Aquifer Systems of Himachal Pradesh

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Under the Guidance of
Dr S. C. Dhiman
Chairman, CGWB
Team Leader
Shri Sunil Kumor, Suptd. Hydrogeologist
Principal Contributors
1. Shri S. K.Sinha, Scientist D
2. Shri S K Swuroop, Scientist B
Contributors
1. Shri Vidya Nand, Scientist C
2. Smt Gargee M.B . Sharma, Assistant Hydrogeologist
3. Smt Rachna Bhatti, Assistant Hydrogeologist
4. Shri Anukaran Kujur, Assistant Hydrogeologist
5. Shri J. K . Tandon Draftsman .

AQUIFER SYSTEMS OF
HIMACHAL PRADESH
Compiled Under the Supervision of
Dr. S. C. Dhiman
Chairman

DHRUWIJAI SINGH
SECRETARY
13″‘ September 2012
MESSAGE
Ground water utilization has increased significantly during the last two decades. The unplanned and indiscriminate use of this vital resource has resulted in declining water levels and water quality deterioration in certain areas. The apparent stress on ground water resources is more often a management issue, and this needs to be addressed in a holistic manner, for its long term sustainability, through an integrated approach. Aquifer mapping is an essential step towards the effective management of ground water resources. The atlas entitled “Aquifer Systems of Himachal Pradesh” is a step towards achieving the ultimate goal of aquifer wise management of ground water resources in Himachal Pradesh State.

l congratulate Central Ground Water Board, Ministry of Water Resources for its efforts to bring out this document containing data and information pertaining to various aspects of ground water including aquifer disposition in the State. I am sure this atlas will be of immense use to planners, policy makers, researchers and users involved in ground water sector.

l qgqfigqqfi wfrwrtfiléfiwit-110 001
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
MINISTRY OFWATER RESOURCES
SHRAM SHAKTI BHAWAN
RAFI MARG, NEW DELHI-110 001

Chairman
Government of lndia
Central Ground Water Board
Ministry of Water Resources
Bhujal Bhawan, NH-lV, Faridabad
Foreword
Availability of fresh water has always been a prime consideration in fostering the socio economic
growth of the people. Rapid urbanization coupled with industrialization has resulted in increased
demand of ground water at an alarming rate. Dependence on ground water is increasing
continuously in order to supplement the domestic, agricultural and industrial requirements. In the
last two decades there is a paradigm from development to management of Ground Water. The
management of ground water is to be focussed on aquifers, which act as the repository of ground
water.
To meet these challenges, it has become imperative to formulate aquifer management plan to
establish the priorities for ground water use with community involvement at various levels of
implementation. Central Ground Water Board over the years has generated enormous data on
various aspects of ground water and has been utilised to prepare aquifer maps depicting their
extent and characteristics and are compiled in the form of Atlas on “Aquifer Systems of Himachal
Pradesh”.
This will provide a framework for prioritizing the aquifer level management strategies and build
inventory of the aquifers for better understanding of the groundwater resources. An attempt has
been made to present various aquifer systems in the form of maps by integrating all thematic
information to formulate the aquifer wise ground water management plans.
The sincere efforts of the dedicated team of officers of Central Ground Water Board, North
Himalayan Region, Dharamshala is highly appreciated. I am sure this atlas would be of immense
use in formulating scientifically viable implementable strategies for efficient management of ground
water resources ensuring sustainability.
“{4}
(Dr. S.C. Dhiman)

