northwest of India in the Himalayan ranges. It is bounded by Jammu and Kashmir in the nonh, Uttaranchal in the southeast, Haryana in the south and Punjab in the west and in the east it fomis India‘s intemational boundary with Tibet (China). Himachal Pradesh has a geographical area of5.57 million ha.

The State is mountainous with altitudes ranging between 460 and 6,600 m. It has a deeply dissected topography, a complex geological structure and a rich temperate flora in subtropical latitudes. Himachal Pradesh is drained by a number of snow-fed perennial rivers. The Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas, the Sutlej and the Yamuna are the important ones. Forestry in Himachal Pradesh constitutes the biggest land use.
Agriculture and honiculture are the mainstay of Himachal‘s economy as 71% of the people are engaged in these pursuits (Mathew Z003).

Climatic conditions are suitable for a variety of fruits and cash crops such as seed potatoes, ginger, vegetable seeds, apples and other fruits. The main cereal crops are Wheat, maize and paddy.

Himachal Pradesh is famous for its hill stations. Tourists come here mainly during the summer. The tourist department of Himachal Pradesh claims that Kharjiar in the Charnba district has earned the name “Mini Switzerland” because of the striking similarity in landscape. The State is also known for its rich wildlife, especially for rare species such as Musk Deer Maschus chrysoguster, Ibex Capra ibex, Himalayan Thar Hermitragus jemlahicus, Asiatic Brown Bear Ursus arctoides and Snow Leopard Uncia uncial. Some of the pheasant species which are very important in the State, include the Himalayan or Impeyan Monal Lophophorus impejanus, Westem Tragopan Tragapan melanocephalus. Koklass Pheasant Pucrasia macrolopha and Snowcocks Tetraogallus spp. The average rainfall in the State is 1,800 mm. The mean annual temperature ranges between 20 °C to 22.5 °C.
The total population of the State is 6.08 million (2001 census) of which 90.2% is rural and 9.8% is urban. The population density is
I09 persons per sq. km.

Vegetation
There are six major forest types in Himachal Pradesh: Tropical Dry Deciduous, Sub-tropical Pine, Sub-tropical Dry Evergreen, Himalayan Moist Temperate, Himalayan Dry Temperate, and Sub-alpine and Alpine. By legal status, the reserved forest constitutes 5.1%, the protected forest 89.2% and the unclassed forest 5.7% (Ministry of Environment and Forests 2001).

The Forest Survey of India report of I999, states that there has been an overall decrease of 440 sq. km of dense forest because of the conversion of640 sq. km to open forest, and of33 sq. km to non-forest. Also 92 sq. km ofopen forest, 42 sq. km ofscrub and 99 sq. km of non-forest have been converted to dense forest.
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Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
IBAS AND PROTECTED AREAS

Himachal Pradesh has an area of0.7l million ha (l2.87%) under the protected area network, that comprises two national parks and 32 wildlife sanctuaries, covering 0.14 million ha and 0.57 million ha respectively. The Great Himalayan National Park and the Pin Valley National Park have been identified as lBAs, and of the 32 wildlife sanctuaries, 24 are IBAs. Two non-protected areas are also considered as IBAs.

Number of IBAs and IEA criteria
Al= Threatened species; A2 = Restricted Range species; A3= Biome species; A4=Cong1’egatory species
IBAs of Himachal Pradesh

Bandli Wildlife Sanctuary
Chail Wildlife Sanctuary
Churdhar Wildlife Sanctuary
Daranghati Wildlife Sanctuary
Dhauludhar Wildlife Sanctuary and McLeod Gunj
Gamgml Siahbehi Wildlife Sanctuary
Govind Sagar And Nainadcvi Wildlife Sanctuary
Great Himalayan National Park
Kais Wildlife Sanctuary
Kalatop Khajjiar Wildlife Sanctuary
Kanawar Wildlife Sanctuary
Kibber Wildlife Sanctuary
Kugti Wildlife Sanctuary
Lippa Asrang Wildlife Sanctuary
Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary
Manali Wildlife Sanctuary
Nargu Wildlife Sanctuary
Pin Vallcy National Park
Pong Lake Wildlife Sanctuary
Rupi Bhaba Wildlife Sanctuary
Sangla Wildlife Sanctuary
Sarah Valley, Lower Dharamshala
Sechu Tuan Nala Wildlife Sanctuary
Shikari Devi Wildlife Sanctuary
Shimla Water Catchment Wildlife Sanctuary
Talra Wildlife Sanctuary
Tirthan Wildlife Sanctuary

Himachal Pradesh is extremely important for the protection of many species of pheasants and forest birds. lts six major forest types have
Westem Himalayan species, some with significant populations. A total of 390 species of birds have been identified till now from the State
(Grimmett and lnskipp 2003). Seven globally threatened species are found in the State. The two vulture and two eagle species are widely
found but the two pheasant species (Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii and Westem Tragopan Tragopan melanacephulus) have restricted
range, both in altitude and habitat. The Wood Snipe Gallinugo nemoricola classified as Vulnerable (BirdLife Intemational 2001) also had
a wide distribution in the Himalayas based on old shooting records (Ali and Ripley 1987). Only few recent records are available after the
prohibition of sport-hunting in India. It is reported only from Dhauladhar WLS, but is likely to be found in many more areas.

Himachal Pradesh lies in the Westem Himalayas Endemic Bird Area (EBA 128). Eleven species are confined to this EBA (Stattersfield et
al. 1998), out ofwhich ten are known to occur in this State with confirmed records, They are: Westem Tragopan, Cheer Pheasant, Brook’s
Leaf Warber Phylloscopus subviridis, Tytler‘s Leaf Warbler Phylloscupus tytleri, Kashmir Flycatcher F icedula subrubm (vagrant), White-
cheeked Tit Aegirhalos leucogenys, White-throated Tit Aegilhalos niveogularis, Kashmir Nuthatch Sim: cashmirensis, Spectacled Finch
Callacunthis burruni and Orange Bullfinch Rvrrhulu aurantiaca. Only Himalayan or Mountain Quail Ophrysia superciliosa, which was
anyway not reported from Himachal Pradesh, is missing from the EBA list of the State. These restricted range species are confined to the
Western Himalayas of I-limachal Pradesh on an elevation between 1,500 to 3,600 m in the Temperate Coniferous/Broadleaf Forest, Sub-
alpine Forest and Montane Grassland (Stattersfield er al. 1998).
Wood Snipe Gallinago nemoricala IN-HP-O5
Red~headed Vulture Sarcogyps calvus IN-HP~02, 05, 15
Pallid Han’icr (7) Circus macrourux lN—l-113402
Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachux IN-HP~05, 10, 15
Grcatcr Spotted Eagle
Eastem Imperial Eagle
Aquila clanga
Aquila heliaca
Wcstcm Tragopan
Cheer Pheasant
Tragopan melanocephalux
Catreus wallichii
Species for which – Pzarhsh is 1.npo’ rtaantz
Himachal Pradesh is very important for the conservation of the following three Globally Threatened species:
“flhm Gyps taiuirostris Cn’.t’im1ly Ehdargered
This newly recognized species is classified as Critical because it has suffered an extremely rapid population decline, particularly across
the Indian subcontinent (BirdLife Intemational 2001). In Himachal Pradesh, it is reported from Gobind Sagar and Naina Devi WLS,
Sarah Valley and Lower Dharamshala (J. W. den Besten per comm. 2003).
Western Tragopan Tragopan rnelanocephalus I
This species is classified as Vulnerable because its sparsely distributed, small
population is declining and becoming increasingly fragmented in the face of
continuing forest loss and degradation throughout its restricted range (BirdLife
Intemational 2001). From Himachal Pradesh it has been reported from Daranghati
Wildlife Sanctuary (Singh el al. 1990; Pandey I994), Dhauladhar Wildlife Sanctuary
and McLeod Ganj (Bose er al. 1989, Knox and Walters 1994), Gamgul Siahbehi
Wildlife Sanctuary (Singh et al. 1990), Great Himalayan National Park (Singh et al.
1990, Gaston et al. 1993, Gaston and Garson 1992, Pandey 1993), Kais Wildlife
Sanctuary (Knox and Walters 1994; Singh er al. 1990), Kanawar Wildlife Sanctuary
(Singh et al. 1990; Pandey 1993), Lippa Asrang Sanctuary (Singh er al. 1990), Manali
Wildlife Sanctuary (Wynter-Blyth 1951), Nargu Sanctuary (Pandey 1993), Rupi
Bhabha Wildlife Sanctuary (Singh et al. 1990), Sangla (Raksham Chitkul) Wildlife
Sanctuary, Sangla (Raksham Chitkul) Wildlife Sanctuary (Narang 1993), Sechu Tuan
Nala Wildlife Sanctuary (Singh et al. 1990), Talra Wildlife Sanctuary (Singh er al.
1990), Tirthan Wildlife Sanctuary [pan of the Great Himalayan National Park] (Singh
at al, 1990; Pandey 1993; Gaston and Garson I992).
Chamba district has a sizeable population of this bird (Shahid Bashir pers. comm. 2003). The important areas in Chamba are Makhan
Nalla, Monda Nala (Tak 1987, Chauhan and Shanna 1991), Dalli, c. 28 km northwest of Chamba (Narang 1993), Ghrotu Kotha and
Gharaatbada Reserve Forests, (Jandrotia et al. 1996); and the Kalatop and Khajjiar Sanctuary (Singh et al. 1990), but the presence there
appears doubtful (Javed at al. 1999).
mar Pheasant Catreus wallichii –/ _
This pheasant’s small population is naturally fragmented because it lives in small patches of successional grassland. Human population
pressure, hunting and changing pattems of land use are resulting in its decline, classifying it as Vulnerable (BirdLife International 2001).
From Himachal Pradesh it is reported from the following sites: Gamgul Siahbehi Sanctuary (Singh er al, 1990); Sara Reserve Forest,
(Gaston er al. 1981), Kugti Sanctuary (Singh et al. 1990), Manali Sanctuary (Gaston er al. 1981; Singh et al. 1990), Kalatop and Khajjiar
Sanctuary (Khajjiar-Kalatope Wildlife Sanctuary), (Gaston et al. 1981); Kais Sanctuary (Singh et al. 1991); Kanawar Sanctuary, (Gaston
et al. 1981; Singh er aZ_ 1990); Nargu Sanctuary (Singh er al. 1990, Gaston et al. 1993), Tirthan Sanctuary (Gaston er al. 1981; Singh et
al. 1990), Shikari Devi Sanctuary, (Singh er al. 1990); Bandli Sanctuary (Singh er al. 1990), Daranghati (Shanna et al. 1990), Majathal
Wildlife Sanctuary (Gaston et al. 1981; Garson 1983, Mishra 1996), Talra Sanctuary (Singh er al. 1990), Chail Wildlife Sanctuary
(Gaston and Singh 1980, Gaston et al. 1981; Kalsi 1999) and Churdar Wildlife Sanctuary.
427

Important Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii IN-HP-01, O2, O5, O6, 08, 09, IO, ll, I3, I5,
20, 24,25, 26, 27
Tragopan rnelanocephalus IN-HP-04, O5, 06, O8, O9, ll, 16, 20, 21, 23,
26, 27
Phylloscopus tytleri IN-HP-05
Callacanthis burtoni IN—HP—O5, O8
Aegithalos leucogenys IN-HP-O8, ll, 20, 27
Aegi/halos niveogalaris IN-I-IP~08, 20
Pyrrhula aurantiaea IN-HP-08, 20
Western Tragopan
Tytler’s Leaf-Warbler
Spectacled Finch
White-cheelted Tit
White»throated Tit
Orange Bullfinch
THREATS AND CONSERVATION ISSUES
In Himachal Pradesh, deforestation is not an acute problem as compared to other neighbouring states. The forest cover remains extensive
and relatively stable, although destruction of the understorey through overgrazing by livestock is a major problem (IUCN I993) and some
development projects such as roads and dams also affect some of the IBA sites (Virendra Shanna pers. comm. I999). There are few IBAs
where a viable population of the Westem Tragopan and Cheer Pheasants are found. Because of habitat degradation, however, they remain
only in pockets as described by BirdLife Intemational (2001). The Great Himalayan National Park is an important IBA site where a
sizeable population ofthe Westem Tragopan and the Cheer Pheasant is found. Similarly, the Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary is an important
IBA for the Cheer Pheasant.
Some ofthe key threats are expansion ofcultivation, illegal logging, overgrazing by livestock, conversion to agriculture and plantations,
Weaknesses in protected area management, hunting of wildlife and trapping.
New roads, dams, mines, buildings and other developments strongly contribute to habitat loss in the Westem Himalayas, damaging
forests, both directly and indirectly and by displacing people into forest areas (BirdLife International 2003). Construction of roads in
highland areas may cause landslips, and provide improved access to remote montane habitats for shifting eultivators, illegal loggers,
hunters and harvesters of forest products (BirdLife Intemational 2003).
‘J1’1reatstoIBAs
A=Agriculture intensification/expansion; B=Dams/Dykes; C=Disturbance to Birds; D=FireWood Collection;
E:Industrialisation/Urbanisation; F:Unsustainable exploitation; G:Othcrs; H:NaturaI Events
REFERENCES
Ali, S. and Ripley, S. D. (I 987) Compact Handbook ofthe Birds oflndia and Pakistan (Second Edition). Oxford University Press, Delhi.
BirdLife International (2001) Threatened Birds Q/‘Asia: The BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
BirdLife International (2003) Saving Asia s threatened birds.” a guidefor government and civil society. BirdLife Intemational. Cambridge, U.K
Bose, A. K., Curson, J. and Jannan, N. (1989) Report on birds in some national parks and other areas of special interest in India and Nepal 88—89.
Unpublished report.
Chauhan, B. S. and Sharma, V. (I991) Status ofWestem Tragopan in Himachal Pradesh, India. WPA News 34: 25—28.
Garson, P. J. (1983) The Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii in Himachal Pradesh, Westem Himalayas: an update. World Pheasant Assoc. J. 8: 29—39.
Gaston, A. J. and Garson, P. J. (I 992) Himachal Wildlife Project—III. A re-appraisal of the Great Himalayan National Park. Unpublished report to Himachal Pradesh
Department of Forest Farming and Conservation, Intemational Tmst for Conservation, WorldWide Fund for Naturv India and the Oriental Bird Club.
Gaston, A. J. and Singh, J. ( 1980) The status of the Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii in the Chail wildlife sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh. World Pheasant
Assoc. J. 5: 6843.
Gaston, A. .I., Garson, P. .I. and Hunter, M. L. (I981) Present distribution and status of pheasants in Himachal Pratlesh, Westem Himalayas. World Pheasant
Assoc. J. 6: l0—3O.
Gaston, A. .I., Garson, P. I. and Pandey, S. (I993) Birds recorded in the Great Himalayan National Park, Himachal Pradesh, India. Forktr1[19: 45—57.
Grimmett, R. and Inskipp, T. (2003) Birds ofNorthern India. Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
IUCN (1 993) Nature reserves o/‘the Himalaya and mountains ofCentraI Asia. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: Intemational Union for Consen/ation
of nature and Natural Resources.
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Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
Jandrotia, J. S., Shanna, V. and Katoeh, S. S. (I996) Apheasant survey in
the Ravi catchment ofChamba district, I-Iimacha] Pradesh, India. Ann.
Rev. World Pheasant Assoc. 1994/ I995: 67—74.
Javed, S., Kaul, R and Khan, S. B. (I999) Status, distribution and ecology
of the Western Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalus in the Westem
Himalayas. Aligarh, India: Department of Wildlife Sciences, Aligarh
Muslim University.
Kalsi, R. S. (1999) Status and habitat of Cheer Pheasant in Himaehal
Pradesh. World Pheasant Assoc.- SARO News l(l): 2~4.
Knox, A. G. and Walters, M. P. ( I994) Extinct and endangered birds in the
collections of the Natural History Museum. London: British
Ornithologists‘ Club.
Mathew, K. M. (ed.) (2003) Manorama Yearbook 2003. Malayala
Manorama, Kottayam.
Ministry of Environment and Forest (2001) Sate of Forest Report 2001. Forest
Survey of India. Ministry Of Environment and Forest, Dchra Dun.
Mishra C. (I996) Pheasants and other birds of Majhatal Harsang Wildlife
Sanctuary. Forktail I2: 1—6.
Narang, M. L. (1993) Searches for Westem Tragopans in Himachal Pradesh,
India, in l987~89. Pp.55—57 in D. Jenkins, ed. Pheasants in Asia I 992.
Reading, UK: World Pheasant Association.
Pandcy, S. (I993) Pheasant surveys and the conservation of protected areas
in the Upper Beas valley, Himachal Pradesh, India. Pp.58—6l in D.
Jenkins, ed. Pheasants in Asia 1992. Reading, UK: World Pheasant
Association.
Pandey, S. (1 994) A preliminary estimate of numbers ofWestern Tragopans
in Daranghati Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh. Ann. Rev. World Pheasant
Assoc. I993/1994: 49—S6.
Sharma, V., Garson, P. J. and Khera, S. ( l 990) Status sun/eys of Cheer and
Westem Tragopan in Simla Hills of Himachal Pradesh. Pp.l39—l4l
in D. A. Hill, P. J. Garson and D. Jenkins, eds. Pheasants in Asia
I989. Reading, UK: World Pheasant Association.
Singh, S., Kothari, A. and Pande, P. (Eds) (I990) Directory ofnational
parks and sanctuaries in Himaehal Pradesh: management status
and profiles. Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi.
Pp 164.
Stattersfield,A. J., Crosby, M. J., Long,A., and Wege, D. C. (1998) Endemic
Bird Areas of the World: Priorities /or Biodiversity Conservation.
BirdLife Intemational, UK.
Tak, R C. (1987) On 2| rare sighting of Westem Tragopan (Tragopan
melanocephalus) in District Chamba, Himachal Pradesh, India. Cheetal
28(4): 4245.
Wynter-Blyth, M. A. (I951) A naturalist in the north-West Himalaya. Part
I. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 50: 344~354.
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Jan rung“ den Eesten
Photo
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Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
GENERAL DESCRI PTION
This small sanctuary in Mandi district has been in the news due to
the state govemment’s plan to establish a large cement factory
about 500 m from the boundary. Bandli was a Reserve Forest till
1962, when it was first notified as a Sanctuary. After the enactment
of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, final notification took place
in 1974, It is located about 7 km from Sundamagar tovtm. The
Sanctuary was declared mainly to protect Cheer Pheasant Catreus
wallichii, which had been extenninated from many nearby areas
due to hunting. The Sanctuary is under heavy pressure due to its
proximity to villages and towns.
Singh et al. (1990) identified only two major forest types:
Himalayan Subtropical Pine Forest and Ban Oak Forest.
AV I FAUNA
This sanctuary helps to protect a small surviving population of
Cheer Pheasant. No detailed study on avifau.na has been conducted,
except for surveys of pheasants.
This IBA comes under Westem Himalayas Endemic Bird Area
(EBA-128) and Sino-Himalayan Subtropical Forest (BirdLife
International, undated). However, as we do not have the checklist
of birds of this site, We do not know how many Restricted Range
and Biome Restricted assemblages are found in this IBA. Besides
studies on the globally threatened Cheer Pheasant to know its status
and distribution in this site, detailed studies on the general avifauna
are also required. It is a Data Deficient site.
Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii
Endsnic Bi1:dArea 128: Western Himalayas
Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii
OTHER KEY FAUNA
Leopard Panthera pardus is quite common and a major cause of
concern to livestock owners. Asiatic Black Bear Ursus thibetanus
is also found, but it confines itself to forest and grassland areas.
Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjak and Goral Nemorhaedus goral
are the major natural prey of Leopard. Himalayan Yellow-
throated Marten Martesflavigula are the major predators of Cheer
Pheasant and other smaller prey. Common Langur Semnopithecus
430
IBA Site 00$ :
Slim : Himachal Pradesh
Distridz : Mandi
&:m:‘di!1a§ : 31° 28‘ 38″ N, 76° 55′ 41″ E
Ownership : Qcate
A293 : 4, 132 ha
AI.ti.tut : 762 — 1,260 m
Erfill : 1, 544 mm
lurperauue = 1 “c to 35 “c
c Zone :
I-Ezitam :
IN—1-[P-01
Himalaya
Sub Alpine Forest, Montana Wet
Tezrpezate Forest
estern Himalayas)
arch 1962
entellus and Rhesus Macaque Macaca mulatta are the non-human
primates in the IBA.
LAND USE
q Nature conservation
THREATS AND CONSERVATION ISSUES
Poaching
Human settlement
>-GL2»-Gil
Forest fires
Denotification
q Cement factory project
Besides poaching, livestock grazing and forest fires plague most of
the sanctuaries of northern India. Bandli Sanctuary is under threat
of denotification by the Himachal Govemment, Which intends
constructing a large cement factory very close to the Sanctuary
border. Earlier in 1992, the proposal to set up a cement plant was
rejected by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) as the
proposed mining site would have disturbed the Sanctuary. In 2001,
the State Govemment revived the plan with a proposal to denotify
half the Sanctuary to facilitate the project. The residents have been
opposing the cement plant proposal since 1992, and have now fonned
several enviromnental protection groups to save the Sanctuary. It
has been pointed out that a large number of people in Mandi are
likely to be adversely affected by the pollution from the cement
plant. There are fears that water channels will dry up or become
polluted, water mills will be rendered useless and cropping pattems
and yields would be afiected. The tourism industry is also opposing
the cement plant project in such sylvan surroundings.
KEY CONTRIBUTORS
Sanjeeva Pandey and K. Ramesh
KEY REFERENCES
BirdLife Intemational (undated) Important Bird Areas (IB/ts) in Asia.”
Project briefing hook. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.,
unpublished.
Singh, S., Kothari, A. and Pande, P. (Eds) (1990) Directory afnatianal
parka and sanctuaries in Himachal Pradesh: management status
andprofiles. Indian Institute oi‘Public Administration, New Delhi.
Pp I64.
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Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
GENERAL DESCRI PT ION
Chail Wildlife Sanctuary lies in Solan and Shimla districts.
Fonnerly, it was the private game reserve of the Maharaja of
Patiala. Inspite of degradation, it is still one of the best sanctuaries
for the Cheer Pheasant Carreus wallichii, The Sanctuary has, within
its boundaries, Chail town and numerous villages, and is connected
by a forest corridor to the Shimla Water Catchment Sanctuary (an
IBA) in the north. It comprises part of the catchment area of a
tributary of the Giri River.
The forest cover of the Sanctuary includes Himalayan Subtropical
Pine Forest, Ban Oak Forest and Moru Oak Forest, according to
the forest classification by Champion and Seth (1968). The
dominant forest tree is Ban Oak Quercus incana, mixed with Chir
Pine Pinus roxburghii at lower altitudes. Rhododendron
Rhododendron arboreum forms pure stands in places and Cedar
Cedrus deodara and Blue Pine Pinus wallichiana have been
planted in some areas. There is little mature forest, and much
secondary growth due to disturbance (Gaston and Singh 1980).
Reference to the habitat map in Garson (1983) shows that the forest
is largely confined to the northem half of the sanctuary. Around
418 ha were planted with Pine, Oak, Cedar and Robinia up to
1984 (Singh et al. 1990).
AV I FAUNA
At least 139 bird species are reported from the site (Naim Akhtar
pers. comm. 2003), including five species of pheasants, i. e. Cheer,
Koklass Pucrasia macrolopha, Kaleej Lophura Ieucamelanox,
Peafowl Pavo cristatus and Red Junglefowl Gallus gallus. While
Cheer Pheasant occurs only in grassland, Kaleej and Koklass occur
in oa.k forest.
This IBA is extremely important for the protection of the globally
threatened Cheer Pheasant. In the late 1970s, Gaston and Singh
(1980) and Gaston et al. (1981) estimated 40 to 60 pairs, while in
March 1983, Garson (1983) estimated a minimum of 32 pairs.
Sharma er al. (1990) conducted ftmher stud/eys in March 1987,
and recently Kalsi (1999) surveyed Cheer Pheasant in Himachal
Pradesh between March and June, and found many pairs in Chail.
Most recent Work on this species is by Akhtar and Narang (2002)
who found “high abundance of Cheer pheasant” in Chail. It is
widely distributed in places called Blossom and Khari-un. They
also found one more grassland site near Bhagairh village.
EA Site GAE I IN—HP—O2
$312 : Himachal Pradesh
Di§;I:id: : Solan, Shimla
Coordinates : 30° 58‘ 15″ N, 77° 13‘ 58″E
Qamuship : State
Area Z 10, S54 ha
Altitixb : 701 — 2,408 m
Eirlfzll : 1 , 603 mm
Tarperature : — 4 °C to 28 °C
Biogaograph:i.c Zone : Himalaya
Exltats : Sub Alpine Forest, Mantane Grassy
Slopes, 5ub—t;rq1ical Broad—leaf no.1
R)1:$t
“stern Himalayas) ,
Sub—t1:opi<1=rl Forest)
larch 1976
This IBA lies in the Westem Himalayas Endemic BirdArea (EBA)
(Stattersfield et al. 1998) and Sino-Himalayan Subtropical Forest
(Biome-7) and Sino-Himalayan Subtropical Forest (Biome-8)
(BirdLife International, undated). Eleven species are considered
restricted range in this EBA and in Chail WLS, only one species
(Cheer Pheasant) has been identified till now in this category.
Perhaps, more detailed studies are required here to find out whether
other restricted range species occur here or not, although habitat
and altitude look suitable for some of them.
Cntlcally Ehdangered
Oriental White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalenris
Vulnaflzle
Cheer Pheasant Cutreus wallichii
Near Thzeatensi
Red~headed Vulture Sarcogyps calvu:
Pallid Harrier (7) Circus macrourur
Endamc Bzuzd Ara 128 Western I-Lunalayas
Cheer Pheasant Calreus wallichii
Elma-7 S:|.no-Hmalayan Elhrpexalfl Ebzea
Blue-capped Redstart
Rufous Sibia
Green-backed Tit
Bar-tailed Tree Creeper
White-browed Rosefinch Carpodacus Ihura
Slaty-headed Parakeet Psi/tacula himalayana
Himalayan Bulbul Pycnonotus leucogenys
Grey-winged Blackbird Turdus baulboul
Black-headed Jay Garrulus Ianceolatus
Major species of the Sino—Himalayan Temperate Forest seen in
Chail are Himalayan Tree Creeper Certhia himalayana, Black-
capped Sibia Heterophasia capisrrala, Orange-flanked Bush Robin
Tarsiger cyunurus, Blue headed Redstart Phoenicurus
caemleocephalus, Green Backed Tit Parus monticolur, and White-
browed Rosefinch Carpndacus thura. None of them are threatened
Phoenicurus caemleacephalux
Heterophasia capistrala
Paras monticolus
Cerlhia himalayana
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Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
but they represent the Biome-7 assemblages of broadleaf deciduous
and coniferous forests. The Plain-backed Thrush Zoothera
mollissima, listed by BirdLifc Intemational (undated) in Biome»5
(Eurasian High Montane) is also seen in Chail. It is found between
2,700 to 4,000 m but winters between 900 to 2,600 m (Ali and
Ripley 1987). The birds representing Biome-8 are: Himalayan
Slaty-headed Parakeet Psfttocula himalayana. Black—throated Jay
Garrulus lanceolatus, Himalayan BulbulPycnonotus leucogenys
and Grey-winged Blackbird Turdus boulboul.
OTHER KEY FAUNA
Leopard Pantherapardus is the main predator, and has for its prey
ungulates such as Barking Deer Muntiacus rnuntjak, Sambar
Cervus unicolor and Goral Nemorhaedus goral. Goral occurs in
very good numbers in Chail as evident by the encounter rate of 7
animals/km walk (S. Sathyakumar pers. comm. 2002). The
European Red Deer Cervus elaphus was introduced more than
halfa century ago by the former Maharaja of Patiala (Singh ct al.
1990), but none were sighted during a census in 1988 (S. Pandey
pers. comm.). Other species include Asiatic Black Bear Ursus
thibetanus, Wild Boar Sus scrofiz. Common Langur Semnopithecus
entellus and Black-naped Hare Lepus nigricollis.
LAND USE
cf Nature conservation and research
ct Tourism and recreation
w Urban transport
THREATS AND CONSERVAT I ON I SSUE S
:5 Forest fires
of Livestock grazing
ct Firewood collection
w Disturbance to birds
The Sanctuary area includes more than I20 villages, and even
Chail town is located inside the Sanctuary! In addition, there are
18 private industries including sawmills inside the Sanctuary. The
surrounding area is also populated densely. Therefore, this small
Sanctuary is under tremendous human pressure due to fuelwood
Collection, livestock grazing, quarrying and other activities
unfavourable for the Sanctuary. Only 100 ha of the forest is free
from these problems. Various govemment departments such as
the Public Works Department, Himachal Pradesh Tourism
Department, Military Engineering Services, Himachal Pradesh
Forest Department and Himachal Pradesh Horticulture Department
are located within the Sanctuary.
432
Residents of Chail demand that the Sanctuary should be denotitied,
as their private land lies within the sanctuary and they are not
even able to repair their own houses due to the Indian Wildlife
(Protection) Act 1972. They say that at least their land should be
taken out of the Sanctuary.
Two pheasant breeding centers, at Karium and at Blossom, are
located within the Sanctuary where captive breeding of Cheer,
Kaleej and Red Jtmglefowl are being attempted.
KEY CONTRIBUTORS
Sanjeeva Pandey, S. Sathyakumar and Naim Akhtar
KEY REFERENCES
Akhtar, N. and Narang, M. L. (2002) Status, Distribution and Conservation
of Galliformcs in Chail Wildlife Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh.
Proceedings of National Seminar on Gallitormes. AVC College,
Mayiladuturai.
Ali, S. and Ripley, S. D. (1987) Compact Handbook o/‘the Birds oflndia
and Pakistan (Second Edition). Oxford University Press, Delhi.
BirdLife International (undated) Important Bird Areas ([BAs) in Asia.”
Project briefing book. BirdLifc International, Cambridge, U.K..
unpublished.
Champion, H. G. and Seth, S. K. (1968) A revised survey of forest types of
India, Govt. of India Press, Delhi. Pp. 403.
Garson, P. J. (I983) The cheer pheasant Catreus wallichii in Himachal
Pradesh, Westem Himalayas: an update. WPA Journal 82 Z9-39.
Gaston, A. J. and Singh, J. (1980) The status ofthe cheer pheasant Catreus
wallichii, in the Chail Wildlife Sanctuary Himachal Pradesh. WPA
Journal 5: 68—73.
Gaston, A. J., Hunter, M. L. Jr, and Garson, I’. J. (1981) The wildlife of
Himachal Pradesh, Wcstem Himalayas. University of Maine School
ofForest Resources Technical Notes No. 82. Pp 159.
Kalsi, R. S. (1999) Status and habitat of Chccr Pheasant in Himachal
Pradesh. WPA—SARO News 1(1): 2-4.
Shanna. V., Garson, P. J. and Khera, S. (1990) Status surveys ofCheer and
Westem Tragopan in Simla Hills of Himachal Pradesh. Pp 139441.
In: Pheasants in Asia [989 (eds. Hill, D. A., Garson, P. J. and Jenkins,
D.). World Pheasant Association, Reading, U.K.
Singh, S., Kothari, A. and Pande, P. (Eds) (1990) Directory ofnational
parks and sanctuaries in Himachal Pradesh: management status and
profiles. Indian Institute ofPublic Administration, New Delhi. Pp 164.
Stattersfield, A. 1., Crosby, M. J., Long, A. J. and Wege, D. C. (1998)
Endemic Bird Areas 0/’ the World.” Priorities for Biodiversity
Conservation. BirdLifc Conservation Series No. 7. BirdLifc
International, Cambridge, U.K.
| c432M432 K432 E. l