Contents
Number
Sections
Page No
PREAMBLE
LIST OF PLATES
Plate I
Administrative Divisions
3
Plate II
River Basins
5
Plate III
Principal Aquifer Systems
7
Plate IV
Major Aquifers
9
Plate V
Parliamentary Constituencies
11
Plate VI
Population Density
13
Plate VII
Aquifers – River Basin wise
15
Plate VIII
River Gauge And Discharge Sites
17
Plate IX
Groundwater Exploratory Wells
19
Plate X
Groundwater Observation Wells
Z1
Plate XI
Depth To Water Level (Pre-Monsoon, 2011)
22
Plate XII
Depth To Water Level (Post-Monsoon, 2011)
Z3
Plate XIII
Depth To Water Level (Pre-Monsoon Decadal Mean, 2002-2011)
Z4
Plate XIV
Depth To Water Level (Post-Monsoon Decadal Mean, 2002-2011)
Z5
Plate XV
Water Table Elevation
27
Plate XVI
Water Quality
Z8
Plate XVII
Categorization of Ground Water Assessment (2009)
Z9
Plate XVIII
Alluvium -Aquifer System
31
Plate XIX
Banded Gneissic Complex-Aquifer System
32
Plate XX
Gneiss – Aquifer System
33
Plate XXI
Sandstone- Aquifer System
35
Plate XXII
Schist – Aquifer System
37
Plate XXIII
Limestone – Aquifer System
38
Plate XXIV
Granite – Aquifer System
39
Plate XXV
Shale – Aquifer System
40
Plate XXVI
Quartzite – Aquifer System
41
Plate XXVII
Annual Replenishable Recharge
43
Plate XXVlll
Artificial Recharge- Priority Area (Aquifer Management Plan)
45
Plate XXIX
Water Conservation And Harvesting- Priority Area (Aquifer Management Plan)
47
Plate XXX
Suitable Area For ortfifia Water Development (AquiferfiManagement Plan )
49
Number
Sections Page N0
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1
Administrative Divisions of Himachal Pradesh 2
Table 2
River Basins of Himachal Pradesh 4
Table 3
District wise Distribution of Principal Aquifer Systems 6
Table 4
Aquifer Systems of Himachal Pradesh 8
Table 5
Parliamentary Constituencies of Himachal Pradesh 10
Table 6
Population Census – Himachal Pradesh 12
Table 7
Aquifer Distribution -River Basin wise 14
Table 8a
Number of Gauge and Discharge Sites ln Different Aquifers 16
Table 8b
River Basin wise number of Gauge and Discharge Sites 16
Table 9
District wise and Aquifer Wise distribution of Ground Water Explorato-
ry Tube Wells/ Bore Wells
18
Table 10
District wise and Aquifer Wise distribution of GW Observation Wells 20
Table 11
District wise Ranges of Water Levels 26
Table 12
District wise Distribution & Characteristics of Alluvium Aquifer System 30
Table 13
District wise Distribution & Characteristics of Sandstone Aquifer System 34
Table 14
District wise Distribution & Characteristics of Schist Aquifer System 36
Table 15
Valley Wise Annual Ground Water Resource and Unit Recharge 42
Table 16
District Wise Area Prioritized for Artificial Recharge 44
Table 17
District Wise Area Prioritized for Conservation and Harvesting 46
Table 18
District Wise Area Suitable for Ground Water Development 48
Way Forward 51