$
Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
GENERAL DESCRI PT ION
The Sanctuary gets its name from Chur Peak, on top of which sits
a majestic statue of Lord Shiva, commanding a breathtaking view
of the valleys and forests below (Singh et al. 1990). Churdhar and
the nearby temples are important pilgrimage sites, Three main
forest zones could be demarcated in Churdhar WLS: Alpine
Pastures, Kharsu Oak Forest and Western Mixed Coniferous Forest.
Forest classification is based on Champion and Seth (1968).
Plantations of Deodar Cedrus deodara, Oak Quercus sp. and other
species have been established by the Forest Department.
AV I FAUNA
No study on the avifauna has been conducted in this Sanctuary
but Singh er al. (I990) have provided a list of 30 bird species
recorded here. The IBA does not have significant populations of
any globally threatened species, but the temperate forests of
Chu.rdhar still have good habitats for the Himalayan or Impeyan
Monal Lophophorus impejanus, Koklass Pheasant Pucrasia
macrolophu and other species of Westem Mixed Coniferous Forest
and Alpine Pastures (S. Pandey pers. comm. 2002).
This site lies in the Westem Himalayas Endemic Bird Area (EBA).
In this EBA, ll Restricted Range species have been listed but as
we do not have good information on bird life, it is not known how
IBA Site 00$ Z IN—l-lP—O3
Sate : Himachal Pradesh
Disttidz : Siunaur
Cbmzdinata : 30° 50‘ 31″ N, 77° 2’7‘ 38″ E
Ownership : Smte
Area Z 5, 615 ha
Altithh : 2,000 — 3, 647 m
hiltfill : Not available
‘lkrpexat:uxe : Not: awailable
Biopographic Zone : Himalaya
I-Brlmtfl : Sub ‘Tropical Pine Forest:
Alpine l/bist Easture
many birds are found in this IBA. According to BirdLife
lntemational (undated) classification of biome, this site should
come under Biome-7 (Sino-Himalayan Temperate Forest). This
biome occurs from l,800 to 3,600 m, which is also the altitudinal
range of this IBA. BirdLife International (undated) has listed ll2
bird species that represent biome assemblages of this area. Based
on the infonnation by S. Pandey (pers. comm. 2002), only ten
species of this biome are found in this IBA.
Once detailed studies are conducted on the bird life of this
IBA, many more biome and restricted range species are likely
to be recorded. Till such studies, it is included as a Data
Deficient site.
Koklass Pheasant Pucrasia macrolopha
Himalayan Monal Lophophorus impejanus
Variegated Laughingthrush Garrulax variegalus
Chestnut-tailed Minla Minla slrigula
Spot~wingcd Crested Tit Pams melanalaphus
Brown—crested Tit Parus dichmus
Whitc~tailcd Nuthatch Sitta himalayensis
Yellow-breasted Greenfinch Carduelis spinoides
Brown Bullfinch Pyrrhula nipalensis
Red-headed Bullfinch Pyrrhula erylhrocephala
OTHER KEY FAUNA
Before relentless poaching in the 1960s and 1970s, Churdhar
had a good population ofthe Musk Deer Maschus chrysogasler,
and the Sanctuary was established primarily to protect this
species. Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjak and Goral
Nemarhaedus gnral are still surviving in comparatively good
numbers, despite some poaching. Asiatic Black Bear Ursus
thibelanus is found in the higher reaches. Leopard Pantheru
pardus is distributed all over the sanctuary, especially near
villages and settlements as it thrives on livestock and also on
Wild Boar Sus scrofa. Pika Ochotona roylei is found mostly
above 3,000 m and forms the prey base for many smaller
predators such as weasels, cats and civets.
433
£0-&H
$
ii C433M433 K433 .33. it

India — Himachal Pradesh
HP—O3
85*
7| C434M434 K434 _E€_ 7
Inportant Bird Areas in
LAND USE
q Agriculture
rt Collection of fodder, timber, fuelwood and minor forest
produce
Q Grazing
<1 Tourism and recreation
THREATS AND CONSERVATION ISSUES
rt Poaching
Lf Human settlements
Q Disturbance due to pilgrims
<5 Livestock grazing Churdhar has one of the last remaining natural forests in southem Himachal Pradesh (Singh et al. 1990). Residents have rights of habitation, agriculture, extraction of timber, fuelwood and minor 434 forest produce, livestock grazing and collection of fodder. Gujjars (nomadic graziers) are given permits for grazing and periodically bring large numbers of livestock into the Sanctuary. Entry into the Sanctuary is not regulated (Singh et al. 1990). KEY CONTRIBUTORS Shekar Singh and Sanjeeva Pandey KEY REFERENCES BirdLife International (undated) Important Bird Areas ([BA:) in Asia.” Project briefing book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K., unpublished. Champion, H, G. and Seth, S. Kt (I968) A revisedsuri/ey ofjoresl types 0/ India Govt. oflndia Press, Delhi. Pp. 403 Singh, S., Kothari, A. and Pandc, P. (Eds) (1990) Directory af national parks and sanctuaries in Hirnachal Pradesh: management status and profiles. Indian Institutc of Public Administration, New Delhi. Pp 164. 1% Inportzant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh GENERAL DESCRI PT I ON The Daranghati Sanctuary lies in Shimla district. It is composed of two segments, with villages and cultivated areas in between. The two units of the Sanctua.ry lie on either side of the Dhauladhar Range that forms part of the Middle Himalayas. Part I of the Sanctuary to the north forms the southem catchment area of the Manglad Gad. Three main rivers, including Wajadi Gad and Gharat Gad, flow northwards into Manglad Gad. Part II of the Sanctuary to the south encompasses the southem catchment area of the Nogli Gad. Main rivers flowing northwards through Part ll into the Nogli Gad include Bankdari Nala, Rigir Gad and Setlu Nala. Manglad and Nogli are eastem tributaries of the Sutlej river. There are several wooden temples in the vicinity, featuring the unique architecture of Himachal (Singh et al. 1990). Daranghati, a former hunting reserve of the Raja of Bushahr State, shows signs of degradation, but remains particularly important for pheasants, notably the Western Tragopan Tragopan melanacephalus. It also supports a variety of Himalayan ungulates (Pandey 1990; Singh et al. I990). Pandey (1995) notes five main forest types: (1) Moist Cedar Cedrus deadara forest ( l ,900 m – 3,000 m) (2) Western Mixed Coniferous Forest on northern and eastem slopes above 2,000 m, comprising Blue Pine Pinux wallichiana, Silver Fir Abies spectabilis and Spruce Picea smithiana, with Cedar on well-drained sites. (3) Moist Temperate Deciduous, (4) Kharsu Oak forest with common associates Taxus baccata, Pyrus, and Prunus, and (5) West Himalayan sub-alpine forest, with Silver Fir and some Quercus semecarpifolia, above 3,000 m. AV I FAUNA Detailed studies on birds of this site have not been conducted. Based on secondary infonnation, Singh et al. (1990) prepared a short list of birds of this Sanctuary. Species of conservation interest is the Westem Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalus. Gaston er al. (l 98 la, b), found no evidence of Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallich ii, although the species used to occur in this area (Wynter-Blyth I951). Himalayan or lmpeyan Monal Lophopharux impejanus, Koklass Pheasant Pucrasia macrolopha and Kaleej Pheasant Lophura leucomelanos are also found here. This site is selected as an IBA based on the presence of the globally threatened Western Tragopan. Pandey (1995) estimate a density IBA Si@ 00$ I IN—HP—04 SE12 : Hiniachal Pradesh Didzict : Shimla Coordinates : 31° 26‘ 01“N, 77° 49‘ 56″E Qmarship : State Area Z 16, 700 ha Altitizb : 2,100 — 3,315 m Rsinfill : 750 mm Tarperatinze ‘8 °C to 17 °C Biogeographic Zone : Himalaya I-Hzitats : Alpine l/bist: Scrub, Alpine Moist: resume, sob Tropical Broadleafl-lill, Sub—Alpine Forest Western Himalayas) rt 1962 of 1.5-birds per sq. km in winter habitat. He estimates that both pans of Daranghati WLS and the surrounding areas may support a population of 150 to 250 birds. This could be one of the most important sites for this globally threatened bird, listed as Vulnerable. It is also listed as restricted range in the Westem Himalayas Endemic Bird Area (Stattersfield er al. I998). Westem Tragopan Tragapan melnnocephalus En$nicBi_i:dArea 128: Westam Himalayas Western Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalus OTHER KEY FAUNA Daranghati WLS has almost all the representative mammals of the temperate forest and subalpine zone of Himachal Pradesh. Asiatic Black Bear Ursux fhibetanus is the largest wild camivore of the Sanctuary, mainly found above 3,000 m in summer, much lower in winter. BTCIWI1 Bear Ursus arctox is also found in the alpine and subalpine regions. Leopard Pantherapardus is the major carnivore. Wild ungulates such as Musk Deer Moschus chrysugaster, Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjak, Goral Nemorhaedus goral, Serow N. sumatraensis and Himalayan Tahr Hemitragux jemlahicus. Ibex Capra ibex and Bharal Pseudoix nayaur are reported on higher elevations. Smaller carnivores include Red Fox Vulpes vulpes, Himalayan Weasel Mustela sibirica, Yellow-throated Marten Murtes flavigula, Himalayan Palm Civet Paguma larvata and Jungle Cat F elis chaus. Not much is known about the reptile and amphibian fauna. LAND USE q Nature conservation and research q Tourism and recreation q Water management THREATS AND CONSERVATION ISSUES q Forest fires and firewood collection q Poaching q Grazing q Disturbance to birds q Human settlements 435 l C435M435 K435 _EE_ l I $ I Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh Like most of the sanctuaries in Himachal Pradesh, Daranghati WLS has a large human population residing in and around the Sanctuary. Villagers have rights of fuelwood and minor forest produce collection, and livestock grazing. Two villages exist inside the Sanctuary and the peripheral areas have 26 villages. Nomadic Gujjars have grazing permits. Poaching is not uncommon, especially of ungulates and pheasants. There is a need to link both parts of the Sanctuary and further enlarge the area so ecologically viable area could be provided for the protection of Westem Tragopan (Pandey 1990, I995). Regular monitoring of bird populations should also be undertaken. KEY CONTRIBUTOR Sanjeeva Pandey KEY REFERENCES Gaston, A. J., Hunter, M. L. Jr. and Garson, P. J. (cds.) (198la) The V!/ildli/’11 of Himachal Pradesh, Western Himalayas. University of Maine School ofForcst Resources Technical Notes No. 82. Pp. 159. 436 C436M436 K436 Cvast0n,A. J. Garson, P. J. and Hunter, M. L. Jr (l98lb) Present distribution and status ofpheasants in l-Iimachal Pradesh, Westem Himalayas. WPA Journal 6: IO-30. Pandey, S. (I 990) Management plan ofDaranghati Sanctuary (l 990-I 991 to I994-1995). Department ot‘F0rest Farming and Conservation, Simla. Pandcy, S. (I995) Aprcliminary estimate ofnumbcrs ofwestem Tragopan in Daranghati Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh. Ann. Rev WPA 1993/94: 49—56. Singh, S., Kothari, A. and Pande, P. (Eds) (1990) Directory q/”national parks and sanctuaries in Himachal Pradesh: management status andprofiles. Indian Institute ofPublic Administration, New Delhi. Pp 104. Stattersfield, A. 1., Crosby, M. J., Long, A. J. and Wege, D. C. (1998) Endemic Bird Areas of the World.” Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 7. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K. Wynter-Blyth, M. A, (1951) A naturalist in the Northwest Himalaya. J Bombay Nat. Hist. Sac. 50: 344-354. H3“ 5% m Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh GENERAL DESCRI PT ION The Dhauladhar Wildlife Sanctuary is an area of high altitude forests, not yet exactly defined, but to be demarcated between Nurpur and Jogindernagar, in Himachal Pradesh. The Sanctuary and the surrounding Reserved Forests have been identified as an IBA. The forested region at the foot of the Dhauladhar between 700 and 1,400 m, around Sarah below Dharamshala should also be included in this IBA as many species from the higher zones winter in these forests. Thus a contiguous area from the base to the higher altitudes in Dhauladhar Range could be considered as an IBA. Oak and Rhododendron forests are interspersed with grassy slopes and meadows in this IBA. Above the tree line alpine meadows and rocky mountains dominate, covered in snow for much of the year. In the reserved forests on the lower reaches of Dhauladhar. Deodar Cedrus deodara is dominant, while below 1,600 m large areas have been planted with Pine trees. Other parts of this zone have good examples of Oak forest. AV I FAUNA The Dhauladhar range, at elevation between l,600 and 4,400 m, is rich in mountain birds of Biome-5, Biome-7 and Biome-8. The Himalayan or Impeyan Monal Laphophorus impejanus, Koklass Pheasant Pucrasia macrolopha, Kaleej Pheasant Lophura leucomelana and Hill Partridge Arbomphfla torqueola are common breeders in considerable pans of the area, while Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii, Chukar Partridge Alectoris chukar, Snow Partridge Lerwu lerwa and Himalayan Snowcock Tetraogallus himalayensis occur in smaller numbers in more restricted habitats. (J. W. den Besten pers. cumm. 2003). Hunters in the area claim that the Western Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalus still occurs, on undisturbed slopes further from McLeod Gunj (pers. comm. to J. W. den Besten by Prem Sagar and Arvind Dharma 2003). Raptors are remarkably common in the area, with 36 species recorded. Among the breeding species are the Booted Eagle Hieraaetus pennatus, Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos. Lammergeier Gypaetus barbatus, Crested Serpent Eagle Spilornis cheela, Long-legged Buzzard Buteu rufinus, White- eyed Buzzard Butatur teesa, and Eurasian Hobby Falco subbuteo. Possible breeders include the Common Kestrel Falco — IBA Site Goth : State : Dist:I:id: : Chmzdinahes : 32° 15‘ O0″ N, 76° 19‘ 00″ E Ownership : Smte Area Z 94, 398 ha Altitixh : 1,600 — 4,400 rn hirifill : 2,000—3,000mm lkrpexatuxe : Not: awailable Biopographic Zone : I-Bimw : Alpine I/bist: Scrub, Alpine Moist: Pasture, Himalayan Wet Tenperate IN—HP—O5 Himachal Pradesh Kangra Himalaya Western Himalayas) camber 1994 tinnunculus, Mountain Hawk-eagle Spizaetus nipalensis and Eurasian Sparrow-hawk Accipiter nisus. Globally threatened (BirdLife International 2001) species such as Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca, Greater Spotted Eagle A. clanga and Lesser (Indian) Spotted Eagle A. pomarina have been observed in the area, while Oriental White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis is still fairly common in the lower areas and with small numbers of Red-headed Vultures or King Vulture Sarcagyps calvus and wintering Cinereous Vultures Aegypius monachus. The Restricted Range species include Tytler‘s Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus tytleri, Solitary Snipe Gallinago solitaria and Spectacled Finch Callacanthis burtoni (J. W. den Besten pen comm. 2003). This is one of the very few sites where the globally threatened Wood Snipe Gallinago nemnricola has been reported. There is a specimen in the British Museum (Natural History) of this bird collected in October I869 (BirdLife International 2001). The Wood Snipe had always been an uncommon bird. Now, it has a small declining population, as a result of habitat loss and hunting. IBA sites such as Dhauladhar can play an important role in the conservation of this species. Oriental White~backed Vulture Gyps bengaleruix Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga Eastem Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca Westem Tragopan (7) Tragopan melanocephalus Cheer Pheasant Catreux wallichii Wood Snipe Gallinago nemoricola Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus Red-headed Vulture Sarcogyps calvur Ehdanic Bird Area 128: Western Himalayas Westem Tragopan (‘7) Tragapan melanocephalus Chccr Pheasant Catreus wallichii Tytler’s Leaf-Warbler Phyllnscopus tytleri Spectacled Finch Callacanlhis burloni 437 4 B _ SO-&H Ti C437M43’I K437 _EE_ IT _| $ \_ HP—O5 ‘EB Inportant Bird Areas in India — Hitrachal Pradesh This large IBA lies in the Western Himalayas Endemic Bird Area (EBA), (Stattersfield el al. 1998) and has four out of l1 Restricted Range species. BirdLife International (undated) has classified biomes based on forest types and bird assemblages (A3 criteria). This site lies in Biome-7 (Sino-Himalayan Temperate Forest). 112 birds are listed in this biome, whose distributions are largely or wholly confined to this biome. With its extensive and largely intact forest cover, Dhauladhar WLS and reserve forests is perhaps one of the best examples of Biome-7. Based on extensive survey, J. W. den Besten Qzers. comm. 2003) has listed 51 species ofBiome- 7 from this site. He found 15 out of48 species ofBiome-5 (Eurasian High Montane»Alpine a.nd Tibetan), mainly in winter when the birds came down. As Biome-7 and Biome-8 (Sino-Himalayan Subtropical Forest) intergrade and many species show altitudinal movement, 10 species of Biome—8 are also found in this site. OTHER KEY FAUNA The following mammals have recently been reported in and around the Wildlife Sanctuary: Leopard Panthera pardus, Goral Nemorhaedus goral, Barking Deer Muntiacus munijak, Toddy Cat Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, Himalayan Yellow-throated Marten Martesflavigula, Himalayan Weasel Mustela sibirica, Himalayan Mouse-Hare Ochotona roylei, Black-naped Hare Lepus nigricollis, Indian Porcupine Hysti-ix indica, Red Flying squirrel Petaurista pelaurixta, Common Langur Semnopithecus entellus, Red Fox Vulpes vulpes, Jackal Canis aureus, Asiatic Black Bear Ursus lhibelanux (J. W. den Besten pen comm. 2003). Also reported in Forest Department circulars are the Leopard Cat Prionailurus bengalensis, Jungle Cat Felix chaus, Brown Bear Ursus arctos, Himalayan Tahr Hemitragusjemlahicus, Ibex Capra sibiriea, Serow Nemorhaedus sumatraensis, Blue Sheep Pseudois nayaur and Snow Leopard Uncia uncia. 43a 7| c43sn43s K438 E if LAND USE 11 Tourism and recreation THREATS AND CONSERVATION ISSUES Btuning of vegetation and firewood collection Grazing 4:uu_;2 Tourism \1 Poaching While the Sanctuary extends over a large area above Dharamshala, it is influenced by the expanding Dharamshala/tourist activites at the McLeod Gunj. While construction of hotels and other buildings always takes place outside the protected area, there is some construction on private land, and also the threat of road construction up to Triund at 2,900 m, and possibly a cable track to the same. While pollution directly around the tourist centre at 1,900 m is severe, notably from solid waste and sewage, the impact of littering extends into the mountains and into the Sanctuary because ofthe large numbers of trekkers and visitors. Forest fires are bound to increase with the rise in numbers of people camping, trekking and walking through the area. Tea stalls set up in small plots of private land in and around the Sanctuary often use wood for cooking and therefore add to deforestation, besides littering the area. However, the presence of tourists may help to reduee the number of poachers in the area. Collection of branches and dry wood has some impact at all levels, but at higher reaches where the production of biomass is slow because of the climate, trimming of trees is extremely detrimental. Damaged trees die quickly. Pastures such as at Ilaka, where large numbers of lierders gather on their way to and from the pastures beyond the Dhauladhar, have experienced a slow and steady decline of tree eover right at the tree-line. (J. W. den Besten pers. comm. 2003). KEY CONTRIBUTOR Jan Willem den Besten KEY REFERENCES BirdLife Intcmational (undated) Important Bird Areas (1BAs) in Asia.” Pmjecl briefing booki BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K., unpublished. BirdLife International (2001) Threalened Birds 0/Asia: The BirdLife International Red Dara Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K. Stattcrsfield, A. .I., Crosby, M. J., Long, A. J. and Wcge, D. C. (1998) Endemic Bird Areas of the World.” Pri0rilie.§’f0r Biodiversity Conservation. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 7. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K. tr Inporrant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh GENERAL DESCRI PTION This high altitude Sanctuary lies in the Chamba district in northwestern Himachal Pradesh. Its northern boundary adjoins the Doda district oflammu and Kashmir. The Siul nullah flows along the western boundary of the Sanctuary and the nearest largest town is Bhandal. This is the only Sanctuary in Himachal Pradesh where Hangul or Kashmir Stag Cervus elaphus hanglu, a very rare species, was reported, but there have been no recent records. Based on the classification by Champion and Seth (1968), three main forest types have been identified by Singh el al. (1990). These are Alpine Pastures above 3,000 m, Westem Mixed Coniferous Forest and Moist Deodar Forest. The Forest Department has planted Deodar Cedrus deodara, Pine Pinus wallichiana and other species for commercial purposes. They have even also introduced Poplar Populus sp. AV I FAUNA Singh et al. (I990) provide a preliminary list of I00 bird species from the Sanctuary, which includes four species of pheasants, including the two globally threatened species (Western Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalus and Cheer Pheasant Catreur wallichii) and two comparatively common ones (Himalayan or Impeyan Monal Lophophorus impejanus and Koklass Pucrasia macrolopha). Gamgul Siahbehi WLS lies in an area, which is classified as the Western Himalayas Endemic Bird Area (EBA) by Stattersfield et al. (1998). In this EBA, ll restricted range species have been listed but as we do not have good information on the bird life, it is not known how many birds are found in this IBA. Only two restricted range species could be identified, i.e. Westem Tragopan and Cheer Pheasant. According to BirdLife Intemational (undated) classification of biome, this site should come under Biome-7 (Sino—Himalayan Temperate Forest). This biome occurs from 1,800 to 3,600 m, which is also the altitudinal range of this IBA. The BirdLife Intemational (undated) has listed 112 bird species that represent biome assemblages of this area. Based on the information by S. Pandey (pers. comm. 2002) and Sondhi and Sondhi (1998), only 13 species of this biome are found in this IBA. UARY i SUB 00$ I IN—l-lP-06 State : Hirrrachal Pradesh Di§:I:id: : Chamba Coordinates : 32“ 51′ 23″ N, 76° 00’ 12″ E Owmurslaip : Sate Area 1 10, 885 ha Altitré : 1,800 — 3, 919m Einfill : 1 , 1 4 3 mm ‘1‘erpe:atu:e . -10 °c to 35 °c fi Zone : Himalaya I’HIl.\2\S 2 Stakrtxqzioal Pine Forest, I/bntane Grassy Slqles, Sulcrtrqnical Broad-Leaflrljll Fbrwt Western Himalayas) n 1 962 Although this site is small (only 10,885 ha), due to its altitudinal variation and varied habitats, it is an important protected area for the conservation ofglobally threatened pheasants and many high altitude forest birds. Detailed studies on the bird life are urgently required to know the density and abundance of various species. Westem Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalus Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii Encknic Bird Azaa 128: Western Himalayas Westem Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalus Cheer Pheasant Catreux wallichii OTHER KEY FAUNA Prior to Independence, more than 50 years ago, the Hangul could be seen throughout the year but more commonly during rutting time in October, above 3,000 m (Mukherjee and Mahajan 1978). They were never numerous in Himachal, probably not more than 25 individuals, but now even these are not seen, due to poaching in the early 1950s and 19605. Their population in Jammu and Kashmir has also declined, so there is little hope of these mammals coming to Himachal from there. Fortunately, the Sanctuary still has other fauna typical of the high altitude temperate forests and alpine pastures, albeit in small numbers. The important species found in this IBA are Ibex Capra ibex, Musk Deer Maschus chrysugaster, Serow Nemurhaedus sumatraensis, Himalayan Tahr Hemilragusjemlahicus and Goral Nemorhaedus goral. Asiatic Black Bear Ursus thibetanus and Brown Bear Ursus arctos are also found, the later mainly in the alpine pastures. At lower elevations, Leopard Panthera pardur is the main large predator. It also kills livestock, so man-animal conflict is common. Smaller predators include the Red Fox Vulpex vulpes, Himalayan Weasel Mustela sibirica, Jungle Cat Felis chaus, Golden Jackal Crznis aureus, Yellow-throated Marten Marterflavigula and Himalayan Palm Civet Paguma Zarvata is common in the alpine areas, Barking Deer or Indian Muntjak Muntiacus muntjak, Indian Porcupine Hystrix indica and Common Giant Flying Squirrel Petaurista petaurista are mostly found below 3,000 m in forested areas. 439 l C439M439 K439 .33. l 19% Important Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh LAND USE 0; Nature conservation and research q Tourism and recreation O_, Urban transport q Human settlement THREATS AND CONSERVATION ISSUES q Forest fires q Grazing q Firewood collection 0; Disturbance to birds The Sanctuary is under severe anthropogenic pressure. Three villages are located inside the Sanctuary and many on the border. Livestock grazing, fuelwood collection and timber extraction have great negative impact on the vegetation. In order to get fresh grass for livestock, villagers start fires, which sometimes go out of control. Poaching is not uncommon, especially of pheasants and ungulates. 440 KEY CONTRIBUTOR Sanjceva Pandey KEY REFERENCES BirdLife International (undated) Important Bird Areas (IBAS) in Asia.” Project brie/ing book. BirdLifc International, Cambridge, U.I(., unpublished. Champion and Seth (1968) A revised survey of the forest types of India. Govt. oflndia Press, Delhi. Pp. 403. Mukheijee, R. N. and Mahajan, K. K. (1978) Gamugal Siya-Behi Sanctuary, Himachal Pradcsh. Cheetal. 20(1): 41—43. Singh, 5., Kothari, A. and Pande, P. (Eds) (I990) Directory ofnational parks and sanctuaries in Himachal Pradesh: management status and profiles. Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi. Pp 164. Sondhi, S. and Sondhi, A. (1 998) Trip Report: Gangul Siahbehi Sanctuary. Unpublished. Stattcrsficld, A. J., Crosby, M. J., Long, A. J. and Wcgc, D. C. (I998) Endemic Bird Areas of the World: Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation. BirdLifc Conservation Scrics No. 7. BirdLifc Intemationa], Cambridge, U.K. 85* 55‘ | c440ivi44o K440 _$_ i Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh GENERAL DESCRI PTION Gobind Sagar (10,034 ha) is situated in Bilaspur and Mandi districts, and Naina Devi (12,300 ha) in Bilaspur district of Himachal Pradesh. As the sanctuaries are located in the Lower Shiwaliks, floral and faunal afflnities are close to Dry Deciduous Forests of the northern plains (Singh et al. 1990). Gobind Sagar, as the name indicates, is a water reservoir formed by the construction of the Bhakra Dam in the early 1950s on the Sutlej River. The reservoir attracts thousands of waterfowl, while the adjoining forests of Naina Devi Sanctuary represent many Biome- 8 species. These two sanctuaries are treated as one IBA due to their proximity. Forest types on the periphery of Gobind Sagar include Northern Dry Mixed Deciduous. In Naina Devi there are northem Dry Mixed Deciduous Forests (3,000 ha) and Chir Pine (1,550 ha). There are also some dry bamboo brakes. Commercial plantations of Chir and Acacia were established in Naina Devi over 1,427 ha between 1979 and 1984. Eucalyptus has also been introduced (Singh et 111. 1990). AV I FAUNA The avifauna is poorly recorded but Singh et al. (1990) provided a preliminary list of 15 bird species. As the forest is still intact in places, and the large wetland attracts numerous Waterfowl, funher surveys would yield at least ten times more species than the present record. Presently, we know of only two globally threatened species occurring here. More research is required to find out the total number of waterfowl and species-wise abundance and populations. Till such time, this site is considered as Data Deficient as far as bird infonnation is concerned. Cicitizrally Ehiarxprml Oriental White~backcd Vulture Gyps bengalensis Slender-billed Vulture Gyps tenuimslris C441M441 K441 IBA SUB 00$ I IN—HP—07 SEE : Himachal Pradesh Distdd: : Bilaspur, Mandi Oootdinates : 31° 22‘ 39″ N, 76° 44‘ 48″E Ownership : Shite Area : 22, 334 ha A‘|.ti1::b : 350 — l, 019 m kirifall : 1 , 155 mm Tarpezatuze -2 °c to 45 °c Biogaographic Zone : Semi—Arid mums : Reservoir and Dry Mixed Deciduous Forest OTHER KEY FAUNA Almost all the representative large mammalian species of subtropical forests of the Lower Himalayas are found here, except for Tiger Panther/a tigris, which became locally extinct due to hunting. LAND USE q Agriculture q Aquaculture/fisheries q Nature conservation and research THREATS AND CONSERVATION ISSUES Grazing Collection of timber, fuelwood, forest products, Extraction of fodder Disturbance due to religious activities Water pollution ,_Q>Q>Q»£l>Q>Q
Human habitations
The local people have rights or leases for grazing, collection of
timber, fuelwood and minor forest produce, fodder extraction, and
religious activities. The Bhakra Management Board has control
over the Gobind Sagar Sanctuary. The Public Works Department
has control over the 20 km stretch of road inside Naina Devi
Sanctuary (Singh et ul. 1990). Therefore, this IBA is highly
disturbed.
KEY CONTRIBUTOR
Sanjeeva Pandey
KEY REFERENCES
Singh, S., Kothari, A. and Pandc, P. (Eds) (1990) Directory of national
parks and sane/uaries in Himachal Pradesh: management slams and
profiles. Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi. Pp 164.
441
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I JEB
Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
GENERAL DESCRI PTION
The sprawling Great Himalayan National Park in Kullu district
has relatively undisturbed areas which support diverse Himalayan
wildlife. The Park lies in the upper catchment area of the Tirthan,
Sainj and Jiwa rivers, which flow westwards and feed the Beas
river, The Park includes parts of Tirthan Sanctuary, and is bordered
by the Pin Valley National Park in the northeast, Kanawar
Sanctuary in the northwest, and Rupi Bhabha Sanctuary in the
east (all of them IBAs). These constitute Himachal Pradesh‘s largest
protected area with regard to wildlife. The eastem part of the Park
lies above the snowline, and has glaciers and permanent ice.
Based on the forest classification by Champion and Seth (1968), 14
forest types could be identified in Great Himalayan NP. In brief,
about a third of the Park supports undisturbed forest, mainly around
Jiva, Sainj and Tirthan nullah (streams) and their tributaries,
extending from the base of the valley to 3,300 m, depending upon
the aspect (Anon. 1997). A little over half of the Park area lies above
4,000 m, forming alpine meadows, particularly on the south side of
Sainj Valley above Shangarh and at Dela Thach, above Lopah. The
vegetation of Tirthan Valley has the northern aspects clothed in dense
forest, dominated by Blue Pine Pinus wallichiana. and higher up
by a diverse Deciduous Broadleaf Forest on moderately sloping
areas and Fir Abies pindrow on steep areas. Tirthan Valley, between
Bandal and Rolla, also supports small areas of Oak forest (Quercus
sp. and Q. incana). The southerly aspects are generally more open;
stands of Cedar Cedrus deodara are interspersed with grassy and
shrub-clad hillsides, with a zone of Kharsu Oak Q. semecarpzfolia
forest above 2,800 m. There is a stand of Yew Taxus baccata near
Manjhan village in Jiwa Valley. This species is under constant threat
due to its valuable medicinal properties.
AVIFAUNA
The area is particularly noted for its prolific pheasant populations.
The Park is home to over 300 species of birds (Gaston er al. 1994),
an excellent representation of West Himalayan avifauna. The
Himalayan Monal Lophophorus impejanus, Koklass Pheasant
Pucrasia macrolopha, Kaleej Pheasant Laphum Ieucamelanos and
Hill Partridge Arborophila torqueala are common, while Cheer
Pheasant Catreus wallichii and the Westem Tragopan Tragopan
melanocephalus have more restricted ranges. Chukar Partridge
Alectoris chukar, Snow Panridge Lerwa lerwa and Himalayan
442
IBA Sitfl Cbé Z IN—HP—08
State : Himachal Pradesh
Distzit : Kullu
Ooowdirats : 31° 44‘ 14″ N, 77° 32′ 34″ E
Ownership : State
A293 : 75, 400 ha
Altitrfi 1 1, 500 — 5,805 rrr
Einfill : l , 5 O0 mm
Terpezatuze = -5 °c to 30 °c
c Zone : Himalaya
I’E’it3\$ : Sub—Alpj_ne Dry Scrub, Alpine mist:
Eastmce, 5ub—t1rpical Bmed—leaf ran
R)r:$t
Western Himalayas)
1 9 62
Snowcock Tetraogallus himalayensis occur in suitable habitats
all over the Park. This IBA site could be the most important site in
Himachal Pradesh as far as Gallifonn conservation is concemed.
Ramesh er al. (1999) studied pheasants in this Park during 1997-
1999 and reported encounter rates (Number of birds per km walk)
for Himalayan Monal (range l.5 to 3.9), Western Tragopan (0 to
0.4) and Koklass Pheasant (0.3 to l.4).
This sprawling Park, and the adjoining IBA has the largest intact
Montane Broadleaf Deciduous Forests and Mixed Broadleaf
Coniferous Forests left in the Western Himalayas. BirdLife
Intemational (undated) has identified various biome-restricted bird
assemblages. In this IBA, the main biome is Sino-Himalayan
Temperate Forest (Biome—7), between 1,800 m to 3,600 m but on
the higher reaches, above 3,600 m, Eurasian High Montane (Alpine
and Tibetan) bird fauna is seen (Biome-5), while below 2,000 m,
in the Sino-Himalayan Subtropical Forest (Biome-8), many
subtropical bird assemblages are found. As expected, the largest
number of bird species are from Biome-7. BirdLife Intemational
(undated) has listed ll2 species, out of which 50 have been
identified till now. Forty»eight birds are listed for Biome-5. This
site has 12 of them. As the area is remote, perhaps more than double
the known number would be present, if detailed surveys are
conducted. Eleven out of 95 species of Biome-8 could be located
till now. More are likely to be found.
This large IBA lies in the Westem Himalayas Endemic Bird Area
(EBA), (Stattersfield et al. 1998) and has five out of ll restricted
range species. Looking at the undisturbed habitat available, some
restricted range species would have considerable percentage of
their numbers in this IBA alone.
Westem Tragopan Tragopan melnnocephalur
Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii
Western Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalur
Chccr Pheasant
White-cheeked Tit
White-throared Tit
Spectacled Finch
Orange Bullfinch
Catreus wallichii
Aegithalos Ieucvgenys
Aegithalos niveogulrzris
Callacanthis burtoni
Pyrrhula auranliaca
l C442M442 K442 _EE_ l