Preamble
Himachal Pradesh is one of the hilly State in Himalayan Region with a
geographical area of 55673 sq.km. The population of the State is 6.6 mil-
lion, out of which 90 percent resides in rural areas. The high and rugged
mountain ranges are thinly populated and valley areas are densely popu-
lated. Ground water irrigation through bore wells is confined to valley
areas with a limited use of lifi/tank irrigation. The main crop in the State
is grown during the Kharif season and commercial crops such as apple,
mango, litchi and flowers are grown during the other seasons. Fish and
prawn farming are also popular in the State.
The average annual rainfall for the State is l490 mm spreading over 65
rainy days. Lahaul & Spiti receives lowest rainfall (450 mm) and
Dharamshala of Kangra district receives highest rainfall of 3000 mm.
Snowfall occurs at higher elevations in Chamba, Shimla and Kinnaur dis-
tricts. Geomorphologically, Himachal Region is an integrate mosaic of
mountain ranges, hills and valleys having elevation upto 6500 m. The
major mountain ranges fall under Dhauladhar ranges in Kangra district
and Pir Panjal, Great Himalaya and Zanskar ranges in Lahaul Spiti Dis-
trict.
Chenab, Ravi, Beas, Satluj and Yamuna rivers drain the State with differ-
ent size of catchment. Govind Sagar, Pong dam and Pandoh dam are the
major water storage reservoirs in the State. In addition, there are 66 major
lakes in the State which are being used for irrigation, domestic needs and
ground water recharge. Structurally controlled springs of Himachal Pra-
desh are the major source for drinking water supply especially in hilly
districts. More than 500 springs are tapped by district authorities for
drinking purpose and for bottling of mineral water. The major glaciers of
the State are Barashingi, Chandra, Badal, Bhaga and Keylong.
Geologically, the State is underlained by un-consolidated to consolidated
rock formations of Archaen age to Recent age. The Recent alluvial de-
posits occupies the valley fills/ river courses and Tertiaries of Siwaliks &
ciystallines of Archaen occupies the Higher elevations. CGWB has con-
structed l82 exploratory wells down to 300m depth in the Alluvial and
Sandstone aquifers. The discharges of tube wells varies generally from
100 lpm to 1000 lpm and at places goes to 3000 lpm.
Irrigation and Public health department, Govt. of HP has drilled 30,000
bore wells upto maximum depth 90 m in different parts of the State, and
hand pumps/power pumps has been installed for domestic uses. About
1596 tube wells were constructed for public utility particularly for irriga-
tion and domestic uses by same agencies.
The analysis of the exploratory wells data indicate that in Una, Nallagarh
and Indaura valleys granular zones are limited to 150 m depth. Ground
Water in the State is being monitored four timesa year through network
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Table 1 Admnmstratwe D|v|s|ons
Bilaspur
1167
Chamba
6528
Hamirpur
1118
Kangra
5739
Kinnaur
6401
Kullu
5503
Lahaul & Spiti
13835
Mandi
3950
Shimla
5131
Sirmaur
2825
Solan
1936
Una
1540.

Plate – I
Aquifer Systems of Himachal Pradesh
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Table 4: Aquifer Systems of Himachal Pradesh
Principal Aquifer Systems Aquifer Characteristics
Major Aquifers
SI No
Code Name (D
Thickness of Granular /
EC‘:-g‘:|’AV_ Aquifer */ Fracture
Weathered Zones En-
Zone countered
erage
lm be(l
(mi
lm bell
Yield
(m3/ day)
Code
Name
Area Covered
(Sq km)
Age
1
2
3
4
Alluvium
(4674 sq km)
(8 %i
2-40
Upto 200 * 30-50
120-4665
ALO1
Younger Alluvium (Clay/
Silt/Sand/ Calcareous
concretions)
2100
Quarternary
AL03
Older Alluvium (Silt/Sand/
Gravel/Lithomargic clay)
65
Quarternary
AL06
Valley Fills
1999
Quarternary
AL07
Glacial Deposits
492
Quarternary
6
7
8
9
10
Sandstone
(8988 sq km )
(16 %)
5-35
20 – 100 * 20-70
75-864
STO1
Sandstone/Conglomerate
6270
Upper Palaeozoic
to Cenozoic
ST02
Sandstone with Shale
868
Upper Palaeozoic
to Cenozoic
ST04
Sandstone with Clay
1323
Upper Palaeozoic
to Cenozoic
ST05
Sa ndstone/Conglomerate
63
Proterozoic to
Cenozoic
ST06
Sandstone with Shale
467
Proterozoic to
Cenozoic
11
12
13
14
Shale
(2968 sq km )
(5 %i
10-30
10-70 *
15-50
50-5 60
SH01
Shale with limestone
145
Upper Palaeozoic
to Cenozoic
SH02
Shale with Sandstone
314
Upper Palaeozoic
to Cenozoic
SH04
Shale
1531
Upper Palaeozoic
to Cenozoic
SH05
Shale/Shale with Sand-
stone
979
Proterozoic to
Cenozoic
15
16
17
Limestone
(6328 sq km )
(11 %)
5-40
10-300 *
25-125
40-1600
L@ (j(flLimestone / Dolomite
S438
Upper Palaeozoic
to Cenozoic
LS03
Limestone/Dolomite
706
Proterozoic
LS04
Limestone with Shale
187
Proterozoic
18
iz1(iEa““i? i
(5% m
3.5-30
15 -95
18-60
30-1000
GR02
Acidic Rocks (Pegmatite,
Granite, Syenite, Rhyolite
etc.)
2717
Proterozoic to
Cenozoic
19
20
21
Schist
(17679 sq km )
(32%)
5-20
5-70
10-45
30-300
SC01
Schist
2655
Azoic to P rote ro
zoic
SC02
PhyHHe
3188
Azoic to P rote ro
zoic
22
23
Quartzite
(4680 s km )
(8/ti
no
8-20
8-50
15-30
25 – 350
SC03
QZ02
Slate
11843
Azoic to Protero
zoic
Quartzite
413
Proterozoic to
Cenozoic
Quartzite
4269
Azoic to P rote ro
zoic
24
Banded Gneissic
Complex
(3541 sea km )
(6 %
5-100
18-65
25-500
BG01
Banded Gneissic Complex
(BGC)
3542
Azoic
25
26
(4o§9eisi< )
S m
(7 vii
5-18
5-100
18-65
25-500
GN01
Undifferentiated
metasedimentaries/ Un-
differentiated metamor-
phic
22
Azoic to Prote ro
zoic
GN02
Gneiss
4016
Azoic to P rote ro
zoic
27
Intrusive
(62 sq km )
(0.11 %)
Not Explored so far
(N01
Basic Rocks (Dolerite, An-
orthosite etc.)
62
Proterozoic to
Cenozoic
1′
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Plate -IV
Aquifer Systems of Himachal Pradesh
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Central Ground Water Board
North Himalayan Region
Minis!
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Plate -V Aquifer Systems of Himachal Pradesh
fa 0 12.5 25 50 75 100
‘ ‘ta
Kilometers
954
JUMMU & KASHMIR
Mandi
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Aguifers
\:| Sandstone Schist
Z Gniess KQuartzite
Shale lntrusives
3e:thra:“G,ound Watemoard \:| Limestone [:| Banded Gneissic Complex
0 malayan Region 11
Ministry of Water Resources
Government of India
PARLIAMENTRY CONSTITUENCIES A
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Plate -VII
Aquifer Systems of Himachal Pradesh
; Ii O 12.5 25 50 75 100
Kilometers
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Table 8 a : Number of Gauge and Discharge Sites in Different Aquifers
SI No Aquifer Systems Number of G & D Sites
1 Alluvium 4
4 Sandstone O
5 Shale 0
6 Limestone 1
7 Granite 0
8 Schist 1
9 Quartzite 1
12 BGC O
13 Gneiss O
14 lntrusives 0
Total 7
Table 8 b: River Basin wise number of Gauge and Discharge Sites
SI No Basin Name Number of G & D Sites
1 Beas 0
2 Chenab 4
3 Ghaghar O
4 Indus 0
5 Ravi O
6 Satluj 1
8 Upper Ganga O
9 Yamuna 2
Total 7
Source: Central Water Commission 1 *
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Plate -IX
Aquifer Systems of Himachal Pradesh
010 20 40 so so
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Ministry of Water Resources
Government of India
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Plate -X
Aquifer Systems of Himachal Pradesh
O 12.5 25 50 75 100
Kilometers
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Ministry of Water Resources 21
Government of lndia
GROUND WATER OBSERVATION WELLS A
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Aquifer Systems of Hnmachal Pradesh
DEPTH TO WATER LEVEL
(PREMONSOON 2011)
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Plate -XII
Aquifer Systems of Himachal Pradesh
F?»
Central Ground Water Board
North Himalayan Region
Ministry of Water Resources
Government of India
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Ministry of Water Resources
Government of India
DEPTH TO WATER LEVEL
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Plate -XIV
Aquifer Systems of Himachal Pradesh
<,“°“ “fir Q?“ ° I no (POST MONSOON DECADAL MEAN 2002-2011) Kilometers ’$*§>
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Ministry of Water Resources 25