Inportzant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
Mn:et:‘r1an30Ospa:ie;sofbixdsa;ez@ort-adfrcrn
t:’neG:eat:HinalayanNP.
OTHER KEY FAUNA
The Park has almost all the representative mammalian fauna of
the Western Himalayas. Among primates, both Rhesus Macaque
Macaca mulatta and Langur Semnopithecus entellus are present.
Camivores such as Leopard Panthera pardus and both Asiatic
Black Bear Ursus thibetanus and Brown Bear Ursus arctos are
commonly encountered. Himalayan Tahr Hernitragusjemlahicus
and Goral Nemorhaedus goral occur in good numbers, and Barking
Deer Indian Muntjak Muntiacus muntjak and Serow Nemorhaedus
snmatraensis in Smaller numbers. Himalayan Musk Deer Moschus
chrysogaster has been recorded in Tirthan and Sainj valley (Gaston
et al. 1981; S. Sathyakumarpers. comm. 2003). Bharal Pseudois
nayaur is also found in the upper reaches of Tirthan and Sainj
valleys (Fox 1987; Vinod and Sathyakumar 1999).
LAND USE
q Nature conservation and research
q Tourism and recreation
q Water management
THREATS AND CONSERVATION ISSUES
q Forest fires
q Construction of dams
q Grazing
q Firewood collection
Despite its large size and protected status, the Great Himalayan
NP is not free from human disturbances. There are 4 villages and
numerous settlements inside the Park, and 75 villages in the buffer
zone. Villagers have the right to graze livestock, collect timber,
fuelwood, herbs and other minor forest produce. Nomadic graziers
can get pennits to graze their livestock. In order to promote the
growth of new grass, graziers start fires, which sometimes go out
of control.
Some poaching is known to occur, and a few cases have been
registered. The locals are known to deliberately start fires in the
forest area to catch escaping animals.
However, the greatest and irreversible threat to the Park comes
from clenotifieation of certain areas for development projects. On
the pretext of settlement of people’s rights, 1,060 ha of Jiwanal
Valley was denotified in May 1999. The real reason was to make
way for a hydroelectric project. The Deodar-dominated forest of
this valley is extremely important for the Western Tragopan.
Brushing aside all protests from conservationists, the Prime
Minister himself laid the foundation stone of the Project.
KEY CONTRIBUTORS
Sanjeeva Pandey, S. Sathyakumar and K. Ramesh
KEY REFERENCES
Anonymous (1997) Great Himalayan National Park: A Profile. Department
of Forest Farming and Conservation (Wildlife Wing), Pp. 33.
BirdLife International (undated) Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in Asia.”
Project briefing book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.,
unpublished.
Champion and Seth (1968) A revised survey of the forest types of India,
Govt. oflndia Press, Delhi. Pp. 403.
Fox, J. L. (1987) Caprini of northwestcm India. Caprinaa News 2(1): 6—8.
Gaston, A. J., Hunter, M.L. .Ir and Garson, P.J. (1981) The wildlife of
Himachal Pradcsh, Westcm Himalayas. University o_/”Maine School
ofForest Resources Technical Notes No. 82. Pp 159.
Gaston, A. J., Garson, P. J. and Pandcy, S. (1994) Birds recorded in the
Great Himalayan National Park. Forktail 9: 45-57.
Ramcsh, K. and Sathyakumar, S. and Rawat, G. S. (1999) Ecology and
Conservation Status of the Pheasants of Great Himalayan National
Park, Western Himalayas. In: Ecological Study of the Conservation
of Biodiversity and Biotic Pressures in the Great Himalayan National
Park Conservation Area — An Ecodevclopment Approach. Final Rcpon.
Vol. III. Wildlife Institute of India, Dehra Dun.
Stattersficld, A. J., Crosby, M. J., Long, A. J. and Wege, D. C. (1998)
Endemic Bird Areas of the World: Priorities for Biodiversity
Conservation. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 7. BirdLife
Intemational, Cambridge, UK.
Vinod, T. R. and Sathyakumar, S. (1999) Ecology and Conservation of
Mountain Ungulales in Great Himalayan National Park, Western
Himalayas. In: An Ecological Study of the Conservation of
Biodiversity and Biotic Pressures in the Great Himalayan National
Park Conservation Area — An Ecodevelopment Approach. Final Report.
Vol. III. Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun.
443
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as
Tl
Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
GENERAL DESCRI PT ION
The Kais Wildlife Sanctuary, lies in the Kullu district of
I-Iimachal Pradesh. This small (1,419 ha) high altitude sanctuary
includes parts of the catchment of the Kais Nala, an important
tributary of the River Beas. It was declared mainly to protect
the Musk Deer Maschus chrysogaster and pheasants, in 1954
under the then Punjab Wild Birds and Wild Animals Protection
Act, 1933.
There is a lack of published information on the vegetation of Kais
WLS. It is estimated that 1,174 ha of the Sanctuary is forested. Fir
Abies pindrow and Spruce Picea smithiana, with some Oak
Quercus semecarpifblia, Maple Acer sp., Poplar Populus sp.,
Walnut ./uglans regia and Cedar Cedrus deodara, predominate at
lower altitudes, while the alpine zone bears Birch Betula utilis
and Rhododendron scrub forest.
AV I FAUNA
Practically no work has been done on the avifauna of this
Sanctuary, although there is some information on the pheasants,
for which it is famous. The globally threatened Westem Tragopan
Tragopan melanocephalus and Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii
are reported to be present (Singh et al. 1990). The more common
species include Himalayan Monal Lophupharus impejanus,
Kaleej Pheasant Lophura leucomelana and Koklass pheasant
Pucrasia macrolapha. The Chukar Partridge Alectoris chukar is
also present. This site is designated an IBA based on the presence
oftwo threatened pheasant species. Checklist ofthe birds of this
site is not available so we do not know how many restricted range
and biome species are found here. This site is considered as
Data Deficient.
Western Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalus
Cheer Pheasant Carreus wallichii
Endenic Biz\:iArea 128: Western 1-Iimalayas
Westem Tragopan Tragopan melanacephalus
Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii
444
IBA Site (3% I IN—HP—09
Stale : Himachal Pradesh
Disttid: : Kullu
Coumdizutes : 32° 02′ O6″ N, 77’ 11’ 42″ E
Ownership : State
ME : 1, 419 ha
Altituh : 2,800 — 3, 680 m
kinfall : 1 , O ‘7 1 mm
Tanpetatuze = -5 °c to 30 °c
c Zone : Himalaya
I-%i.m\s : Sub—t’_ropical Pine Forest, 1\/bntz-me
Grassy Slopes, Alpine Ivbist Pasture
Western Himalayas)
ruary 1954
OTHER KEY FAUNA
Musk Deer is the most famous mammal of this Sanctuary, but its
population has declined drastically due to poaching for its musk
pod. Brown Bear Ursus arctos is seen in the subalpine and alpine
areas, While Asiatic Black Bear Ursus Ihibetanus is found at lower
altitudes. Himalayan Tahr Hemitragusjemlahicus, Barking Deer
or Indian Muntjak Munliacus munrjak and Goral Nemorhaedus
goral are the major wild ungulates that have to share the limited
resources of the area with a large number of domestic animals.
Leopard Panthera pardus is sometimes found very close to villages
and settlements in search of easy prey. Not much is known about
the lesser camivores of the Sanctuary.
LAND USE
q Nature conservation and research
q Tourism and recreation
q Water management
THREATS AND CONSERVATION ISSUES
q Buming of vegetation
q Grazing
q Firewood collection
There are no villages inside the Sanctuary though there are many
villages around it. Local inhabitants have the right to graze domestic
animals, collect fuelwood, medicinal plants and minor forest
produce. A shrine located inside the Sanctuary attracts many pilgrims
every year. The Forest Depanment issues permits to nomadic graziers
to graze their livestock inside the Sanctuary. There is a road inside
the Sanctuary, under the control of the Public Works Department.
KEY CONTRIBUTOR
Sanjeeva Pandey
KEY REFERENCE
Singh, S., Kothari, A. and Pandc, P. (Eds) (1990) Directory of national
parlcr and sanctuaries in Himachal Pradesh: management status and
profiles. Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi. Pp 164.
C444M444 K444 _EE_

Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
GENERAL DESCRI PTION
The Sanctuary lies in the catchment area of the Beas River, and
contains patches of good coniferous and Oak Forests. Khajjiar is
a meadow, with a small lake in the centre, which is apopular tourist
spot. The Sanctuary is drained by several tributaries of the Ravi
River, which lies just north of it. The golden domed temple at the
edge of this meadow is also situated inside the Sanctuary. The
terrain is steep to very steep, with many rocky clifis, good for
Himalayan Tahr Hemitragusjemluhicus and Ibex Capra sibirica.
Most of the Sanctuary is forested, the main forest types being Ban
Oak Quercus incana, Cedar Cedrus dendara and Westem Mixed
Coniferous, interspersed with alpine pasture (Department of Forest
Farming and Conservation 1984). Cedar and Blue Pine Pinus
wallichiana are predominant in lower altitude coniferous forest,
and mixed with some Moru Oak Quercus dilatata and
Rhododendron Rhododendron arboreum.
AV I FAUNA
Some 117 species ofbirds were recorded by Gaston et al. (l98la)
in the Ravi Valley, including the Dalhousie-Chamba area.
Published information specific to Kalatop-Khajjiar is limited to
pheasants. Koklass Pheasant Pucrasia macrulopha and Kaleej
Pheasant Lophura leucomelanos are common. One or two Cheer
UARY
IE Sit: Oak :
State :
Distzidz :
Cbzmdi.nat:es : 32° 33‘ 36″ N, 76° Ol‘ 11″E
Ownership : Sate
Anea : 6,100 ha
Altithh : l,15B—2,’/68m
finfill : 2, 647 mm
Tatperatiaze : -10 °C to 35 “C
E c Zorn : Himalaya
I-aims 1 Sub Alpine Fbn-st, Stb-tmpical
Broad—leaved Hill Forest,
Alpine Moist; Pasture
IN~HP“lO
Himachal Pradesh
C hamba
Western I-limalayas)
n 1 95 8
Pheasant Catreus wallichii were heard calling at Khajjar in
November 1978, and January 1979 (Gaston et al. l98lb). The
Himalayan Monal Lophophorus impejanus reportedly visits the
site in winter (Gaston er al. 1981a, 1981b). Thakur er al. (2002)
have reported 66 bird species but there would be many more.
Practically no work has been done on the avifauna, so this site can
be considered as Data Deficient.
Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii
Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus
Endanic Bird Area 128: Western I-limalayas
Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii
OTHER KEY FAUNA
Almost all mammals of the high altitude areas of Himachal Pradesh
are known to occur in Kalatop-Khajjair Sanctuary but their status
and population structure is not known. Serow Nemorhaedus
sumatraensis is considered fairly common. Goral Nemorhaedus
goral is also seen at slightly lower elevations, with Indian Muntjak
Muntiacus mun{/‘ak and Leopard Panthera pardus.
LAND USE
q Agriculture
q Nature conservation and research
q Tourism and recreation
THREATS AND CONSERVATION ISSUES
Forest fire
Livestock grazing
Tourism
q Firewood collection, charcoal production
QQQ
Kalatop-Khajjair WLS suffers from a long litany of problems, all
related to man. Grazing, collection of fuelwood and minor forest
produce are pemtitted under the rights given to villagers. Medicinal
plants are collected from all over the Sanctuary, wherever an
intrepid villager can reach. Fifteen villages exist inside the
Sanctuary, and 35 surrounding it. Their collective impact on the
445
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HP—10
Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
fragile ecosystem can be imagined. The law allows even charcoal
production, a major destructive activity, Migratory graziers are
issued pennits. Trekking camps are regularly organised. Parts of
the Sanctuary are used for roads, housing, and tree nurseries by
various govemment departments (Singh er al. 1990).
KEY CONTRIBUTORS
Sanjeeva Pandey, S. Sathyakumar and Murari Thakur
KEY REFERENCES
Department of Forest Farming and Conservation (1984) Scheme for
intensive management of Kalatop-Khajjiar Wildlife Sanctuary 1984-
85 to 1988—89. Department of Forest Fanning and Conservation,
Govemment ot’Himacl1al Pradesh.
446
Gaston, A. J., Hunter, M. L. Jr. and Garson, P.J. (1981a) The wildlife of
Himachal Pradesh, Westem Himalayas. University of Maine School
ofForest Resources Technical Notes N0. 82. Pp. 159 pp.
Gaston, A, J. Garson, P. J. and Hunter, M, L. Jr (1 98 lb) Present distribution
and status of pheasants in Himachal Pradesh, Western Himalayas.
World PheasantAsx0ciati0n Journal 6: 1080.
Singh, S., Kothari, A. and Pande, P. (Eds) (1990) Directory q/”national
parks and sanctuaries in Himachal Pradesh: management status
andprq/iler. Indian Institute ot‘Public Administration, New Delhi.
Pp I64.
Thakur, M. L., Paliwal, R., Tak, P. C., Mehta, H. S., and Mattu, V. K.,
(2002) Birds 0fKalatop—Khajjar Wildlife Sanctuary, Chamba district,
Himachal Pradesh. Cheetal 4l(3 & 4): 29-36.
8% 55‘
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Inportzant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
GENERAL DESCRI PT ION
This small Sanctuary is contiguous with the Great Himalayan
National Park, another lBA of Himachal Pradesh. The terrain is
steep, with deep valleys and rocky cliffs. The Sanctuary has an
altitudinal variation from 1,800 m to nearly 5,000 m. There are
two main mountain peaks, Satupuma (3,5 l 9 m) and Shacha (3,542
m). The Parvati river flows north of the Sanctuary. There are lakes
and natural springs of religious and historical importance at
Khirganga and Mantalai on the outskirts of the Sanctuary. There
is also a temple and a gurudwara at Manikaran, adjacent to the
Sanctuary (Singh et al. 1990).
Owing to its great altitudinal variation, seven forest types are present
in this Sanctuary. Based on the classification of Champion and Seth
(1968), they are Alpine Pastures, West Himalayan Sub-Alpine
Forest, Kharsu Oak Forest, Moist Temperate Deciduous Forest,
Western Mixed Coniferous Forest, Moist Deodar Forest and Ban
Oak Forest. The Moist Temperate Deciduous Forest is one of the
few undisturbed fragments of this type extant in Himachal Pradesh.
AV I FAUNA
Good populations of two globally threatened species i.e. Westem
Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalus and Cheer Pheasant Catreus
wallichii are found in this Sanctuary, due to which it was selected
as an IBA. It also has many biome species. No detailed work has
been done in this area on birds, but Singh et al. (1990) provided a
preliminary list of 80 bird species recorded in the Sanctuary.
This site lies in the Westem Himalayas Endemic Bird Area (EBA).
In this EBA, ll Restricted Range species have been listed, three
are found in this IBA. According to BirdLife International
(undated) classification of biomes, this site should come under
Biome-7 (Sino-Himalayan Temperate Forest), occurring from
1,800 m to 3,600 m, and Biome-5 (Eurasian High Montane), which
occurs above 3,600 m. As We do not have good bird checklist, it is
not known how many biome species assemblages are found in
this IBA. This site cenainly needs more detailed Work to be done
on bird distribution, abundance and densities.
EA Site GAE I IN—H.P—11
$312 : Himachal Pradesh
Distfid: : Kullu
Cocniinates : 31° 58‘ 57″ N, 77° 21‘ 30″ E
mmarship : State
Area Z 5, 400 ha
Altitixh : 1,800 — 4,833 m
Eirrfzll : l , 0 O 0 mm
Tarperatuze 1 -10 °c to 25 °c
Biogaographic Zone : Himalaya
Efifttats : Alpine Dry Pasture, Alpine Dry
Scab, Alpine Ivbist Pasture,
Slb-tropical Blnivdleaf Hill Forest
Western Himalayas)
ruary 1954
Western Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalus
Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii
En&nicEir:dArea 128: Westuam Himalayas
Wcstem Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalu:
Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii
Whitechccked Tit Aegithalos leucogenys
OTHER KEY FAUNA
The most important mammal of this Sanctuary is the highly elusive
and rare Snow Leopard Uncia uncia. Its natural prey are Blue
Sheep Pseudois nayaur, Ibex Capra sibirica, Musk Deer Moschus
chrysogaster and Himalayan Tahr Hemitragus jemlahicus. At
lower elevations, Leopard Panthera pardus is present, which
mainly feeds on Goral Nemurhaedus gural, Barking Deer
Muntiacus muntjak, and Serow Nemorhaedus sumatraensis. Both
Uncia uncia and)’. pardus also prey regularly on domestic animals.
Brown Bear Ursus arctos is generally found above 3,500 m in the
sub-alpine and alpine regions, while the Asiatic Black Bear Ursus
thibetanus is seen in temperate forests between 1,600 m and 3,500
m. Tibetan Wolf Canis lupus chance is also reported from the
alpine zone. The smaller predators are Yellow-throated Marten
Martes flavigula, Himalayan Palm Civet Paguma larvata,
Himalayan Weasel Mustela sibiricn, Indian Fox Vulpes vulpes,
and Golden Jackal Canis aureus. The Common Giant Flying
Squirrel Petaurisraperaurista is found in temperate forests at lower
elevations in the Sanctuary (Singh et al. 1990).
LAND USE
q Nature conservation and research
q Tourism and recreation
q Urban transport
q Water management
q Human habitation
447
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THREATS AND CONSERVATION ISSUES
q Construction of dams
q Burning of vegetation
(1 Livestock grazing
q Firewood collection
q Disturbance to birds
q Unsustainable exploitation
There are 2 villages within the Sanctuary, and 14 adjacent to itt
Besides, there are many temporary settlements of graziers. Villagers
have grazing rights inside the Sanctuary, as a result of which nearly
15,000 animals graze there. The local people also have the right
to extract fuelwood, and minor forest produce. Crop fields totaling
about 200 ha are present inside the Sanctuary. Thus, the Sanctuary
is under tremendous anthropogenic pressure. Both Snow Leopard
and Leopard kill domestic livestock, especially in summer,
resulting in man-animal conflict. Religious places adjacent to the
Sanctuary also attract pilgrims, who put additional pressure on
448
the natural resources as demand for fuelwood increases during
yatras and festivals. In order to allow fresh growth of grass, graziers
burn the grasslands. These fires go out of control and devastate
large areas.
KEY CONTRIBUTOR
Sanjeeva Pandey
KEY REFERENCES
BirdLife International (undated) Important Bird Areas ([BA:) in Asia.”
Project briefing book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.,
unpublished.
Champion, H. G. and Seth, S. Kt (I968) A revised survey of /ores! types of
India, Govt. ot‘India Press, Delhi. Pp. 403.
Singh, S., Kothari, At and Pande, P. (Eds) (1990) Directory ofnational
parks and sanctuaries in Himachal Pradesh: management status
andpro/Her. Indian Institute ofPub]ic Administration, New Delhi.
Pp I64.
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Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
GENERAL DESCRI PT ION
The Kibber Wildlife Sanctuary in the Trans-Himalayan district of
Lahaul and Spiti, is situated in the cold desert area of the Himalayas,
and has the unique flora and fauna characteristic of this area. The
site falls in the rain-shadow area of the Himalayas, so the rainfall
is very low. Most of the moisture is provided by snow. Summer is
extremely dry, while winter is extremely cold, with the mercury
dropping to -32 °C.
Kaza is the headquarters of Spiti subdivision, and ofthe Pin Valley
NP (an IBA) and Kibber WLS. Kibber is also administered by the
Director of Pin Valley NP. The Sanctuary is named after Kibber
village, on its northem boundary.
The vegetation cover consists of two zones: Dry Temperate Zone
(3, l 00-4,000 m), with woody species only in small patches, theirvalue
being leafy fodder, firewood and secondary timber. The main species
are Juniperus macrvpoda, Salix and Berula sp. The herbaceous growth
is remarkable for its variety. In the Alpine Zone (4,000»5,000 m) most
of the plants such as Junipers and Rhododendrons are in the fomi of
small shrubs, growing amid large patches of bare ground. Shrub species
are Ephedra, Rheum, Rnsularia, Rhodiola, Caragana and Lindelqfia.
The grasses frequently met with are Poa and Agmpymn, which have
high nutritive value.
AV I FAUNA
Practically no work has been done on the avifauna of this
Sanctuary, except for stray observations by Sanjeeva Pandey. He
sighted most of the high altitude birds such as the Himalayan
Snowcock Gyps himalayensis, Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos,
Lammergeier Gypaetus barbatus, Himalayan Griffon Gyps
himalayensis, Snow Pigeon Columba leuconata, Yellow-billed
Chough Pyrrhocorax graculus and others. Chukar Alectoris chukar
is common at lower elevations. This site is selected as an IBA on
the basis of criteria A3 (Biome species) as it has most of the
representative avifauna of the Indian part of the Eurasian High
Montane (Biome-5), except perhaps the spectacular Blacknecked
Crane Gm: nigricollis.
According to Sanjeeva Pandey (pers. comm. 2003), migratory
waterfowl have been seen on passage through the passes and the
valleys.
IBA Site 03$ Z IN—l-lP—12
stat: : Himachal Pradesh
Dislfld: : Lahaul and Spiti
(hmadinates 1 32° 32‘ 42″ N, 77° 36‘ 17″ E
Ownership : Sate
Area 1 1, 40, O50 ha
Altituh : 4,000 — 5, 600 m
Hilfiu Z 4O — 160 Hm (heavy snowfall)
fibrpexahhe : ~32 °C to 30 °C
Biopographic Zone : Tra.ns—l-Iimalaya
I-Bxmsts : Alpine Dry Scrub,
Alpine 1‘/bist Pasture
According to BirdLife Intemational (undated) classification of
biomes, this site should come under Biome-5 (Eurasian High
Montane (Alpine and Tibetan) as it occurs in the Trans-
Himalayas. Biome-5 is found above 3,600 m, which is also the
altitudinal range ofthis IBA. Forty—eight bird species have been
listed in Biome, out of which six have been seen here on
preliminary observations. Probably, many more species occur
in this IBA.
Himalayan Griffon Gyps himalayenris
Himalayan Snowcock Tktraogallur himalayensis
Snow Pigeon Columba Ieuconota
Guldcnstadt’s Redstart
Common Great Roscfinch
Yellow-billed Chough
Phoenicurus erythrogasrer
Carpodacus rubicilla
Pyrrhocorax graculus
OTHER KEY FAUNA
The highly endangered Snow Leopard Uncia uncia, locally known
as ‘Shin’, is found in this Sanctuary. Due to it, every year, a few
cases of livestock damage inside cowsheds are reported. The Snow
Leopard’s main wild prey are Ibex Capra sibirica and Blue Sheep
or Bharal Pseudois nuyaur. The Tibetan Wolf Canis lupus chance,
a subspecies found in the Tibetan highlands, is reported from this
Sanctuary. Locally, it is known as ‘shanko‘, hence its subspecific
name. The Red fox Vulpes vulpes is also present, in alpine and
subalpine pastures, and around villages. It generally feeds on
Tibetan Woolly Hare Lepus oiostolus, Himalayan Marmot
Marmara himalayana, Mouse Hare Ochotona roylei and avifauna.
The area is reputed for its lone sighting of Nayan Ovis ammon
hodgxoni, a subspecies or race of Argali Ovis ammon, from the
state of Himachal Pradesh (Sanjeeva Pandey pers. comm. 2002).
Wild Yak Bos grunniens, called ‘Dong Yak’ are sometimes seen
when they cross through the Parachhu River and stray into the
Sutlej Valley and catchment of the Lingti River.
LAND USE
q Agriculture
q Pastures for livestock
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Important Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
THREATS AND CONSERVATION ISSUES
(1 Grazing
q Lopping of vegetation
q Military exercise
q Tourism
q Non—degraclable waste
The preservation of vegetation is a major problem in the Kibber
WLS due to intensive grazing by goats, sheep and domestic yaks.
In the prevailing geographical and climatic conditions, these
animals are indispensable. The winter being extremely severe, the
local people need fuelwood to keep their houses wann, hence the
scanty vegetation becomes the major victim. The local people are
aware of the fact that the root system in the plants growing in this
harsh climate is more developed than the shoot system. Hence, in
many instances, the entire plant is dug out and the roots are used
450
as fuelwood. During summer, the local people, with the help of
their yaks, collect any available plant in the area. The flat rooftops
in their habitation are well stacked with bushes during summer
when the daytime sun quickly dries up this fuelwood material.
Poaching is not a major issue, as most of the people are Buddhists
and do not kill animals. As the area lies on the intemational border,
military and para-military forces regularly patrol the area and
conduct exercises.
KEY CONTRIBUTOR
Sanjeeva Pandey
KEY REFERENCE
BirdLife Intemational (undated) Important Bird Areas (1BAs) in Asia.”
Project briefing book. BirdLifc International, Cambridge, U.K.,
unpublished.

Irrportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
GENERAL DESCRI PT ION
The Kugti Wildlife Sanctuary in Chamba district is connected in
the west by a forest corridor to the Tundah Sanctuary, another
IBA. Kugti has a diverse topography and abundant water sources,
many ofthem originating from glaciers (Singh et al. 1990)
The nearest town is Bhannaur, c. 13 km away. It houses the famous
Manimahesh temple, an attraction to thousands ofpilgrims despite
the difficult terrain and extreme cold conditions. The motorable
road ends at Hadsar, a small village and then one has to trek to
Kugti or Manimahesh temple.
According to the classification of Champion and Seth (1968) the
vegetation consists of Alpine Pasture, Western Mixed Coniferous
Forest and Moist Deodar Forest. These forest types are seen at
different altitudinal zones, sometimes Within a few hundred metres
High altitude coniferous forest is dominated by Fir Abiespindrow,
with some mixed deciduous Woodland, particularly at the bottom
of the valley. Extensive stands of Cedar Cedrus deodara are seen,
along with many species of Sino-Himalayan Temperate Forest
biome. Similarly, subalpine forest and alpine scrub (Gaston et al.
1981a) provide good habitats to many mammals and birds. The
Westem Mixed Coniferous Forest component provides another
habitat type for the birds.
AV I FAUNA
Not much Work has been done on the bird fauna of Kugti WLS.
Gaston er al. (198 la) have recorded 117 species in the Ravi Valley
from Dalhousie and Chamba upwards. Three species of pheasants
are found at different levels: Himalayan Monal Lophaphurus
impejanus is reported to be common (S. Sathyakumarpers. comm.
2003), Koklass Pucrasia macrulopha is also numerous and Cheer
Pheasant Catreus wallichii has been recorded on the north side of
Budhil Nala, but not within the sanctuary itself (Gaston et al. 1981a,
1981b). Sondhi (unpublished tour report) during his survey in June
1997, recorded 40 species, including many species of the Sino—
Himalayan Temperate Forest (Biome-7), and some of Eurasian
High Montane (Alpine and Tibetan) (Biome-5) and Sinc-
Himalayan Subtropical forests (Biome»8). Sino-Himalayan
Subtropical Forest biome species includes Slatyheaded Parakeet
Psittacula himalayana.
Kugti WLS will come in the Westem Himalayas Endemic Bird
Area (EBA). This large EBA, ranging in altitude from 1,500 m to
IBA Site 00$ 1
Sate :
Distfid: :
Camndinates : 32° SO‘ O6″ N, 76° 44‘ 40″ E
Ownership : Smte
Area : 37, 886 ha
Altithh : 2,250 — 6, 044 m
hilifill : 4 4 5 mm
iurperatme : ~10 °c to 25 °c
Bivseoeraphic Zone
I-Rims :
IN—HP—13
Himachal Pradesh
C hamb a
: Himalaya
Sub~Alpine Forest, Alpine 1\/bjst
Pasture, Alpine Dry Eéstaure
sstern Himalayas) ,
aerate Forest)
ri 1962
2,600 m, and in an area of about 130,000 sq. km in Afghanistan,
Pakistan, India and Nepal has many globally threatened and
restricted range species. In India, there are ll Restricted Range
species. Looking at the undisturbed habitat available in this IBA,
some restricted range species would have considerable percentage
of their overall numbers in this IBA alone. More research is
required to study abundance and density of different bird species.
We consider this site as Data Deficient.
Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii
Enzbnic Bind Area 128: Western I-limalayas
Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii
Griffon Vulture Gyps himalayensix
Snow Pigeon Columba Icuconota
Koklass Pheasant Pucraria macrolopha
Himalayan Monal
Blue-capped Redstart
Strcaked Laughingthrush
Variegated Laughingthrush
Large~billed Leaf~Warbler
Western Crowned Leaf-Warbler Phylloscopus nccipitalis
Rusty-tailed Flycatcher
Ultramarine Flycatcher
Simla Crested Tit
Rufous~hcllicd Crested Tit
Spot-winged Crested Tit
Grccn»backed Tit
Pink-browed Rosefinch
Red-headed Bullfinch
Lophophoms impejanus
Phnenicurus caeruleacephalus
Garrulax lineatus
Garrulax variegatus
Phylloscopus magniroslris
Muscicapa ruficauda
Ficedula superciliaris
Parus rufonuchalis
Pam: rubidiventvis
Parus melanalophus
Pam: monticolux
Carpodacus mdochrous
Pyrrhula erythrocephala
OTHER KEY FAUNA
The information on other fauna is also meagre, except for the work
by Gaston er al. (l981a, 1983) which records: Asiatic Black Bear
Ursus thibetanus, Brown Bear Ursus arctas, Musk Deer Moschus
chrysogaster, Goral Nemorhaedus goral, Serow Nemorhaedus
451
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Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
sumatraensis, Ibex Capra sibirica and Himalayan Tahr Hemitragus
jemlahicur. Kugti is one of the best protected areas in Himachal
Pradesh for Brown Bear (S. Sathyakumarpers. comm. 2003). Other
mammals listed by Singh er al. (1990) include the Leopard
Pantherapardus, Leopard Cat Prionailurus bengalensis, Common
Langur Semnopithecus entellus and Yellow-throated Marten
Martesflavigula.
LAND USE
q Nature conservation and research
(1 Tourism and recreation
q Urban transport
(1 Water management
THREATS AND CONSERVATION ISSUES
q Construction of dams
q Buming of vegetation
q Livestock grazing
q Firewood collection
q Disturbance to birds
q Pilgrims and annual fairs
q Soil erosion
There are two villages and 10 settlements inside the Sanctuary, and
nine villages in the surrounding areas. The inhabitants hold rights to
fodder, fuelwood, cultivation, btuial grounds and religious activities.
452
These activities till now did not have a major impact on the ecosystem,
but increasing population pressures, of both humans and livestock,
are now having a negative impact. Hydel projects and transmission
lines have permanently modified the landscape, and resulted in soil
erosion. The so-called natural disasters such as avalanches are
becoming common linked as they are to changes in the topography.
KEY CONTRIBUTORS
S, Sathyakumar, G S, Rawat and Sanjeeva Pandey
KEY REFERENCES
Champion, H. G. and Seth, S. K. (1968) A revised survey of the forest
types of India, Govt. oflndia Press, Delhi. Pp. 403.
Gaston, A. J., Hunter, M.L. Jr and Garson, P.J. (198la) The wildlife of
Himachal Pradesh, Westem Himalayas. University of Maine School
ofForest Resources Technical Notes No. 82. Pp 159.
Gaston,A. J. Garson, P. J. and Hunter, M. L. Jr( 1981b) Present distribution
and status of pheasants in Himachal Pradesh, Westem Himalayas. WPA
Journal 6: lO—3O.
Gaston, A. J., Garson, P. J. and Hunter, M. L. Jr (1983) The status and
conservation of forest wildlife in Himachal Pradcsh, Western
Himalayas. Biological Conservation 27: 291-314.
Singh, S., Kothari, A. and Pandc, P. (Eds) (1990) Directory ofnational
parks and sanctuaries in Htmaehal Pradesh: management status
andprq/iler. Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi.
Pp 164.
7| c452M452 K452 E. l7

Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
GENERAL DESCRI PT ION
This high altitude Sanctuary lies c. 28 km from Morang, the nearest
town, in Kinnaur district. The Sanctuary can be reached by a
motorable road up to a village called Jangi and then onward by
foot. Much of this high altitude Sanctuary is a plateau of barren
cold desert. Lippa Asrang is one of the few sanctuaries in India
where feral Yak Box grunnienx have been reported.
AV I FAUNA
There is practically no literature on birds of this IBA. Most of the
Sanctuary is closed to tourists, and there are few visitors. As the
Sanctuary represents undisturbed alpine habitat, many birds of
Biome-5 are present, hence it was selected as an IBA.
Himalayan Griffon Gyps himalayensis
Himalayan Snowcock
Tibetan Partridge Perdix hodgsoniae
lbisbill Ibidorhyncha struthersii
Tibetan Sandgronse
Tetraogallus himulayensis
Syrrhaptes tibetanus
Snow Pigeon Columba leuconota
Yellow-billed Chough Pyrrhacarax graculus
OTHER KEY FAUNA
Mammals reportedly include the Asiatic Black Bear Ursus
thibetanus, Brown Bear Urxus arclos, Musk Deer Maschus
chrysogaster, Goral Nemorhaedus goral, Ibex Capra sibirica, Blue
Sheep Pseudois nayaur and Yak Box gmnniens (Singh et al, 1990).
LAND USE
q Grazing
q Research and nature conservation
IBA Site Qxie :
Slate :
Distridz :
Cocmdinates : 31° 43‘ 44“ N, 78° 20‘ 45″E
Ownership : Stats
Area Z 3, O90 ha
Altituh : 4,000 — 5,022 m
Einfall : 226 mm
Tarperatuze Z -10 °C to 15 °C
Biogaographic Zone : Himalaya
Efiritats : Himalayan Dry Tarperate Forest,
Alpire Arid Pasture,
Alpine Dry Scrub
IN—HP—l4
Himachal Pradesh
Kinnaur
THREATS AND CONSERVATION ISSUES
q Grazing
This Sanctuary is away from human habitations and has very few
visitors in its barren, cold desert plateau habitat. Grazing of
livestock takes place, which is unsustainable due to the fragile
ecosystem. Otherwise, little can be said without data regarding
conservation issues.
KEY CONTRI BUTOR
Sanjeeva Pandey
KEY REFERENCE
Singh, S., Kothari, A. and Pandc, P. (Eds) (1990) Directory of national
parks and sanctuaries in Himuchnl Pmdesh: management slams and
profiles. Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi. Pp 164.
453
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Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
GENERAL DESCRI PT ION
Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary, located in Shimla and Solan districts,
is part of the catchment area of the Sutlej river. It is bounded to the
north by the Sutlej, and to the south by a mountain ridge. The
Sanctuary comprises a short section of the southern slopes of the
Sutlej Valley, With steep terrain. Places of reli gious interest include
the Harsingh Temple (Singh et al. 1990). The Sanctuary may be
one of the most important sites in Himachal Pradesh for Cheer
pheasant Carreus wallichii, and the only site present within the
Sutlej catchment. Seven species of Galliformes have been reported
from this area (Mishra 1996).
Chir Pine Pinus roxburghii and Ban Oak Quercus leucotrichophora
forests, and subtropical Euphorbia scrub are the major vegetation
types (Mishra 1996). The slopes are sparsely forested with Chir
Pine and Ban Oak, and mostly dominated by grassy tracts, often
extending continuously from the ridge—tops down to about
1,000 m (Garson 1983).
AV I FAUNA
Not much work has been done on the bird life of this interesting
site, covering tracts of Himalayan Sub-tropical forest. Mishra
(1996) during his studies on the Goral from November 1992 to
May 1993, counted 106 species of birds, including the globally
threatened Cheer Pheasant. He also recorded Kaleej Pheasant
Lophura leucomelana and Koklass Pucrasia macrolopha.
Recently, Shah et al. (2002) have Worked on the Black Francolin
Francolinusfrancolinus, a common Gallifonn.
In this IBA, the main biome is Sino-Himalayan Subtropical Forest
(Biome-8), which occurs between 1,000 to 2,000 m. Nine species
ofthis ofbiome have been listed by Mishra (1996). None ofthem
are of conservation concern.
This IBA lies in the Western Himalayas Endemic BirdArea (EBA-
128). As we do not have a detailed checklist ofthis site, it is likely
that there would be some more Restricted Range species, especially
small forest birds, than we know as of now. More detailed Work is
needed on the bird fauna of this site. Presently, we consider this as
a Data Deficient site.
454
IBA Site Oocb : IN—l-[P-15
m : Himachal Pradesh
Dishit : Solan, Shimla
(bOwJdi-K83 : 31° 16‘ O8″ N, 76° 59’ 50″ E
Ownership : Sate
Arm : 4, 000 ha
Altitut I 575 — l, 985 m
Einfill : l , O40 mm
iblperamze : —1°C to 29 “C
‘ ‘c Zorn
I-Hints : Himalayan Dry Tenperate Forest
: Himalaya
Western klirrialayas)
rt 1954
Cci.t:i.42lly B’&r@i:ed
Oriental White-backed Vulture Gypr bengalensis
Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii
Endanic Bizd Area 128: Westem Himalayas
Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii
OTHER KEY FAUNA
The mammalian fauna includes Leopard Panthera pardus, which
is the top predator (Mishra 1993). Asiatic Black Bear Ursus
thibetanus, Golden Jackal Canis aureus, Common Palm Civet
Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, Himalayan Palm Civet Paguma
larvata, Yellow-throated Marten Martexflavigula, and Jungle Cat
F elir chaus are other camivores. Sambar Cervus unicalor, Barking
Deer Muntiacus muntjak, Goral Nemarhaedus goml and Wild Boar
Sur scrafiz represent the ungulates.
LAND USE
q Agriculture
q Grazing
C] Collection of timber, fuelwood, fodder and minor forest
produce
q Tourism and recreation
q Nature conservation and research
THREATS AND CONSERVATION ISSUES
Human settlements
Disturbance due to pilgrims
Tourism and recreation
Forest fire
>_Q.Q>-Q»-Q
q Poaching
According to Mishra (1996), 17 settlements with a population of
about 650 inhabitants are present inside the Sanctuary. They have
rights to cultivate, graze livestock, and collect fodder, timber,
fuelwood and minor forest produce. Crop damage by ungulates,
C454M454 K454 _EH_

Important Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
and livestock killing by Leopard and Black Bear create resentment
against the Sanctuary among the villagers. Besides the local people,
nomads also come during winter from the higher reaches to graze
their livestock, which exerts further pressure on the limited
resources of the Sanctuary. Graziers start forest fires to get better
grass for livestock.
A temple is located in the Sanctuary which attracts thousands of
pilgrims. The state govemment has started a project to provide
drinking water to 100 villages in the westem part ofthe Sanctuary.
One of the major threats is the establishment of a cement
manufacturing plant just outside the Sanctuary.
Poaching is quite common. Mishra (I996) found 39 gun licence
holders, and many unlicenced guns. Ungulates and pheasants are
their major targets, as they provide good meat for the table.
KEY CONTRIBUTOR
Charudutt Mishra
KEY REFERENCES
Garson, P. J. (I983) The cheer pheasant Calreus wallichii in Himachal
Pradesh, Western Himalayas: an update. WPA Journal 8:
29-39.
Mishra, C. (1993) Habitat use of Goral in Majathal Harsang Wildlife
Sanctuary. M.Sc. dissertation. Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun.
Mishra, C. (1996) Pheasants and other birds ofMajathal Harsang Wildlife
Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh, India. Forklail 12: l-8.
Shah, J. N., Kalsi, R. S., Kaul, R. and Khan, J. A. (2002) Group size, Sex
ratio and Habitat use ofBlack Francolin Franuzlinusfrancalinus
in Majathal Harsang Wildlife Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh, India.
Proc. National Symposium on Galliformcs. AVC College,
Mayaladuturai. Pp. 58-63.
Singh, S., Kothari, A. and Pandc, P. (Eds) (I990) Directory of national
parks and sanctuaries in Himachal Pradesh: management status
and profiles. Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Dclhi.
Pp I64.
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Inportgant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
GENERAL DESCRI PTION
Manali is a popular tourist resort in Himachal Pradesh, due to
its spectacular scenery, but not many people, even officials,
know that there is a little-known 3,180 ha Manali Wildlife
Sanctuary, notified as long ago as 1954 under the Punjab Birds
and Wild Animals Protection Act, 1933. It was mainly
established to safeguard the catchment area of Manalsu Nullah,
an important tributary ofthe Beas River. The Manali Sanctuary
and adjoining forested areas provide good habitats for many
pheasant species, even though the Forest Department had
planted many non-native species such as Poplar, Willow and
Robinia.
The vegetation type, as classified by Champion and Seth (1968)
is as follows: Alpine Pastures, Kharsu Oak Forest, Moist Temperate
Deciduous Forest, Westem Mixed Coniferous Forest, Moist Deodar
Forest and Ban Oak Forest. JuniperJuniperus communis is present
above the tree-line, along with Rhododendron.
AV I FAUNA
At least 149 species of birds have been recorded from the Manali
area (Gaston er al. 1981). Western Tragopan Tragupan
melanocephalus, Himalayan Monal Lophophurus impejanus, and
Koklass Pheasant Pucrasia macrolopha are present in small
numbers. Based on their surveys in 1979-1980, Gaston er al. (1981)
estimate about 50 Westem Tragopan. The Monal population is
much larger, in the range of 250 pairs. Koklass is the most abundant
large pheasant species in this Park, common at the lower end of
1-lamta Nullah and Solang Nullah. This site is selected as an IBA
mainly because of its good population of globally threatened
Westem Tragopan.
Historically, the Manali Sanctuary had Cheer Pheasant Catreus
wallichii, even as late as the 1980s. Its status since then is not
known, mainly due to lack of proper surveys. As the Cheer
Pheasant can survive in slightly disturbed habitat (Kaul 1989,
Garson et al. 1992, BirdLife International 2001), it could still be
surviving in Manali Sanctuary despite the pressure from tourists
(R. Kflul in lin. 2003).
At higher reaches in the alpine zones, Himalayan Snowcock
Tetraogallus himalayensi: and Snow Partridge Lerwa lerwa are
seen, representing Biome-5 species.
456
IBA Site 00$ : IN—HP—1 6
Stats : Himachal Praclesh
Dishit : Kullu
(bOtIJtii-118% : 32° 16‘ 24″ N, 77° 07′ 30″ E
Ownership : Sate
Area : 3, 180 ha
Altlthzb I 2,273 — 5,173 rn
§X1fill : l , O80 mm
Talperatune : -4 “C to 30 °C
c Zone : Himalaya
r-aims = S.ib—tropic:al Pine Forest
Western Himalayas) ,
rate Forest;
n ruary 1 954
Western Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalur
Endanic Bird Area 128: Western Himalayas
Westem Tragopan Tnzgopan melanocephalur
1′ . – . ~22;-Y”
Snow Partridge Lerwa lerwa
Himalayan Sriowcock Tetraogallux himalayensi:
Koklass Pheasant Pucrasia macmlopha
Himalayan Monal Laphophamx impejanus
Bar-throated Minla Minla strigula
Rufous-bellied Niltava Niltava sundara
Green-backed Tit Paru: monticolus
Black-and-yellow Grosbeak Mycembas icrerioides
Blue-headed Rock-Thrush Monticnla cinclorhynchus
Grcy~wingccl Blackbird Turdus boulbaul
OTHER KEY FAUNA
Of larger mammals, 18 species have been recorded in the Manali
area (Gaston et al. 1981, 1983, Singh et zzl. 1990). These include
the Asiatic Black Bear Ursus thibetanus, Brovrm Bear Ursus arctos,
Leopard Panthera pardus, Musk Deer Moschus chrysogasterg and
Serow Nemorhaedux sumatraensis, Smaller carnivores include the
Jungle Cat Felix chaus, Himalayan Palm Civet Puguma larvuta
and Yellow-throated Marten Martesflavigula.
LAND USE
q Tourism a.nd recreation
q Nature conservation and research
THREATS AND CONSERVATION ISSUES
Livestock grazing
Collection of filelwood, timber, forest products
Extraction of fodder
Tourism and recreation
>IJFQ>IJ>-Q
| C456M456 K456 _EE_ i