Government of India
lntrusives
DEPTH TO WATER LEVEL N
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Ground Water \:| Sandstone |:|Schist
Flow Direction I Gniess K Quartzite
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Ministry of Water Resources 27
Government of lndia
WATER TABLE ELEVATION N
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Plate – XVI
Aquifer Systems of Himachal Pradesh
GROUND WATER QUALITY
O 12.5 25 50 75 100
l Kilometers
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Central Ground Water Board Cl Limestone Cl Banded Gnelsslc Complex
North Himalayan Region
Ministry of Water Resouroes 28
Government of India
NS Q
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Plate -XVII
Aquifer Systems of Himachal Pradesh
CEQQQQ
1 Kilometers
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Ministry of Water Resources 29
Government of India
awn” CATEGORIZATION OF GROUND WATER ASSESSMENT UNITS N
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Plate – XIX
Aquifer Systems of Himachal Pradesh
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Plate XX Aquifer Systems of Himachal Pradesh
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Aquifer Systems of Himachal Pradesh
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Aguifers
– Sandstone (ST01)
Sand Stone with Shale (STO2)
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North Himalayan Region
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Schist (SC01)
Phyllite (scoz)
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North Himalayan Region
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Plate – XXIII
Aquifer Systems of Himachal Pradesh
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Aquifer Systems of Himachal Pradesh
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Ministry of Water Resources
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Plate
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/Ti River
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Way Forward
Increased thrust on Ground Water usage, ex-
Data gaps identification on proposed grid at
1:50,000 map using DGPS survey / orthograph-
pected demands from various sectors Vis— Vis re-
source availability calls for paradigm shift in wa
management practices. Isolated approach has
been promulgated by various departments, aca-
demia, NGOs and Vos for water management.
There is need to synergize the efforts made by
various stakeholders and develop a manageme
frame work for sustenance of this resource using
multidisciplinary approach.
The present endeavor of delineation of the aqui-
fers on 1:250,000 scale is a proactive approach
tegrating available data of CGWB and other agen-
ic data of the Remote Sensing.
tel . Taking up hydrogeological / Hydrochemical/
geophysical studies and wells construction de-
tails at gaps sites.
. In valleys areas, three dimensional conceptual
model of the area along with isopach, thick-
ness of saturation zones, thickness of weath-
nt ered zones, thickness of valley fills and depth
of valley floor etc may be prepared .
. In the Hilly areas studies may be taken using
non-conventional techniques such as remote
sensing with limited field checks. The mapping
in- of the springs and their springsheds along with
their pereniality and discharges can be taken
up for improvement of discharges and sustain-
cies. This has helped in development of a synop-
tic view of aquifers and preparation of aquifer
wise management plan. Since, ground water is
being developed locally by community/
individually, there is need to delineate local aqui-
fers on larger scale and establish their potentia
This compilation will form base for detailed aqui-
fers mapping at 1:50,000 or larger scales. Fur-
ability.
. Preparation of Aquifer Management Plan after
delineation of Surplus Resource Areas, GW Re-
sources depleting and water scarce areas, Spe-
cial industrial zones, Water intensive crop are-
as, Recreation activities etc.
l.
. Demarcation of Aquifer for remediation, aqui-
fers needed regulation and ares for spring-
sheds development.
ther, to achieve the objectives of the National Aq-
uifer Mapping Program proposed during 12th
Five Year Plan, the following road map is envis-
aged :-
. The aquifer maps presented in the atlas on t
1:250,000 scale will form the base of the de-
tailed aquifer mapping to be taken up on
1:50,000 scale.
. Defining priority areas on the basis of water
management issues of the state .
Defining grid size and depth of drilling up to
which data is to be collected. “

The data collected through these studies need to
be integrated in GIS format and fed in to numeri-
cal models to simulate present and future scenar-
io for suggesting optimal water utilization strate-
he gies. The model out put need to be shared with
stakeholders for participatory management of the
ground water resources at village level and reori-
entation of the water utilization pattern of the area.