1%
Important Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
The Sanctuary forms part of the catchment of Manalsu Nullah, an
important tributary of the River Beas. It is particularly important
as a refuge for Westem Tragopan (Gaston er al. 1981). People
from nearby villages have rights to graze livestock, extract fodder,
fuelwood, timber and minor forest produce and quarrying. Semi-
nomadic Gujjars and Gaddis also have grazing rights,
Rodgers and Panwar (1988) had recommended that Manali
Sanctuary which is only 3,100 ha be extended to 25,000 ha by
including the still viable habitat to the north, including the Solang
Nullah watershed to the source of the Beas river.
KEY CONTRIBUTORS
Sanjeeva Pandey and S. Sathyakumar
KEY REFERENCES
Bird.Lifc Intcmational (2001) Threatened Birds ofAsia: The BirdLife
International Red Data Book. BirdI_ife lntemational, Cambridge, U.K.
Champion, H. G. and Seth, S. K. (1968) A revised survey offorest types of
India. Govt. oflndia Press, Delhi.
Garson, P. J., Young, L. and Kaul, R. (1992) Ecology and Conservation of
the Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii: studies in the wild and the
progress of a reintroduction project. Biological Conservation. 59: 25—
35.
Gaston, A. J., Hunter, M. L. Jr. and Garson, P. J. (1981) The wildlife of
Himachal Prarlesh, Westem Himalayas. University of Maine School
of Forest Resources Technical Notes No. 82. Pp. I59.
Gaston, A. 1., Garson, P. J. and Hunter, M.L. Jr (1983) The status and
conservation of forest wildlife in Himachal Pradesh, Western
Himalayas. Biological Conservation 27: 29l»3l4.
Kaul, R. (1989) Ecology of Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii in Kumaun
Himalaya. Ph.D. thesis, University ofKashmir, Srinagar.
Rodgers, W. A. and Panwar, H.S. (I988) Planning a wildlife protected
area network in India. 2 vols. Project FO: IND/82/003. FAO, Dehra
Dun.
Singh, S., Kothari, A. and Pande, P. (Eds) (I990) Directory ofnalional
parks and sanctuaries in Himachal Pradesh: management status
and profiles. Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi.
Pp 164.
457
l C457M45’I K457 _EE_ |

8%
Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
GENERAL DESCRI PTION
Nargu is one of the most densely populated protected areas of
Himachal Pradesh, with human density above 100 per sq. km and
livestock density 200 per sq. km. Interestingly, all legal procedures
such as the final notification for declaration of a Sanctuary have
been completed. Human beings have already occupied most of
the flat areas and cultivable portions, leaving only inaccessible
reaches for wildlife. Livestock graze all over the Sanctuary.
Based on the classification of Champion and Seth (I968), six types
of vegetation can be seen in this area: A small portion of Sub-
alpine forest in the higher reaches, followed by Kharsu Oak Forest,
Moist Temperate Deciduous Forest, Westem Mixed Coniferous
Forest, Moist Deodar Forest, Moru Oak Forest, Ban Oak Forest,
and finally, Subtropical Pine Forest.
AV I FAUNA
There is no information on the bird life, although unconfirmed
reports indicate that Westem Tragopan Tragapan melanocephalus
and Cheer Catreus wallichii are found. Four species listed in
Biome-7 have been identified, but there may be many more. This
site is included as an IBA due to its potential as habitat of Cheer
Pheasant and Biome species.
White-throatcd Laughingthrush Garrulwc albogularis
Striated Laughingthmsh Garrulax striatus
Streaked Laughingthrush Garrulax Iinealus
Variegated Laughingthrush Garrulax variegatur
OTHER KEY FAUNA
Asiatic Black Bear Ursus thibetanus, Leopard Panthera pardus,
Himalayan Palm Civet Pagumu larvata, Barking deer Muntiacus
muntjak, Musk Deer Moschus chrysogaster and Goral
Nemorhuedus gorul are still found in remote areas but their
conservation status is unknown. Not much is known about the
reptiles and other fauna of this potential IBA.
458
IBA Sik ®& : IN—HP-17
State : Himachal Pradesh
Difldz : Mandi
Chandinataes : 31° 56‘ 18″ N, 76° 59′ O3″ E
Ownership : Smte
Anea : 27,837 ha
Alfijuh : 9’70 – 4,034 rn
airman : 1, 380 mm
lblperature 1 l0 “C to 35 “C
c Zorn : Himalaya
ifinitats : Himalayan Ivbist Tarperate Forest,
S.\b—Alp1’:xe Forest, Sibtropioal
Pine Forest:
LAND USE
q Agriculture
THREATS AND CONSERVATION ISSUES
q Human settlements
q Forest fire – natural and man-induced
q Intense grazing pressure
q Collection of firewood, other forest products
q Grazing of livestock
Anthropogenic pressure is the major issue. There are 170
villages inside the Sanctuary, with a population ofnearly 50,000
people and three times as many heads of livestock. Furthermore,
itinerant graziers visit the Sanctuaiy during summer with huge
herds of livestock. Local people are allowed fuelwood and
medicinal plant collection. Musk Deer is hunted by organized
gangs of poachers.
Rodgers and Panwar (1988) and Rodgers et al. (2000) have
recommended joining this Sanctuary to the 1,400 ha Khokan WLS
by including intervening forest, to make it a large sanctuary of
32,000 ha.
KEY CONTRIBUTOR
S. Sathyakumar
KEY REFERENCE
Champion, I-I. G. and Seth, S. K, (I968) A revised survey ofthe forest
types of India, Govt. of India Press, Dclhi. Pp. 403.
Rodgers, W. A, and Panwar, I-I. S. (1988) Planning a Protected Area
Nctwork in India. Vol. 2. Wildlife Institute of India,
Dehradun.
Rodgers, W. A., Panwar, H. S. and Mathur, V. B. (2000) Wildlife
Protected/trea Network in India: A Review. Wildlife Institute of
India, Dehradun.
l C458M45B K458 _EB_ l

$
Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
GENERAL DESCRI PTI ON
The Pin Valley National Park is located in the Spiti subdivision of
Lahaul and Spiti districts. High mountain ranges and narrow river
valleys are typical of the area, where flat land is uncommon. According
to the biogeographic classification of Rodgers and Panwar (1988),
Pin Valley lies in the Northwest Himalayan Zone. The Sutlej River
divides it into two provinces namely, northwest and west. Spiti is a
typical mountain desert, massive glaciers covering a major portion of
the Park. There is no major lake in the Park. The mountainsides are
bare, except for a few mountain folds where some vegetation manages
to grow in protected niches The terrain and the climate are antagonistic
to the growth of forests in this area. The precipitation is mostly in the
fomi of snowfall. The general topography is highly rugged, with high
altitude barren areas and an arid climate.
The drainage system is made up ofsix rivulets namely Kidul Cho,
Khaminger, Debsa, Kilung, Pin and its tributary. The former four
riversjoin to become the Parahio River in the main valley. Glaciers
feed all these rivers.
Light tremors occasionally occur in the Park, as Lahaul-Spiti
district lies in a major earthquake prone area, i.e., the alpine
Himalayan mountain system. This Park adjoins the buffer zone of
the Great Himalayan National Park to the west and shares its
southem boundary with Rupi-Bhabha Sanctuary (another IBA).
The valleys of the Park are highly disturbed because of the high
incidence of grazing.
IBA Site 03$ Z IN—HP—18
San : Himachal Pradesh
Distdd: = Lahaul and spin
Cbmsdinates : 32° O1‘ 60″ N, ’77“ 52‘ 60″ E
Ownership : State
Area 1 67, 500 ha
Altitizb : c. 4,300 m
Einfall : 1 7 O mm
Tarperawze : — 30 “C to 30 “C
Eiopographic Zone : Trans—Himalaya
I-lzhitats : Alpine Dry Pasture
Pin Valley NP is a typical cold desert ecosystem. According to the
classification of Champion and Seth (1968), the vegetation comes
under Dry Alpine Scrub and Dwarf Juniper. Cretagunus sp.,
Berberis sp. and Lonicem sp. are the important shrubs. A few
thomy trees and bushes are found in the vicinity of the villages.
AVI FAUNA
Not many studies have been done on the avifatma of the National
Park, since it is situated at high altitude and also because of its
cold desert type of climate. The site falls under the Biome-5
(Eurasian High Montane). The key habitats of the site are scrub
and open habitats at and above the tree line, including alpine and
subalpine scrub and grassland; inland cliffs and rocky slopes and
also montane wetlands and some gravel and sand plains where
Himalayan Snowcock Tetraogallur himalayensix, Tibetan
Partridge Perdix hodgsoniae, Ibisbill Ibidarhyncha struthersii and
other species of Biome-5 are found.
Himalayan Griffon Gyps himalayenris
Himalayan Snowcock
Tibetan Partridge Perdbc hodgsoniae
Ibisbill Ibidnrhyncha struthersii
Columba Ieuconota
Terraogallus himalayenris
Snow Pigeon
Guldenstadt’s Redstart Phoenicurus erjvthmgaster
Common Grcat Roscfinch
Yellow-billed Chough
Carpodacus rubicilla
Pyrrhocorax graculus
OTHER KEY FAUNA
The Pin Valley NP has most of the mammal species typical of the
cold desert of Ladakh and Tibet: Snow leopard Uncia uncia,
Himalayan Ibex Capra ibex, Bharal Pseudois nayaur, Lynx Lynx
lynx, Fox Vulpes vulpes, Tibetan Wolf Canis lupus chance,
Himalayan Marmot Marmara bobak, Woolly Hare Lepus oiostolus
and Mouse hare Pika Ochotona roylei.
LAND USE
q Nature conservation and research
11 Tourism and recreation
rj Construction of offices
459
8T-&H
$
Ti C459M459 K459 _$_ ii

_l $ l_
HP—18
Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
THREATS AND CONSERVATION ISSUES
c Grazin
Q Construction works
1; Tourism and recreation
q Unsustainable exploitation of the resources
at Collection ofmedicinal herbs
q Cutting of bushes for fuel.
Pin Valley is a high altitude Himalayan Park, typical of the Tibetan
cold desert. It supports a variety of rare and threatened mammals,
but is largely unstudied owing to its remote location within a
politically sensitive area (Singh et al. 1990).
The Park is uninhabited, but 17 villages are located in the buffer
zone. The villagers are allowed to graze their livestock inside the
Park, and have herb collection rights.
There is a virtual invasion of Government machinery in the villages
of Pin Valley. Various departments such as Public Welfare and
Development, Forest, Revenue, Health and Education have their
offices in the Pin Valley. The construction work undertaken by
these departments does not appear to be directly linked with the
needs of the people of Pin Valley. There is instead great need for a
460
well thought out integrated development programme for the local
population, in accordance with their immediate and long term
needs.
In recent years, hundreds of labourers from Bihar and Chhatisgarh
have been brought in to build and repair roads. Poaching incidents
also have increased. The local people, being Buddhists do not kill
animals, but the emigrant labourers do not have the same
sentiments.
KEY CONTRIBUTOR
IBA Team
KEY REFERENCES
Champion, H. G. and Seth, S. K. (1968) A revised survey of the forest
types of India, Govt. oflndia Press, Dclhi. Pp. 403.
Rodgers, W. A. and Panwar, H. S. (1988) Planning a wildlife protected
area network in India. 2 vols. Wildlife Institute of India, Dchra Dun.
Singh, S., Kothari, A. and Pande, P. (Eds) (1990) Directory afnational
parks and sanctuaries in Himachal Pradesh: management status
andprq/iles. Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi.
Pp 164.
8% +51%
7| C460M460 K460 E lj

H3“
Inportant Bird Areas in India — Hirnachal Pradesh
GENERAL DESCRI PT I ON
The Pong reservoir, also called the Maharana Pratap Sagar, was
created in 1976 by the damming ofthe River Beas in the foothills
of the Himalayas on the northern edge of the Indo-Gangetic plain.
It contains several deforested islands which attracts a large
number of waterbirds. The northern edge is very flat, with
mudflats and Wet grasslands and attracts major concentrations
of birds.
Pong Dam was basically an irrigation reservoir but when a large
number of birds started coming regularly to the wetland, the
reservoir was declared a bird sanctuary in 1983.
There is some submerged vegetation, but the shoreline does not
support much emergent vegetation due to the pronounced seasonal
changes in water level. There is an extensive swamp with reed
beds and grasslands in the seepage area below the dam (Gaston
1985, 1986). The surrounding hillsides still support some Mixed
Deciduous and Chir Pine Pinus roxburghii forest.
ARY
IBA Site 00$ : IN*HP*19
Sale : Himachal Pradesh
DistI:id: : Kangra
Cbmzdizaah 1 32° O4‘ 25″ N, 76° 13‘ 47″ E
Ownership : Sbateypzir/ate
Area : 30,729 ha
Altituh : 335 — 436 m
Eirrfall. : 1, 780 mm
Terperatuze Z 6 °C to 44 “C
Biogeographic Zone : Semi—Arid
Iflritzts 1 Pquatic
population) ,
n 1982
AV I FAUNA
The lake is an important wintering ground for waterfowl. About
10,000 ducks were recorded in December I985, with Mal1ardAnax
platyrhynchos predominant, and smaller numbers of Northem
Pintail A. acute, Common Teal A. crecca and Common Pochard
Aythyaferina (Gaston 1985; Gaston and Pandey 1987). Two Red-
necked Grebes Podiceps griseigena. and several Great Black-
headed Gulls Larus ichthyaetus, a species that is fairly uncommon
away from the coast in India were also observed.
Waders such as Greenshank Tringa nebularia, Green sandpiper
T uchropus, Common sandpiper T hypoleucus and Temmink’s
stint Calidris temminkii occur in considerable numbers. A great
variety of raptors were also recorded, including Osprey Pandion
haliaetus, Pal|as’s Fish-Eagle Haliaeetus Ieucoryphus, Marsh
Harrier Circus aeruginosus and Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax. Gaston
(1985) observed a total of 103 species in the area, but more than
220 species have since been recorded (Pandey 1989).
461
ii C46lM461 K461 _$_ F
Otm Pfrsrat
Photo
61:-&H
H3

_i $ i_
HP—19
‘EB
Photo: Jan Wlllsr den Besten
Inportant Bird Areas i_n India — Himachal Pradesh
Recent counts have shown that the concentration of wintering
waterfowl has sharply increased to over 60,000 and over 75,000
in 2002 and 2003 respectively. The most numerous species are
Northern Pintail [25,000], Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus
[l0,000], Common Teal [>6000], Eurasian Wigeon [>6000],
Common Pochard [>5000] and Great Cormorant [>4500] (J. W.
den Besten pers. c0mm.2003). Most of these numbers are much
above the 1% population threshold recently described by
Wetlands International (2002). For instance, Wetlands
International estimates the Bar-headed Goose population to be
between 52,000 and 60,000. With 10,000 present in this IBA
site, it means that almost 20% of the population ofthis species
occurs in Pong Dam! No other IBA site in India holds such a
huge population of this species.
The lake sustains some breeding birds. There are up to several
dozen pairs of Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticarax,
Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica, Little Tem Sterna albifrons,
Yellow-wattled Lapwing Vanellus malabaricus and large numbers
of River Tem Sterna aurantia, and Red—Wattled Lapwing Vanellus
indicus. A few pairs of Sarus Crane Grus aniigone breed in the
vicinity. The outflow area of Shah Nehar barrage sustains breeding
populations of Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus, Purple
Swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio, Purple Heron Ardea purpurea,
Cinnamon Bittern Ixobrychus cirmamomeus, Yellow Bittern
I. sinensis a.nd White-tailed Stonechat Saxicola leucura.
Critically Ehdangered
Oriental White-backed vulture Gyps bengalensi:
Slender-billed Vulture Gyps ienuirostris
OTHER KEY FAUNA
In recent years, Golden Jackal Canis aureus, Himalayan Yellow-
throated Marten Martesflavigula, Small Indian Civet I/iverricula
indica, Wild Boar Sus scrafa and Nilgai Baselaphus tragocamelus
have been reported, the last two species in the outflow area (J. W.
den Besten pers. comm. 2003). Reptiles include the Common Cobra
Naja naja, Python Python molums and Common Monitor Varanus
bengalensis. Fish species found are Mahseer Tor tor, Mallip
Wallago attu and Sole Ophiocaphalus marulius.
LAND USE
q Agriculture
ct Nature conservation and research
lBthewate.rofPongDamisused, theexposedazeas
beaxregoodgraziriggxouridforlivxtnck.
IE
462
*| c462M462 K462 _$_ if
ci Tourism and recreation
L1 Water management
THREATS AND CONSERVATION ISSUES
q Fisheries
.1 Grazing
Ii Incidental poaching, possible poisoning
11 Tourism
:1 Water pollution by pesticides and solid waste in source rivers.
Apart from its importance as a source of water for irrigation and
domestic use, Pong Dam attracts a large number of migratory
waterfowl which, to some extent, compensates for drainage of
wetland habitats elsewhere in northem India over the last 50 years
(Gaston 1986; Gaston and Pandey 1987).
The Himachal Pradesh Govemment wants to develop the reservoir
as a new tourist paradise, with water sports as the main attraction
for which a Regional Water Sports Centre was constructed here.
The state has now proposed to use this centre for water sports on a
commercial basis. It has also been proposed to undertake the
construction of a platform for tents with toilets at Ransar ki Garhi
island in the lake. The Bhakra Beas Management Board, which
looks after the reservoir, has been asked to grant pennission for
these proposals.
A management plan for the period I983/1984-1988/1989 was
prepared in November 1982, and approved in December 1984.
Protection of the Sanctuary presents little difficulty, given the vast
size of the lake. if adequate manpower is made available. A number
of recommendations to enhance the attractiveness of the area for
waterbirds, and facilitate access and provide interpretive services
for the public have been made (Gaston 1985). The buffer zone is
not yet under the management of the Sanctuary authorities due to
the large number of residents (Singh ei al. 1990).
The Sanctuary in the seepage zone called Sansarpur Terrace
Sanctuary is accessible to large numbers of cattle and grass cutters.
The cattle in particular do a lot of damage to the reed beds.
KEY CONTIBUTORS
Jan Willem den Besten, Sanjeeva Pandey and Murari Thakur.
KEY REFERENCES
Gaston, A. J. (I985) Report on a visit to Pong Dam Lake, 2~3 December.
Canadian Wildlifc Scrvicc, Ottawa. Unpublished. Pp 8.
Gaston, A. J. (I 986) West Himalayan wildlife survey. Report on activities
in 1985. Unpublished. Pp 18.
Gaston, A. J. and Pandey, S. (1987) Sighting ofred~necked grebes on Pong
Dam Lakc, Himachal Pradcsh. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Sara 84: 676—
677.
Pandcy, S. (1989) The birds of Pong Dam Lakc Sanctuary. Tiger Paper
16(2): 20»26.
Singh, S., Kothari, A. and Pandc, P. (Eds) (1990) Directory a/”national
parks and san(‘!uar[es in Himachal Pradcsh.‘ management status
and pro/iles. Indian Institutc of Public Administration, Ncw Dclhi.
Pp 164.
Wctlands Intcmational (2002) Waterbirds Population Estimates: Third
Edition. Wetlands Intemational Global Series No. l2. Wageningen,
The Netherlands.

Inportzant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
GENERAL DESCRI PT ION
This Sanctuary has a wide variation in altitudes, and supports a
large diversity of habitats and wildlife. It lies in the catchment
area of the Sutlej river and is irrigated by many small streams.
The northem portion is covered with glaciers. The Great Himalayan
National Park and the Pin Valley National Park are located on its
westem and northem boundaries respectively. Thus, it forms a
large protected area complex, extremely important for alpine, sub-
alpine and broadleaf forest birds. The nearest town is Rampur-
Bushahr, about 40 km away. Despite its large size and remoteness
from human habitation, this Sanctuary is facing many biotic
pressures, such as hydroelectric power generation schemes.
Based on the classification of Champion and Seth (1968), there
are five forest types in this lBA: Alpine Pastures, Dry Temperate
Coniferous Forests, Dry Broadleaf and Coniferous Forests, Kharsu
Oak Forest, and Lower Westem Himalayan Temperate Forest.
The Forest Department has undertaken many plantation schemes
for commercial timber and for the Fuelwood requirement of the
local people. Besides indigenous species, they have also planted
exotics such as Poplar Salix and Robinia Robinia pseudacacia.
AV I FAUNA
No work has been done on the avifauna of this important protected
area of the Westem Himalayas. Singh et al. (1990) have provided
a preliminary list of 27 bird species recorded in the Sanctuary. It
is an important habitat for the globally threatened Western
Tragopan Tragopan melanacephalux and Cheer Pheasant Catreus
wallichii. Besides these two pheasants, which are restricted to the
Westem Himalayas, three more Restricted Range species have been
identified. However, population density and abundance of any
species are not known.
Based on the preliminary listing, nine species of Biome-7 and four
from Biome-8 have been identified. This list should be considered
as only indicative, till more studies are conducted in this IBA. At
present, we consider the site as Data Deficient.
IBA Site 03$ Z
State :
D73Iid: :
(bozdinatim :
Ownership :
Area :
A’l.t:i.tu:b :
Rirlfill. :
ltsrperatzuze :
Biogog-aphic Zone :
Eflirltzts :
Westem Tragopan
Chccr Pheasant
Encknic Bizd Area 128: Westem Himalayas
White~cheeked Tit
White-throated Tic
Orange Bullfinch
Western Tragopan
Cheer Pheasant
Common Hill-Partridge
Koklass Pheasant
Himalayan Monal
Speckled Wood-Pigeon
Himalayan Pied Woodpecker
Striated Laughingthrush
Variegated Laughingthmsh
Greater Scaly~breasted
Wrcn-Babbler
Yellow-billed Blue Magpie
Eime-8: S:i.no-Hinalayan S|.b-tecpiizl Ebzst
Himalayan Bulbul
Black Bulbul
Rusty-cheeked
Scimitar-Babbler
Grey Treepie
OTHER KEY FAUNA
_\ 9% |_
– Y
IN-HP-20
Himachal Pradesh
Kinnaur
31° 42‘ 44″ N, 78° O3‘ 35″ E
Stan
26, 900 ha
909 — 5,605 in
450 mm
’10 °c to 20 “C
Himalaya
Slbtrtpical Pire Forest, Rivenre
Vagetation, Alpine Moist Pasture,
Sukrltlpine Forest, Nbntzane Wet
Tarperate Forest
Western Himalayas) ,
Sub—tropir2_l Forest)
Ch 1982
Tragopan melanocephalus
Catreus wallichii
Aegithalor leucagenys
Aegithalor niveogularis
Pyrrhula auranliaca
Tragapan melunacephalus
Catreus wallichii
Arbarophila torqueola
Pucraria macrolopha
Lophophorus impejanus
Columba hodgsonii
Dendmcopar himalayenris
Garrulax slriatus
Garrulax var7’2gatux
Pnoepyga albivenler
Urocissaflaviroslris
Pycnonotus leucogenys
Hypsipeles Ieucocephalus
Pomatorhinus erythmgenys
Dendracitta farmosae
This vast sprawling Sanctuary is home to almost all the mammal
species of the alpine, sub-alpine and temperate forests of the
Western Himalayas. Snow leopard Uncia uncia haunts the cold
desert and alpine tracts in search of Blue Sheep Preudois nayaur,
463
i C4 63M463 K463 _$_ |

8%
Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
Musk Deer Moschux chrysogaster, Himalayan Tahr Hemitragus
jemlahicus and Himalayan Ibex Capra sibiricu. At lower
elevations, it is replaced by the common Leopard Pantherapardus
which hunts Barking deer Muntiacus muntjak, Goral Nemorhuedus
goral and Serow Nemorhaedus sumatrensis. The Brown Bear
Ursus arctos and Asiatic Black Bear U. thibetanus are found in
the altitudinal range of 1,600 to 4,000 m. There are also many
smaller mammals recorded.
LAND USE
Nature conservation and research
Tourism and recreation
Urban transport
Water management
>-’-Ill»-QL1
THREATS AND CONSERVATION ISSUES
Construction and impact of dams
Buming of vegetation
Grazing
Firewood collection
Agriculture.
-Q»!-Ill»-Q-ll
464
Rupi Bhaba Sanctuary faces a major threat from the Sanjay
Vidyut Project, a hydel scheme. Apart from the construction of
the generating plant and dam, ancillary activities such as building,
industry, transmission lines and housing will affect the area.
Another hydel project, the Nathpa Jhakro project, will submerge
part of the Sanctuary. Forest fires, hailstorms and drought already
affect the area. Both local residents and nomadic Gaddi and
Gu/jar communities have grazing rights. Sheep from the breeding
center at Jeori come to graze. There are l5 villages inside the
Sanctuary, so anthropogenic pressure is high.
KEY CONTRIBUTOR
Sanjeeva Pandey
KEY REFERENCES
Champion, H. G. and Seth, S. K. (I968) A revised survey qf forest types of
India, Govt. of India Press, Delhi.
Singh, S., Kothari, A. and Pande, P. (Eds) (1990) Directory ofnational
parks and sanctuaries in Himachal Pradesh: managementstalux and
profiler. Indian Institutc of Public Administration, New Dclhi. Pp
164.
| C4 64M464 K464 _EE_ l

Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
GENERAL DESCRI PT ION
Located in the catchment area of the Baspa Valley, the Sangla
Wildlife Sanctuary is situated in the arid zone of the middle
Himalayas. The flora and fauna is therefore quite unique. Govind
Wildlife Sanctuary of Uttaranchal is adjacent to its southern
boundary, and a little beyond the eastem boundary of the Sangla
Sanctuary lies the Tibetan plateau (Singh et al. 1990).
The high altitude areas (above 2,000 m) of this Sanctuary are less
accessible and therefore, less disturbed. Thick forests of Deodar
Cedrus deodara, and Chilgoza pine Pinus girardiana, and
broadleaf species are foxmd from 2,000 m upwards. From 2,800 m
upwards, Fir-Spruce Mixed Forest with bamboo-dominated
undergrowth prevails. This Sanctuary is known for its vast alpine
pastures. The forest clad hill slopes are very steep, punctuated
with rock outcropping bearing no vegetation at all. Such habitats
alternate with a vast number of hill streams (nullahs), which
descend to meet the main valleys of Shong, Barua, Ru.kti and
Batseri nullahs. The precipitous hill slopes in these remote valleys
make them difficult for humans to approach, but are suitable
for Wildlife.
Five major forest types are seen in this Sanctuary: Dry Alpine
Scrub, Dry Temperate Coniferous Forest, Dry Broadleaf and
Coniferous Forest, Upper West Himalayan Temperate Forests, and
Lower Western Himalayan Temperate Forests. This classification
is based on Champion and Seth (1968). The higher reaches are
snowbound most of the year, and four glaciers are located within
the Sanctuary. The alpine area of Sangla WLS has a rich growth
of herbs. The local villagers earn part of their livelihood by
collecting and selling them. The most important herb, collected in
quantities, is Dhup Jurinea macrocephella. Other herbs are Kant
Gentiana kurroo, Patish Aconitum heterophyllum, and Kuth
Banafsha Viola canescens, Saussurea lappa. Several herbs found
in the alpine pastures of this Sanctuary are of great importance in
Ayurvedic medicine.
AV I FAUNA
Highly endangered species of pheasants, including the Westem
Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalux are found in this Sanctuary.
Other pheasants are Himalayan or lmpeyan Monal Lophophorus
impejanus, Koklass Pucrasia macrolopha and Kaleej Pheasant
Lnphura leucamelana. Sangla also has many species from Biome-
SANCTUARY
IBA Si@ (JOE I IN—HP—Z1
Swte : Himachal Pradesh
Disttid: : Kinnaur
Coordinates : 31° 20‘ 23″ N, 78° 39‘ 00″ E
(mnarship : Stats
A153 Z 65, OOU ha
Altitwh : 3,200 — 5,486 m
kinfall : l , 1 3 O mm
Tarperatuze Z -10 “C to 15 °C
E Yale : Himalaya
Iifilitzts : Himalayan Moist Tarparate Forest,
Alpine l\/Dist Pastures
Western Himalayas)
May 1 98 9
5 (Eurasian High Montane), Biome-7 (Sino—Himalaya.n Temperate
Forest) and Biome-8 (Sino—Himalayan Subtropical Forest).
A good bird checklist ofthis high altitude IBA is not available as
no work on bird fauna has been done. From the preliminary list,
we find that four out of 48 species of Biome-5 listed by BirdLife
Intemational (undated) are found here. They are Himalayan Griffon
Gyps himalayensis, Himalayan Snowcock Tetraogallux
himaluyensis, Vinaceous-breasted Pipit Anthus roseatus and Plain
Mountain Finch Leucosticte nemnricola. This is just an indicative
list. As some parts of this IBAlie in the Sino-Himalayan Temperate
Forest (Biome-7), we see birds of this biome also, such as Koklass
Pheasant, Himalayan Monal, Speckled Wood Pigeon Columba
hodgsonii, Himalayan Woodpecker Dendrocopos himalayensis and
Yellow-billed Blue Magpie Urocissa /lavirostris. Again, this is
not an exhaustive list. As the forest is intact in many places, there
are chances that many more birds of this Biome would be present.
The site lies in the Westem Himalayas Endemic Bird Area (EBA)
where Stattersfield et al. (1998) have identified l l restricted range
species. From this list of ll birds, only Cheer Pheasant has been
confirmed till now, but more are likely to be present once we have
more infonnation on the bird life of this IBA.
Westem Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalus
Endsnic Bind Arm 128: Western I-limalayas
Westem Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalus
OTHER KEY FAUNA
The main large mammals found in this sanctuary are Snow
Leopard Uncia uncia, Musk Deer Moschus chrysogasler, Bharal
Pseudois nayaur, Himalayan Tahr Hemitragus jemlahicus,
Asiatic Black Bear Ursus thibetanus at high altitudes, bordering
alpine and subalpine regions. At lower elevations, Goral
Nemorhaedus goral, Serow Nemorhaedus sumatraensis, Leopard
Panthera pardus, and Common Langur Semnopithecus enrellus
are found. No information is available on smaller mammals,
reptiles and other fauna.
LAND USE
q Agriculture
465
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Inportant Bird Areas in India — Hiwachal Pradesh
THREATS AND CONSERVATION ISSUES
q Hydroelectric project
r: Hunting
The villagers of Sangla WLS are by and large agrarian. During
recent years, the Sangla WLS which is in the extreme westem
part of Kinnaur district, is open to outside influences, and has seen
a great deal of commercialization, specially in the main Baspa
Valley. Huge hydroelectric projects called Baspa I and Baspa II
have changed the face of the area forever. The construction of the
Vidyut Pariyojana has brought in roads, equipment of building
construction, engineers and infrastructure. In addition to being
employed in the hydroelectric projects, the villagers have started
growing apple and other fruits as commercial crops. Agriculture,
however, continues to be the major occupation of the local
residents.
The conditions of people living in upper Baspa Valley, including
the villages of Chitkul, Mastrang, and others, are in direct contrast
to those of the Baspa Valley. People in these remote villages are
poor, mostly illiterate and cling to age-old customs and traditions.
In the past, after snowfall, hunting of wild animals had been their
major occupation. The Musk Deer used to be ruthlessly hunted for
its musk pod, which fetched them a good price in the market towns
of Rampur, Shimla and Amritsar. Even today, the local people say
466
that the Musk Deer of Chitkul forests produces the best quality and
quantity ofmusk in the whole Himalayan region. Most ofthe people
are non»vegetarian. Barking deer or Mtmtj ac, which once had a good
population, has now become almost extinct because of persecution
for meat. Mona] pheasant has been traditionally hunted for its crest
feathers, which the villagers wear on their caps, as a status symbol.
Other pheasants are also killed for meat.
KEY CONTRIBUTOR
Sanjeeva Pandey
KEY REFERENCES
BirdI.ifc Intemational (undated) Important Bird Areas (1BAs) in Asia:
Project briefing book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.,
unpublished.
Champion, I-I. G. and Seth, S. K. (1968) A revised sun/ey of the forest
types of India. Govt. oflndia Press, Delhi. Pp. 403.
Singh, S., Kothari, A, and Pande, P. (Eds) (1990) Directory ofnalional
parks and sanctuaries in Hirnachal Pradesh: management status and
profiles. Indian Institute ofPublic Administration, New Delhi. Pp l64.
Stattersfield, A. J., Crosby, M. J., Long, A. J. and Wege, D. C. (1998)
Endemic Bird Areas of the World.” Priorities for Biodiversity
Conservation. BirdLife Conservation Series No. 7. BirdLife
International, Cambridge, U.K.
7| c466n466 K466 E if

1%
Inportzant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
GENERAL DESCRI PT ION
The valley from north to west of Sarah, below Dharamshala town,
is a rare example ofa valley at the foot of the Dhauladhar Range
that is still largely covered with good forest, despite the fact that
human population pressure is high in this zone, Which has large
well watered areas ideal for agriculture. There are only a few
valleys that connect the dry deciduous forests of the Siwalik Hills
to the temperate forests on the higher Dhauladhar Range. The forest
in the valley around Sarah is more lush than most of the forests
found in the Shiwaliks. It is a fine example of broad-leaf forest in
a zone where most forests have given way to intensive, irrigated
agriculture or to plantation of pine trees.
Sub-tropical mixed forest with good undergrowth and deciduous
and broad-leafed species interspersed with Chir Pine trees cover
this area. The higher reaches of the valley are partly covered by
tea gardens.
AV I FAUNA
Except for two species of vultures (Slender-billed Gyps tenuirustris
and Oriental White—backed Gyps bengalensis) that have recently
been listed in the Red Data Book (BirdLife lntemational 2001),
and which are in any case widespread, there are no globally
threatened species or restricted range species found in Sarah Valley.
However, the forest in this Valley sustains healthy populations of
birds that have disappeared from many other valleys at the foot of
the Dhauladhar (J. W. den Besten, pers. comm. 2003). Many
species here are typical of the Siwaliks, and even more than the
Siwalik forests, they include high densities of wintering species
from Biome-5 and Biome-7. Breeding species of Biome—8 and
Biome-ll are also found here.
This is one of the few sites that Was selected more or less purely
on the basis of biome restricted assemblages (A3 criteria). Perhaps,
there are more such sites in Himachal Pradesh but data are lacking.
Sarah Valley lies in Sino»Himalayan Subtropical Forest (Biome-
8). BirdLife Intemational (undated) has listed 95 species, put of
which l4 species have been seen here, but more are likely to be
found. As biome-7 (Sino-Himalayan Temperate Forest) overlaps
with Biome-8 and many species show altitudinal movement,
33 of Biome-7 are seen in Sarah Valley.
K STE (JOE I IN—l-lP—Z2
SE12 : Himachal Pradesh
Difizict : Kangra
Coordinates : 32° 11′ 56″ N, 76° 20′ 36″ E
Onmarsliip 1 Emacs
Area : Not available
Altiturb : 700 — 1,400 m
kinfill : 2,000*3,000mm
Tarperatinze : 0 “C to 40 °C
Biogaographic Zane : Himalaya
Efizitats : Himalayan Moist Terrperate,
Himalayan Secondary Scrub
During winter, four species of Biome-5 (Eurasian High Montane
~ Alpine and Tibetan) are seen here (Himalayan Griffon Gyps
himalayensis, Wallcreeper Tichodmma muraria, Olivaceous Leaf
Warbler Phylloscopus griseolus and Rosy Pipit Anthus roseatus).
Except for the Himlayan Griffon which is largely confined to the
Himalayas (with altitudinal movement), the three remaining species
winter in the foothills and north Indian plains, so their presence in
Sarah Valley is not surprising. However, what is most interesting
about this IBA is the presence of at least 15 species ofBiome-ll
(Indo-Malayan Tropical Dry Zone). This is due to the fact that
this relatively wet Valley is connected with the dry deciduous forest
of the Siwaliks and many birds of Siwalik and plains move in
during summer for breeding in this Valley. Thus, we have a site
where we can see resident birds from the high Himalayas and also
from the dry Indian plains, mixing with birds of the middle and
lower Himalayas. Many species are temporarily and spatially
separated but all are found in this IBA at one time of the year or
another.
(kitically Ehciangzed
Oriental White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalenris
Slcndcr~billcd Vulture Gyps tenuirostris
Slaty-headed Parakeet Psirtacula himalayana
B_lTz:ck-winged Cuckoo~Shrikc I
Rosy Minivet
Himalayan Bulbul
Black Bulbul
Bluc~hcaded Rock-Thrush
Tickell’s Thmsh
Grey-winged Blackbird Turdus boulboul
Rusty-cheeked Scimitar- Babbler Pomatorhinus erythrogenys
Black-chinned Babbler Slachyris pyrrhops
Grey~headcd Flycatchcr~Warbler Seicercus xanthorchistos
Red-headed Tit
Black—headcd Jay
Grey Treepie
Coracimz melaschistos
Pericrocolur roseus
Pycnonatus leucagenys
Hypsipetes Ieucocephalus
Monticola cinclorhynchus
T urdux unicolor
Aegilhalos concinnus
Garrulus Ianceolatus
Dendmcittu formasae
467
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8%
Important Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
OTHER KEY FAUNA
Not much is know about the mammalian and reptilian fauna of
this site. Leopard Panthem pardus is common, as in most of the
mid- to low-level forests of Himachal Praclesh, Barking Deer
Muntiacus muntjak, is its natural prey, but cattle it commonly killed,
much to the resentment of villagers. Toddy Cat Paradoxurus
hermaphrnditus, Himalayan Yellow-throated Marten Martes
flavigula, and Porcupine Hystrix indica are the smaller predators.
Monitor Lizard Vamnus bengalensis is said to occur in this IBA.
4sa
| c46BM468 K468 ‘E l
LAND USE
11 Tea production
q Agriculture in very small plots
THREATS AND CONSERVATION ISSUES
:1 Forest fires
ci Illegal felling
L1 Grazing
q Collection of firewood and animal fodder
Though the area is under no particular protection, the forest is
well maintained and developed by the local citizens who depend
on it for their livelihood.
KEY CONTRIBUTOR
Jan Willem den Besten
KEY REFERENCES
l3ird.Lit”c Intcmational (undated) Important Bird Areas (1BAs) in Asia:
Project briefing book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.,
unpublished.
BirdLife International (2001) Threatened Birds of Asia: The BirdLife
International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

19%
Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
GENERAL DESCRI PT ION
This Sanctuary lies in Chamba district, 113 km from Chamba town.
Access is from Kilar by foot to Sechu (15 km), altematively via
Kishtwar in Jarnmu and Kashmir to Saisu and onwards by foot to
Sechu. The Sanctuary includes several glaciers. Hindu and
Buddhist temples are also located at Bhat, Tuan, Hilu, Chrroti and
Kalichor. There are ll villages inside the Sanctuary, with a total
population of more than a thousand people. Fourteen villages with
a population of about 3,000 are located in the surrounding area.
The number of livestock grazing inside the Sanctuary is above
3,000 (Singh et al. 1990).
According to Champion and Seth (1968), three forest types are
found in this IBA: Dry Alpine Scrub, Moist Alpine Scrub, and
Lower Westem Himalayan Temperate Forest. Species of medicinal
value include Aconitum hetemphyllum. Jurinea macrocephala and
Ephedra gemrdiana (Singh et al. 1990). Plantations of fuelwood
and other commercial forest products have been established by
the Forest Department. Species planted include Cedar Cedrus
deadara, Poplar Salix sp., Kail Pinus wallichiana, Willow Alnus,
Robinia Robinia sp. and Walnut Juglans regia (Singh et al. 1990).
AV I FAUNA
There is a paucity of published records on the birds of this
Sanctuary. Singh er al. ( 1990) provide a preliminary list of 16 bird
UARY
EA Site GAE I IN—l’lP—Z3
$312 : Himachal Pradesh
Distdd: : Chamba
Cooniinates : 32° 30′ ll” N, 76° 49′ 44″ E
mmership : State
Area Z 1.0, 295 ha
Altitrxh : 2,550 — 6,072 m
Eirrfzll : 5 0 O mm
ilarperatuze Z -20 °C to 27 °C
c Zone : Himalaya
Efixitats : Himalayan Moist Tenperate,
Alpine Moist Scrub, and Dry Apljne
Scrub F011-fit
Western Himalayas) ,
nperate Forest)
n 1962
species recorded in the Sanctuary, but considering the size and
altitude gradient, there could be ten times more species. Five
species from Biome-5 (Eurasian High Montane (Alpine and
Tibetian) and four of Biome-7 (Sino-Himalayan Temperate Forest)
have been identified in the preliminary list. The globally threatened
Western Tragopan Tragopan melunucephalus is present in this
IBA, but its density and distribution are not known. Himalayan
Snowcock Tetraagallus himalayensis, Himalayan or Impeyan
Monal Lophophorus impejanus and Koklass Pheasant Pucrasia
macrolopha are found here but data on general bird life is lacking.
The site is considered Data Deficient till We have more information
on avifauna.
Western Tragopan Tragapan melanocephalus
Enrhnic Bind Azaa 128: Western I-Iirnalayas
Westem Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalus
_/’ I/:3. _ ~. _ . 1,1. 5 . T
. =w.\*.~: » _ ;;.: ;.-:;_-. f >_.:-‘._#.;.~.:._—
Himalayan Griffon Gyps himalayensis
Himalayan Snowcock
Snow Partridge
Tetraogallus himalayemis
Lewra Iewra
Columba Ieuconota
Alpine Accentor Pmnella collaris
Biane-7: sine aiaiparaee lbrest
Koklass Pheasant Pucrasia macrulopha
Snow Pigeon
Himalayan Monal Lophophoms impejanus
Simla Crested tit Parus rufonuchalis
Green-backed Tit Parus munticolus
OTHER KEY FAUNA
Sechu Tuan is a high altitude sanctuary with significant populations
of Himalayan Ibex Capra sibirica and Musk deer Muschus
chrysogasten Snow Leopard Uncia uncia has also been reported
(Singh et 111. 1990).
In the alpine and sub-alpine regions, besides the Snow Leopard,
Ibex Capra sibirica, Blue Sheep Pxeudois nayaur and Himalayan
Mouse Hare or Pika Ochotona roylei have been recorded. At
slightly lower elevations, Asiatic Black Bear Ursus thibetanus,
469
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7| c47on47o K470 _$_ if
Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
Brown Bear Ursus arctus, Goral Nemorhaedus goral, Serow
Nemorhzledus sumatraensis, and Himalayan Tahr Hemitragus
jemlahieus can be seen.
LAND USE
cf Agriculture
W Grazing
THREATS AND CONSERVATI ON I SSUES
G Human habitation
c Firewood collection
cf Illegal felling of trees
W Forest fires
The villagers hold rights or leases for the collection of timber and
fuelwood, agriculture, settlement, burial grounds and religious
practices. There are 23 km of Public Works Department roads,
and Irrigation Department pipelines and canals within the
Sanctuary. In addition, about 3 ha is used for schools by the
Education Department, and some area for medical dispensaries at
470
Chasog. Timber extraction goes on under Forest Development
Corporation, and the Forest Department maintains three nurseries
(Singh et al. I990).
Rodgers and Panwar (1988) have recommended upgrading of this
Sanctuary to a National Park status as this site still has viable
populations of high altitude mammals and pheasants.
KEY CONTRIBUTOR
Sanjeeva Pandey
KEY REFERENCES
Champion, H. G. and Seth, S. K. (I968) A revised survey of the forest
types oflndia. Govt. of India Press, Delhi. Pp. 403.
Rodger, W. A. and Panwar, H. S. (1988) Planning a Protected Area Network
in India. 2 Vols, Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun.
Singh, S., Kothari, A. and Pande, P. (Eds) (1990) Directory q/”national
parks and sanctuaries in Himachal Pradesh: management status‘
undpro/iles. Indian Institute ot‘Publie Administration, New Delhi.
Pp I64.
8% 5%

l til
Inportzant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
This high altitude Sanctuary is named afier the goddess Shikari
Devi, to whom a temple is dedicated and the place is considered
sacred by Hindus. An area of 7,200 ha surrounding the temple
was declared a sanctuary in 1962. Nearly 40 villages are present
inside the Sanctuary, and many more in the surrounding areas.
However, there are still good habitats for wild animals. Even the
Snow Leopard Uncia uncia has been reported from this site in
Winter but it needs confinnation.
Owing to great variation in altitude, Shikari Devi Sanctuary has
seven forest types, according to the classification by Champion
and Seth (1968): Alpine Pasture, Sub-alpine Forest, Moist
Temperate Deciduous Forest, West Himalayan Upper Oak/Fir
forest, Kharsu Oak Forest, Western Mixed Coniferous Forest, and
Ban Oak Forest (Singh er al. 1990). This Sanctuary covers the
middle altitudinal range from 1,800 to 3,400 m ofthe Himalayas,
showing transition from pine through oak to alpine meadow
(Rodgers and Panwar 1988). lnfomiation on percentage of different
K S112 Qxle I IN—HP—Z4
SE1: : Hil11£iCl’lZ;\l Pradesh
Difizict : Mandi
Coordinates : 31° 31‘ 22″ N, 77° 10‘ 31″ E
(Mnership : State
Area : 7, 200 ha
Altitutb 1 1,800 — 3, 359 m
Einfill : 1 , O 3 8 mm
Ellaipezatuze : Not available
Biogeographic Zone : Himalaya
Ifiitats 2 Hinalayan Nbist Tarperate Forest,
Sub—alpine Fbrest, Alpire
!\/Dist Scrub
iestern Himalayas) ,
nparate Forest)
n 1962
forest types and their ecological condition is not available.
However, there are some good patches of temperate forest that
have representative bird fauna of the Western Himalayas.
AVI FAUNA
Not much information is available about bird life of this site, except
that the globally threatened Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii is
found, probably in good numbers. Himalayan or lmpeyan Monal
Lophophorus impejanus, Koklass Pheasant Pucrasia macrolapha,
Kaleej Lophura leucomelana and Westcm Tragopan Tragopan
melanocephalus are also found. The last species needs
confirmation from this site.
This IBA lies in the Western Himalayas Endemic Bird Area (EBA).
It also has biome-restricted species of Eurasian High Montane
(Biome-5) and Sino-Himalayan Temperate Forest (Biome-7).
BirdLife International (undated) has listed 48 species in Biome-5.
From the preliminary list that we have, we could find only five
species, most of them quite common and of no conservation
concem. Similarly, in Biome-7, ll2 species are listed but we could
find published evidence of only four species. This indicates the
paucity of information and not paucity ofbird life of this IBA. If
more detailed studies are conducted on birds, perhaps more biome
and globally threatened species would be found.
Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii
Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii

Himalayan Griffon Gyps himalayensis
Altai Accentor
Plaiirbacked Thrush
Tickell’s Warbler
Wallcreeper Tichodroma muraria
Kcklass Pheasant Pucraria macmlopha
Himalayan Monal
Simla Crested Tit
Green-backed Tit
Prunella himalayana
Zoothera mollissima
Phyllnscopus afiinis
Lophophoms impejanus
Pnrus mfonuchalis
Parus monticolus
471
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Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
OTHER KEY FAUNA
Shikari Devi WLS has several high altitude mammals such as
Asiatic Black Bear Ursus thibetanus and Goral Nemorhaedus
goral. There are unconfirmed reports of Snow Leopard. At
temperate forest level, Leopard Panthera pardus, Barking Deer
Muntiacus muntjak. Langur Semnapithecus entellus and Rhesus
Macaque Macaca mu/atta are reported. The Giant Flying Squirrel
Petaurista petaurista albiventer, Kashmir Flying Squirrel
Hylopetesfimbriatus, Stone Marten Martesfoina, and Himalayan
Weasel Mustela sibirica are also found here‘ There is no
information on the reptile fauna.
LAND USE
.~ Agriculture
<1 Nature conservation
THREATS AND CONSERVATION ISSUES
:1 Grazing
q Human habitation
o Collection of fuelwood and other forest produce
<5 Poaching
Despite its sacred status, the Sanctuary is under tremendous human
pressure from fuelwood collection, grazing (both local and
nomadic), collection of minor forest produce, medicinal plants and
472
grass. During the annual religious fair in May-June, thousands of
pilgrims visit the shrine and also bring pressure on the scarce
resources. Poaching ofMusk Deer for musk pod is still a problem.
Pheasants and smaller animals are trapped for the pot.
Rodgers and Panwar ( l 988) have suggested increasing the Sanctuary
area to 31,400 ha by incorporating surrounding forest land, to allow
development of a core disturbance-free area. The westem ridge with
alpine pasture should be included. This will protect important habitat
for many high altitude mammals and birds.
KEY CONTRIBUTOR
Sanjeeva Pandey
IGIY REFERENCES
BirdLifc International (undated) Important Bird Areas (1BAs) in Asia:
Project briefing baak. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.,
unpublished.
Champion, H. G. and Seth, S. K. (I968) A revised survey 0/’ the /arest
types aflndia, Govt. of India, Dclhi. Pp. 403.
Rodgers, W. A. and Panwar, H. S. (I988) Planning a Protected Area
Network in India. 2 vol. Wildlife Institutc oflnclia, Dchradun.
Singh, S., Kothari, A. and Pande, P. (Eds) (1990) Directory afnatianal
parks and sanctuaries in Himachal Pradesh: management status and
pm/iles. Indian Institute ofPublic Administration, New Delhi. Pp 164.
5% H}
| c472M472 K472 E. l

$
Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
GENERAL DESCRI PT ION
This IBA is one of the few sanctuaries in the state free from human
habitation, mainly due to a long history of protection and the steep
terrain which discouraged human habitation. It was protected in
British India as the catchment area for supply of water to Shimla,
the summer capital of the British. After India’s Independence in
1947, the area came under state control and was notified as a
protected forest in 1952. To the south, it is connected by a forest
corridor to Chail Sanctuary (another IBA). The Sanctuary area is
within the purview of the Simla Municipal Corporation.
The entire Sanctuary is forested, mostly with temperate
coniferous forest. Cedar Cedrus deodara is predominant, mixed
with Ban Oak Quercus incana and Chir Pine Pinus roxburghii at
lower altitudes, and Fir Abies pindrow, Blue Pine Pinus
wallichiana, Mom Oak Quercus. dilatata and Spruce Picea
smithiana at higher altitudes. Shrub and ground layers are
generally well developed, with shrubs covering 50% of the area.
Ground vegetation is mainly grasses, but includes a variety of
ferns and forbs (Gaston 1979).
AV I FAUNA
Documentation on the avifauna is limited to pheasants. The density
of Koklass Pheasant Pucrasia macrolopha, estimated at 17-25 pairs
per sq. km in April 1979, is probably close to the maximum reached
under natural conditions (Gaston et al. 1981). Similar densities
were recorded by P. J. Garson in 1988. The population of Kaleej
Pheasant Lophura leucomelanox also appears to be large (Gaston
et al. 1981) but actual density estimates are not available.
This IBA lies in the Western Himalayas Endemic Bird Areas
(EBA). It also has biome-restricted species of Sino-Himalayan
Temperate Forest (Biome-7) and some of Sino-Himalayan
Subtropical Forest (Biome-8). BirdLife International (undated) has
listed 112 species in Biome-7. From the preliminary list that We
have, We could find only seven species at this site, most of them
quite common and of no conservation concern. Similarly, in the
Biome-8, 95 species are listed but We could find published
infomiation on the occurrence of only four species from this site.
This shows the paucity of infomiation and not paucity of bird life
of this IBA. If detailed studies of birds are conducted, perhaps
more biome and globally threatened species would be found in
this site.
UARY
IBA Site COKE Z IN—I~1P—25
Sate : Himachal Pradesh
Disfid: : Shimla, Kufri
Ckxmdinatzes : 31“ O6‘ O0″ N, ’77“ 14‘ 30″ E
Ownership : State
Area : 1, O25 ha
A’l.titu:b : 1,500 — 3, 324 m
Eirlfill : 8 7 4 mm
filarpezamze : 7 °C to 28 °C
Biogographic Zone : Himalaya
I-Haitats : Himalayan Mvist Temperate Forest:
Western Himalayas) ,
n 1958
This site is selected as an IBA due to the presence ofthe globally
threatened Cheer Pheasant, and also the presence of middle-altitude
forest of the lower ranges of the Westem Himalayas‘ As we do
not have much information on the general bird life, the site is
considered as Data Deficient.
—=1===*=1=
Cheer Pheasant Calreus wallichii
Endemic Bizd Area 128: Westem Himalayas
Cheer Pheasant Cutreus wullichii
Koklass Pheasant Pucraria macrolopha
Speckled Wood-Pigeon Columba hodgsonii
Himalayan Pied Woodpecker Dendrocopos himalayanrzs
Simla Crested Tit Parus rufonuchalis
Spot~Winged Crested Tit Parus melanolophus
Green-backed Tit Pam: monlicolus
Yellow-billcd Blue Magpie Urocissa/Zavirostris
OTHER KEY FAUNA
Large mammals include Leopard Panthem pardus, Barking Deer
or Indian Muntjak Muntiacus muntjak, and Goral Nemorhaedus
goral. Non—human primates include the Rhesus Macaque Macaca
mulatta and Common Langur Semnopithecus entellus. The Yellow-
throated Marten Martes flavigula, and Porcupine Hystrlh indica
are also found (Gaston et al. 1981, 1983). Flying Squirrel
Petaurista petaurista is also present, but the Himalayan Musk Deer
Moschus chrysogaster, of which Gaston (1979) had found signs
in this area, may be locally extinct (Green 1981).
LAND USE
q Nature conservation and research
q Water catchment
THREATS AND CONSERVATION ISSUES
q Illegal grazing
Shimla Water Catchment area represents the only remaining
undisturbed middle altitude forest in the lower ranges of the
Westem Himalayas and is the main water catchment area for
Shimla (Gaston et al. 1981, Singh et al. 1990).
473
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Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
Apart from a little tree felling during World War II, the area has
been totally protected, since settlements were relocated in the early
part of the 20″‘ Century (Gaston et al. 1981). Public access is
prohibited, but permits are issued for extraction of fodder.
KEY CONTRIBUTOR
IBA team
KEY REFERENCES
BirdLife International (undated) Important Bird Areas (IB/ls) in Asia.”
Project briefing book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.,
unpublished.
Gaston, A. J. (I979) Preliminary reports on the results of the course on
‘Techniques for Censusing Pheasants’, Z1-28 April 1979, Simla Water
474
| c474n474 K474 _$_ i
Catchment Area and Chail Reserve, Himachal Pradesh. Unpublished
report to World Pheasant Association and Himachal Pradesh Forest
Department.
Gaston, A. J., Hunter, M. L. Jr, and Garson, P. J. (1981) The wildlife of
Himachal Pradesh, Westem Himalayas. University of Maine School
of Forest Resources Technical Notes No. 82. Pp 159.
Gaston, A. J., Garson, P. J. and Hunter, M. L. Jr. (1983) The status and
conservation of forest wildlife in I-Iimachal Pradesh, Western
Himalayas. Biolagiral Conservation 27: 291-314.
Green, M. J. B. (1981) Himalayan musk deer, India. Progress Report No.
7. WWF Project No. 1328. P. 14.
Singh, S., Kothari, A. and Pandc. P. (Eds) (1990) Directory af national
parks and sanctuaries in Himachal Pradesh: management status and
prq/iles. Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi. Pp 164.
8% 5%

1%
Inportant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
GENERAL DESCRI PTION
Talra Wildlife Sanctuary was first notified in 1962 and then
renotified in I974, under the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act
1972. During the British period, and for almost two decades
after Independence, it was a popular hunting area for big game
as well as birds. Hunters used to come here for Asiatic Black
Bear Ursus thibetanus, Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjak and
pheasants. Poachers hunted Musk Deer Moschus chrysogaster.
In order to protect these animals, and also to protect the
catchment areas of perennial streams, this Sanctuary came into
existence. However, due to the growth in human population,
very few areas are now left undisturbed. Only steep and
inaccessible areas harbour natural forest and wildlife
(Singh et al. 1990).
Two main forest types seen here are: West Himalayan Upper Oak/
Fir Forest and Lower Western Himalayan Temperate Forest,
according to the classification of Champion and Seth (1968).
AV I FAUNA
The globally threatened Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii and
Western Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalus are seen in small
numbers, while Himalayan or Impeyan Monal Laphophorus
impejanus and Koklass Pucrasia macrolopha are fairly
common.
Mahabal (2000) has identified 61 species from this Sanctuary.
Fifty-one are resident birds, most of them quite common. The
site lies in Biome-7 (Sino-Himalayan Temperate Forest) and
Biome-8 (Sino-Himalayan Subtropical Forest). Birds of both
these biomes were seen but most birds belong to Biome-7.
Biome-7 occurs between c. 1,800 m to 3,600 m, which is also
the range ofthis site (1,500 – 3,324 m). Biome-8 ranges from c.
1,000 m to 2,000 m so for some altitudinal range, both these
biomes overlap. Moreover, many species show altitudinal
movement so it is not unexpected that they are seen in different
biomes. At this IBA site, 17 species of Biome-7, 5 species of
Biome-8 and one species ofBiome-5 (Himalayan Griffon Gyps
himalayensix) are found.
This IBA lies in the Western Himalayas Endemic Bird Areas
(EBA). Two restricted range species are found, both happen
to be also globally threatened birds (BirdLife International
2001).
IBA Siw (30% I IN—HP—Z6
State : Himachal Pradesh
Distdd: : Shimla
Coordinates : 31° Ol‘ 40″N, 77° 46‘ 59″E
Ownership : State
Area : 2, 600 ha
Altitzb : 1,500 — 3,324 tn
Eillfill : 874 mm, and snow in winter
‘1‘erpezatune Z -7 °C to 28 °C
B Zone : Himalaya
Ifiitzli : Himalayan Mzist Tarperate Forest
5ub—trop1<:il Forest)
-stem Himalayas)
ternber 1962
Western Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalux
Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii
Endenic BizdAraa 128: Western Himalayas
Wcstem Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalux
Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii
Koklass Pheasant Pucrasia macmlopha
Himalayan Monal Lophophorus impejanus
Speckled Wood~Pigcon Columba hodgsanii
Himalayan Pied Woodpecker Dendrocopos himalayenxis
Whitc~throatcd Laughingthrush Garrulax albogularis C
Straited Laughingthrush Garrulaac slriatus
Strcakcd Laughingthnish C
Rufous Sibia
Rusty~tailcd Flycatcher
Simla Crested Tit
Rufous-bellied Tit
Spot-Winged Crested Tit
Grecmbackcd Tit
Yellow-browed Tit
Bar tailed Tree~Crecpcr
Yellow-breasted Greenfinch
Garrulax lineatus
Hetemphasia capislrala
Muscicapa mfioauda
Parus mfonuchalis
Parus rubidiventvis
Paras melanolophus
Parus manticolux
Sylviparus modestus
Czrthin himalayana
Carduelis spinoides
Yellow-billed Blue Magpie Urocissaflavirostris
Tickell‘s Thrush Turdu: unicolor
Grey~winged Blackbird Turdux boulboul
Rusty~cheeked Scimitar-Babbler Pomalorhinus erjvthmgenys
Brown Prinia Prinia criniger C
Redheaded Tit Aegilhalos concinnus
OTHER KEY FAUNA
Asiatic Black Bear Ursus thibetanus and Leopard Panthera pardus
are the major predators on Barking Deer Muntiacux muntjak, Musk
deer Mnschus chrysogaster and Goral Nemorhaedus garal.
Common Langur Semnopithecus entellus is common, especially
at lower elevations.
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Important Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
LAND USE
1; Agriculture
r. Human habitation
q Grazing
F! Collection of Non Timber Forest Produce
THREATS AND CONSERVATION ISSUES
q Grazing
rt Poaching
L; Tree felling
Biotic pressure in this IBA is extremely high. There is one village
inside the Sanctuary and seven on the periphery, with a total
population of more than 5,000. Villagers have rights and leases
for grazing, collection of Non-Timber Forest Produce, fuelwood
and medicinal plants. Graziers (gujjars) from outside also come
to this area. All this puts great pressure on the limited resources of
this small sanctuary.
476
KEY CONTRIBUTOR
[BA Team
KEY REFERENCES
BirdLife International (2001) Threatened Birds afAsia.’ The BirdLz_’/ie
International Red Data Book. BirdLifc lntemational, Cambridge,
U.K.
Champion, H. G. and Scth, S. K. (1968) A revised survey qf forest types
oflndia, Govt. oflndia Press, Delhi. Pp. 403.
Mahabal, A (2000) Birds of Talra Wildlife sanctuary in Lower Wcstcrn
Himalaya, H.P., with notes on their status and altitudinal movements.
Zoo Ir Print Journal 15(10): 334338.
Singh, S., Kothari, A. and Pande, P. (Eds) (1990) Directory afnational
parks and sanctuaries in Hirnachal Pradesh: management status and
profiles. Indian Instimte of Public Administration, New Delhi, Pp
164.
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Inporizant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
GENERAL DESCRI PT ION
This high altitude Sanctuary in Kullu district is adjacent to the
Great Himalayan National Park. Part of its originally declared area
has now been included in the Great Himalayan National Park.
The Sanctuary fonns part of the catchment area of the Tirthan
river. There are a great variety of forest types due to the variations
in altitude.
Forest types include Ban Oak Forest, Moist Deodar Forest, Western
Mixed Coniferous forest, Moist Temperate Deciduous Forest,
Kharsu Oak Forest and alpine pastures (Singh et ul. 1990).
AV I FAUNA
Except for a brief description in Singh et al. (1990), not much
information is available in the literature, particularly on the
avifauna of this area. Westem Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalus
and Cheer Pheasant Carreus wallichii, two globally threatened
species, are found here (R. Kaul pers. comm. 2002). Other
pheasants found are Himalayan or In-ipeyan Mona] Lophophorus
impejanus, Koklass Pheasant Pucrasia macralopha and Red
Junglefowl Gallus gallus.
According to the endemic bird areas of the world, described by
Stattersfield et al. (1998), Tirthan WLS would come under the
Western Himalayas Endemic Bird Areas (EBA). This important
EBA of India has l l Restricted Range (endemic) birds, out Which
three have been identified from this site. Once we have a detailed
bird list, perhaps more restricted range species would be found
here.
This site also has biome-restricted species of Biome-7 (Sino-
Himalayan Temperate Forest) and Biome-5 (Eurasian High
Montane» Alpine and Tibetan). BirdLife Intemational (undated)
has listed 112 species in Biome-7. We could find evidence of only
two Biome-7 species. As we do not have a good bird list of this
site, we do not know how many more birds of this biome are found
here. Similarly, data on Biome—5 species are also lacking. Based
on the available list of mammals and the extent of forest cover
available, it is likely that many restricted range and biome-restricted
bird species would be present in this IBA. As it adjoins the Great
Himalayan NP, Where the bird life is comparatively better known
(300 species of birds: Gaston et al. 1994), it is likely that similar
number of birds are present in Tirthan also. Nevertheless, presently
we are considering this as a Data Deficient site as far as general
i STE 00$ I IN—HP—Z7
SE12 : Himaclqal Pradesh
Difizict : Kullu
Coordinates : 31° 36‘ 49″ N, 77° 34‘ 21″ E
Qmarship : State
Area Z 6, 112 ha
Altiturb : 2,100 — 4,875 l’l’\
Rsinfill : 1 , 500 mm
Tarperatinze : -5 °C to 30 °C
Biogaographic Zane : Himalaya
namam ; Alpine D/bist: Scrub, Alpine Arid
Pasture, l/butane Grassy Slopes,
Sibtrqaiml Broadleaf mu Fbmst.
tern Himalayas) ,
n l 9 92
bird life is considered. We have included Tirthan WLS in the IBA
list based on confimied evidence of two globally threatened and
one restricted range species.
IIIIIIIIIEHEEIIIIIIIII
Westem Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalus
Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii
Endanic Bird Area 128: Westem Himalayas
Westem Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalus
Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichii
White-cheeked Tit Aegithalas leucogenys
Bihre-7: S:i.no—!-Izimalayan Ibist
Koklass Pheasant Pucraxia macrolopha
Himalayan Monal Lophophorus impejanus
OTHER KEY FAUNA
This high altitude sanctuary has records of Snow Leopard Uncia
uncia and its wild ungulate prey such as Blue Sheep or Bharal
Pseudois nayaur, Musk Deer Muschus chrysogaster and
Himalayan Tahr Hemitragus jemlahicus. At lower elevations,
Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjak, Ibex Capra ribirica and Serow
Nemorhaedus sumatraensis and their predator Leopard Panthera
4-/1
l C477M477 K477 _EE_ |
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Inportgant Bird Areas in India — Himachal Pradesh
pardus have been reported. Other species include Brown Bear
Ursus arctos and Asiatic Black Bear Ursus thibetanus. The
Common Giant Flying Squirrel Petaurista petaurista albiventer,
Kashmir Flying Squirrel Hylopetes fimbriatus, Stone Marten
Martesfoina, Himalayan Weasel Mustela sibirica, Golden Jackal
Canis aureus and Langur Serrmopithecus entellus are some other
mammal species recorded.
LAND USE
W Nature conservation and research
1; Tourism and recreation
THREATS AND CONSERVATION ISSUES
r. Buming of vegetation
1; Grazing
:7 Firewood collection
of Timber extraction
rt Mining
The people living in surrounding areas have rights to grazing,
478
quarrying, agriculture, collection of timber, fuelwood and minor
forest produce.
KEY CONTRIBUTOR
IBA team
KEY REFERENCES
Bird.Lifc International (undatcd) Important Bird Areas (1BAs) in Asia:
Project briefing book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.,
unpublished.
Gaston, A. J., Garson, P. J. and Pandey, St (1994) Birds recorded in the
Great Himalayan National Park. Forktail 9: 45-57.
Singh, S., Kothari, A. and Pande, P. (Eds) (1990) Directory ofnalional
parks and sanctuaries in Himachal Pradesh: management status
andprofiles. Indian Institute ofPublic Administration, New Delhi.
Pp |e4.
Stattersfield, A. I., Crosby, M. _I., Long, A. J. and Wege, D. CA (1998)
Endemic Bird Areas of the World.” Priorities fin Biodiversity
Conservation. BirdLifc Conscrvation Scrics No. 7. BirdLifc
International, Cambridge, U.K.